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Psalms 4:1-8

Context
Psalm 4 1 

For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a psalm of David.

4:1 When I call out, answer me,

O God who vindicates me! 2 

Though I am hemmed in, you will lead me into a wide, open place. 3 

Have mercy on me 4  and respond to 5  my prayer!

4:2 You men, 6  how long will you try to turn my honor into shame? 7 

How long 8  will you love what is worthless 9 

and search for what is deceptive? 10  (Selah)

4:3 Realize that 11  the Lord shows the godly special favor; 12 

the Lord responds 13  when I cry out to him.

4:4 Tremble with fear and do not sin! 14 

Meditate as you lie in bed, and repent of your ways! 15  (Selah)

4:5 Offer the prescribed sacrifices 16 

and trust in the Lord! 17 

4:6 Many say, “Who can show us anything good?”

Smile upon us, Lord! 18 

4:7 You make me happier 19 

than those who have abundant grain and wine. 20 

4:8 I will lie down and sleep peacefully, 21 

for you, Lord, make me safe and secure. 22 

Psalms 6:1-10

Context
Psalm 6 23 

For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments, according to the sheminith style; 24  a psalm of David.

6:1 Lord, do not rebuke me in your anger!

Do not discipline me in your raging fury! 25 

6:2 Have mercy on me, 26  Lord, for I am frail!

Heal me, Lord, for my bones are shaking! 27 

6:3 I am absolutely terrified, 28 

and you, Lord – how long will this continue? 29 

6:4 Relent, Lord, rescue me! 30 

Deliver me because of your faithfulness! 31 

6:5 For no one remembers you in the realm of death, 32 

In Sheol who gives you thanks? 33 

6:6 I am exhausted as I groan;

all night long I drench my bed in tears; 34 

my tears saturate the cushion beneath me. 35 

6:7 My eyes 36  grow dim 37  from suffering;

they grow weak 38  because of all my enemies. 39 

6:8 Turn back from me, all you who behave wickedly, 40 

for the Lord has heard the sound of my weeping! 41 

6:9 The Lord has heard my appeal for mercy;

the Lord has accepted 42  my prayer.

6:10 May all my enemies be humiliated 43  and absolutely terrified! 44 

May they turn back and be suddenly humiliated!

Psalms 54:1--55:23

Context
Psalm 54 45 

For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a well-written song 46  by David. It was written when the Ziphites came and informed Saul: “David is hiding with us.” 47 

54:1 O God, deliver me by your name! 48 

Vindicate me 49  by your power!

54:2 O God, listen to my prayer!

Pay attention to what I say! 50 

54:3 For foreigners 51  attack me; 52 

ruthless men, who do not respect God, seek my life. 53  (Selah)

54:4 Look, God is my deliverer! 54 

The Lord is among those who support me. 55 

54:5 May those who wait to ambush me 56  be repaid for their evil! 57 

As a demonstration of your faithfulness, 58  destroy them!

54:6 With a freewill offering I will sacrifice 59  to you!

I will give thanks to your name, O Lord, for it is good!

54:7 Surely 60  he rescues me from all trouble, 61 

and I triumph over my enemies. 62 

Psalm 55 63 

For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a well-written song 64  by David.

55:1 Listen, O God, to my prayer!

Do not ignore 65  my appeal for mercy!

55:2 Pay attention to me and answer me!

I am so upset 66  and distressed, 67  I am beside myself, 68 

55:3 because of what the enemy says, 69 

and because of how the wicked 70  pressure me, 71 

for they hurl trouble 72  down upon me 73 

and angrily attack me.

55:4 My heart beats violently 74  within me;

the horrors of death overcome me. 75 

55:5 Fear and panic overpower me; 76 

terror overwhelms 77  me.

55:6 I say, 78  “I wish I had wings like a dove!

I would fly away and settle in a safe place!

55:7 Look, I will escape to a distant place;

I will stay in the wilderness. (Selah)

55:8 I will hurry off to a place that is safe

from the strong wind 79  and the gale.”

55:9 Confuse them, 80  O Lord!

Frustrate their plans! 81 

For I see violence and conflict in the city.

55:10 Day and night they walk around on its walls, 82 

while wickedness and destruction 83  are within it.

55:11 Disaster is within it;

violence 84  and deceit do not depart from its public square.

55:12 Indeed, 85  it is not an enemy who insults me,

or else I could bear it;

it is not one who hates me who arrogantly taunts me, 86 

or else I could hide from him.

55:13 But it is you, 87  a man like me, 88 

my close friend in whom I confided. 89 

55:14 We would share personal thoughts with each other; 90 

in God’s temple we would walk together among the crowd.

55:15 May death destroy them! 91 

May they go down alive into Sheol! 92 

For evil is in their dwelling place and in their midst.

55:16 As for me, I will call out to God,

and the Lord will deliver me.

55:17 During the evening, morning, and noontime

I will lament and moan, 93 

and he will hear 94  me. 95 

55:18 He will rescue 96  me and protect me from those who attack me, 97 

even though 98  they greatly outnumber me. 99 

55:19 God, the one who has reigned as king from long ago,

will hear and humiliate them. 100  (Selah)

They refuse to change,

and do not fear God. 101 

55:20 He 102  attacks 103  his friends; 104 

he breaks his solemn promises to them. 105 

55:21 His words are as smooth as butter, 106 

but he harbors animosity in his heart. 107 

His words seem softer than oil,

but they are really like sharp swords. 108 

55:22 Throw your burden 109  upon the Lord,

and he will sustain you. 110 

He will never allow the godly to be upended. 111 

55:23 But you, O God, will bring them 112  down to the deep Pit. 113 

Violent and deceitful people 114  will not live even half a normal lifespan. 115 

But as for me, I trust in you.

Psalms 67:1-7

Context
Psalm 67 116 

For the music director; to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a psalm, a song.

67:1 May God show us his favor 117  and bless us! 118 

May he smile on us! 119  (Selah)

67:2 Then those living on earth will know what you are like;

all nations will know how you deliver your people. 120 

67:3 Let the nations thank you, O God!

Let all the nations thank you! 121 

67:4 Let foreigners 122  rejoice and celebrate!

For you execute justice among the nations,

and govern the people living on earth. 123  (Selah)

67:5 Let the nations thank you, O God!

Let all the nations thank you! 124 

67:6 The earth yields its crops.

May God, our God, bless us!

67:7 May God bless us! 125 

Then all the ends of the earth will give him the honor he deserves. 126 

Psalms 76:1-12

Context
Psalm 76 127 

For the music director; to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a psalm of Asaph, a song.

76:1 God has revealed himself in Judah; 128 

in Israel his reputation 129  is great.

76:2 He lives in Salem; 130 

he dwells in Zion. 131 

76:3 There he shattered the arrows, 132 

the shield, the sword, and the rest of the weapons of war. 133  (Selah)

76:4 You shine brightly and reveal your majesty,

as you descend from the hills where you killed your prey. 134 

76:5 The bravehearted 135  were plundered; 136 

they “fell asleep.” 137 

All the warriors were helpless. 138 

76:6 At the sound of your battle cry, 139  O God of Jacob,

both rider 140  and horse “fell asleep.” 141 

76:7 You are awesome! Yes, you!

Who can withstand your intense anger? 142 

76:8 From heaven you announced what their punishment would be. 143 

The earth 144  was afraid and silent

76:9 when God arose to execute judgment,

and to deliver all the oppressed of the earth. (Selah)

76:10 Certainly 145  your angry judgment upon men will bring you praise; 146 

you reveal your anger in full measure. 147 

76:11 Make vows to the Lord your God and repay them!

Let all those who surround him 148  bring tribute to the awesome one!

76:12 He humbles princes; 149 

the kings of the earth regard him as awesome. 150 

1 sn Psalm 4. The psalmist asks God to hear his prayer, expresses his confidence that the Lord will intervene, and urges his enemies to change their ways and place their trust in God. He concludes with another prayer for divine intervention and again affirms his absolute confidence in God’s protection.

2 tn Heb “God of my righteousness.”

3 tn Heb “in distress (or “a narrow place”) you make (a place) large for me.” The function of the Hebrew perfect verbal form here is uncertain. The translation above assumes that the psalmist is expressing his certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer, he can describe God’s deliverance as if it had already happened. Such confidence is consistent with the mood of the psalm (vv. 3, 8). Another option is to take the perfects as precative, expressing a wish or request (“lead me”). See IBHS 494-95 §30.5.4c, d. However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew.

4 tn Or “show me favor.”

5 tn Heb “hear.”

6 tn Heb “sons of man.”

7 tn Heb “how long my honor to shame?”

8 tn The interrogative construction עַד־מֶה (’ad-meh, “how long?”), is understood by ellipsis in the second line.

9 tn Heb “emptiness.”

10 tn Heb “a lie.” Some see the metonymic language of v. 2b (“emptiness, lie”) as referring to idols or false gods. However, there is no solid immediate contextual evidence for such an interpretation. It is more likely that the psalmist addresses those who threaten him (see v. 1) and refers in a general way to their sinful lifestyle. (See R. Mosis, TDOT 7:121.) The two terms allude to the fact that sinful behavior is ultimately fruitless and self-destructive.

11 tn Heb “and know that.”

12 tn Heb “that the Lord sets apart a faithful one for himself.” The psalmist states a general principle, though the singular form and the parallel line indicate he has himself in mind as the representative godly person. A חָסִיד (khasid; here translated as “the godly”) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 12:1; 18:25; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).

13 tn Heb “hears.”

14 sn The psalmist warns his enemies that they need to tremble with fear before God and repudiate their sinful ways.

15 tn Heb “say in your heart(s) on your bed(s) and wail/lament.” The verb דֹמּוּ (dommu) is understood as a form of דָמָם (“wail, lament”) in sorrow and repentance. Another option is to take the verb from II דָמָם (damam, “be quiet”); cf. NIV, NRSV “be silent.”

16 tn Or “proper, right.” The phrase also occurs in Deut 33:19 and Ps 51:19.

17 sn Trust in the Lord. The psalmist urges his enemies to make peace with God and become his followers.

18 tn Heb “lift up upon us the light of your face, Lord.” The verb נסה is apparently an alternate form of נשׂא, “lift up.” See GKC 217 §76.b. The idiom “light of your face” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19; 89:15; Dan 9:17).

sn Smile upon us. Though many are discouraged, the psalmist asks the Lord to intervene and transform the situation.

19 tn Heb “you place joy in my heart.” Another option is to understand the perfect verbal form as indicating certitude, “you will make me happier.”

20 tn Heb “from (i.e., more than) the time (when) their grain and their wine are abundant.”

21 tn Heb “in peace at the same time I will lie down and sleep.”

22 tn Heb “for you, Lord, solitarily, securely make me dwell.” The translation understands לְבָדָד (lÿvadad) as modifying the verb; the Lord keeps enemies away from the psalmist so that he is safe and secure. Another option is to take לְבָדָד with what precedes and translate, “you alone, Lord, make me secure.”

23 sn Psalm 6. The psalmist begs the Lord to withdraw his anger and spare his life. Having received a positive response to his prayer, the psalmist then confronts his enemies and describes how they retreat.

24 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term שְׁמִינִית (shÿminit, “sheminith”) is uncertain; perhaps it refers to a particular style of music. See 1 Chr 15:21.

25 sn The implication is that the psalmist has sinned, causing God to discipline him by bringing a life-threatening illness upon him (see vv. 2-7).

26 tn Or “show me favor.”

27 tn Normally the verb בָּהַל (bahal) refers to an emotional response and means “tremble with fear, be terrified” (see vv. 3, 10). Perhaps here the “bones” are viewed as the seat of the psalmist’s emotions. However, the verb may describe one of the effects of his physical ailment, perhaps a fever. In Ezek 7:27 the verb describes how the hands of the people will shake with fear when they experience the horrors of divine judgment.

28 tn Heb “my being is very terrified.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.

29 tn Heb “and you, Lord, how long?” The suffering psalmist speaks in broken syntax. He addresses God, but then simply cries out with a brief, but poignant, question: How long will this (= his suffering) continue?

30 tn Heb “my being,” or “my life.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.

31 sn Deliver me because of your faithfulness. Though the psalmist is experiencing divine discipline, he realizes that God has made a commitment to him in the past, so he appeals to God’s faithfulness in his request for help.

32 tn Heb “for there is not in death your remembrance.” The Hebrew noun זֵכֶר (zekher, “remembrance”) here refers to the name of the Lord as invoked in liturgy and praise. Cf. Pss 30:4; 97:12. “Death” here refers to the realm of death where the dead reside. See the reference to Sheol in the next line.

33 tn The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “no one.”

sn In Sheol who gives you thanks? According to the OT, those who descend into the realm of death/Sheol are cut off from God’s mighty deeds and from the worshiping covenant community that experiences divine intervention (Pss 30:9; 88:10-12; Isa 38:18). In his effort to elicit a positive divine response, the psalmist reminds God that he will receive no praise or glory if he allows the psalmist to die. Dead men do not praise God!

34 tn Heb “I cause to swim through all the night my bed.”

35 tn Heb “with my tears my bed I flood/melt.”

36 tn The Hebrew text has the singular “eye” here.

37 tn Or perhaps, “are swollen.”

38 tn Or perhaps, “grow old.”

39 sn In his weakened condition the psalmist is vulnerable to the taunts and threats of his enemies.

40 tn Heb “all [you] workers of wickedness.” See Ps 5:5.

41 sn The Lord has heard. The psalmist’s mood abruptly changes because the Lord responded positively to the lament and petition of vv. 1-7 and promised him deliverance.

42 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a preterite here; it is parallel to a perfect and refers to the fact that the Lord has responded favorably to the psalmist’s request.

43 tn The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse are understood as jussives. The psalmist concludes his prayer with an imprecation, calling judgment down on his enemies.

44 tn Heb “and may they be very terrified.” The psalmist uses the same expression in v. 3 to describe the terror he was experiencing. Now he asks the Lord to turn the tables and cause his enemies to know what absolute terror feels like.

45 sn Psalm 54. The psalmist asks God for protection against his enemies, confidently affirms that God will vindicate him, and promises to give thanks to God for his saving intervention.

46 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 52.

47 tn Heb “Is not David hiding with us?”

sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm during the period when Saul was seeking his life. On one occasion the Ziphites informed Saul that David was hiding in their territory (see 1 Sam 23:19-20).

48 tn God’s “name” refers here to his reputation and revealed character, which would instill fear in the psalmist’s enemies (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:17).

49 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express the psalmist’s wish or request.

50 tn Heb “to the words of my mouth.”

51 tc Many medieval Hebrew mss read זֵדִים (zedim, “proud ones”) rather than זָרִים (zarim, “foreigners”). (No matter which reading one chooses as original, dalet-resh confusion accounts for the existence of the variant.) The term זֵדִים (“proud ones”) occurs in parallelism with עָרִיצִים (’aritsim, “violent ones”) in Ps 86:14 and Isa 13:11. However, זָרִים (zarim, “foreigners”) is parallel to עָרִיצִים (’aritsim, “violent ones”) in Isa 25:5; 29:5; Ezek 28:7; 31:12.

52 tn Heb “rise against me.”

53 tn Heb “and ruthless ones seek my life, they do not set God in front of them.”

54 tn Or “my helper.”

55 tn Or “sustain my life.”

56 tn Heb “to those who watch me [with evil intent].” See also Pss 5:8; 27:11; 56:2.

57 tn The Kethib (consonantal text) reads a Qal imperfect, “the evil will return,” while the Qere (marginal reading) has a Hiphil imperfect, “he will repay.” The parallel line has an imperative (indicating a prayer/request), so it is best to read a jussive form יָשֹׁב (yashov, “let it [the evil] return”) here.

58 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”

59 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve/vow to praise.

60 tn Or “for,” indicating a more specific reason why he will praise the Lord’s name (cf. v. 6).

61 tn The perfects in v. 7 are probably rhetorical, indicating the psalmist’s certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer, he can describe God’s deliverance and his own vindication as if they were occurring or had already occurred.

62 tn Heb “and on my enemies my eyes look.”

63 sn Psalm 55. The suffering and oppressed author laments that one of his friends has betrayed him, but he is confident that God will vindicate him by punishing his deceitful enemies.

64 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. See the note on the phrase “well-written song” in the superscription of Ps 52.

65 tn Heb “hide yourself from.”

66 tn Or “restless” (see Gen 27:40). The Hiphil is intransitive-exhibitive, indicating the outward display of an inner attitude.

67 tn Heb “in my complaint.”

68 tn The verb is a Hiphil cohortative from הוּם (hum), which means “to confuse someone” in the Qal and “to go wild” in the Niphal. An Arabic cognate means “to be out of one’s senses, to wander about.” With the vav (ו) conjunctive prefixed to it, the cohortative probably indicates the result or effect of the preceding main verb. Some prefer to emend the form to וְאֵהוֹמָה (vÿehomah), a Niphal of הוּם (hum), or to וְאֶהַמֶה (vÿehameh), a Qal imperfect from הָמָה (hamah, “to moan”). Many also prefer to take this verb with what follows (see v. 3).

69 tn Heb “because of [the] voice of [the] enemy.”

70 tn The singular forms “enemy” and “wicked” are collective or representative, as the plural verb forms in the second half of the verse indicate.

71 tn Heb “from before the pressure of the wicked.” Some suggest the meaning “screech” (note the parallel “voice”; cf. NEB “shrill clamour”; NRSV “clamor”) for the rare noun עָקָה (’aqah, “pressure”).

72 tn Heb “wickedness,” but here the term refers to the destructive effects of their wicked acts.

73 tc The verb form in the MT appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוֹט (mot, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in the Kethib (consonantal text) of Ps 140:10, where the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read. Here in Ps 55:3 it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). It is odd for “rain down” to be used with an abstract object like “wickedness,” but in Job 20:23 God “rains down” anger (unless one emends the text there; see BHS).

74 tn Heb “shakes, trembles.”

75 tn Heb “the terrors of death have fallen on me.”

76 tn Heb “fear and trembling enter into me.”

77 tn Heb “covers.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the descriptive (present progressive) force of the preceding imperfect.

78 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the descriptive (present progressive) force of the verbs in v. 5.

79 tn Heb “[the] wind [that] sweeps away.” The verb סָעָה (saah, “sweep away”) occurs only here in the OT (see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 120).

80 tn Traditionally בַּלַּע (bala’) has been taken to mean “swallow” in the sense of “devour” or “destroy” (cf. KJV), but this may be a homonym meaning “confuse” (see BDB 118 s.v. בַּלַּע; HALOT 135 s.v. III *בֶּלַע). “Their tongue” is the understood object of the verb (see the next line).

81 tn Heb “split their tongue,” which apparently means “confuse their speech,” or, more paraphrastically, “frustrate the plans they devise with their tongues.”

82 tn Heb “day and night they surround it, upon its walls.” Personified “violence and conflict” are the likely subjects. They are compared to watchmen on the city’s walls.

83 sn Wickedness and destruction. These terms are also closely associated in Ps 7:14.

84 tn Or “injury, harm.”

85 tn Or “for.”

86 tn Heb “[who] magnifies against me.” See Pss 35:26; 38:16.

87 sn It is you. The psalmist addresses the apparent ringleader of the opposition, an individual who was once his friend.

88 tn Heb “a man according to my value,” i.e., “a person such as I.”

89 tn Heb “my close friend, one known by me.”

90 tn Heb “who together we would make counsel sweet.” The imperfect verbal forms here and in the next line draw attention to the ongoing nature of the actions (the so-called customary use of the imperfect). Their relationship was characterized by such intimacy and friendship. See IBHS 502-3 §31.2b.

91 tc The meaning of the MT is unclear. The Kethib (consonantal text) reads יַשִּׁימָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashimavetalemo, “May devastation [be] upon them!”). The proposed noun יַשִּׁימָוֶת occurs only here and perhaps in the place name Beth-Jeshimoth in Num 33:49. The Qere (marginal text) has יַשִּׁי מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashi mavetalemo). The verbal form יַשִּׁי is apparently an alternate form of יַשִּׁיא (yashi’), a Hiphil imperfect from נָשַׁא (nasha’, “deceive”). In this case one might read “death will come deceptively upon them.” This reading has the advantage of reading מָוֶת (mavet, “death”) which forms a natural parallel with “Sheol” in the next line. The present translation is based on the following reconstruction of the text: יְשִׁמֵּם מָוֶת (yeshimmem mavet). The verb assumed in the reconstruction is a Hiphil jussive third masculine singular from שָׁמַם (shamam, “be desolate”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix attached. This reconstruction assumes that (1) haplography has occurred in the traditional text (the original sequence of three mems [מ] was lost with only one mem remaining), resulting in the fusion of originally distinct forms in the Kethib, and (2) that עָלֵימוֹ (’alemo, “upon them”) is a later scribal addition attempting to make sense of a garbled and corrupt text. The preposition עַל (’al) does occur with the verb שָׁמַם (shamam), but in such cases the expression means “be appalled at/because of” (see Jer 49:20; 50:45). If one were to retain the prepositional phrase here, one would have to read the text as follows: יַשִּׁים מָוֶת עָלֵימוֹ (yashim mavetalemo, “Death will be appalled at them”). The idea seems odd, to say the least. Death is not collocated with this verb elsewhere.

92 sn Go down alive. This curse imagines a swift and sudden death for the psalmist’s enemies.

93 tn The first verb is clearly a cohortative form, expressing the psalmist’s resolve. The second verb, while formally ambiguous, should also be understood as cohortative here.

94 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive normally appears in narrational contexts to indicate past action, but here it continues the anticipatory (future) perspective of the preceding line. In Ps 77:6 one finds the same sequence of cohortative + prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive. In this case as well, both forms refer to future actions.

95 tn Heb “my voice.”

96 tn The perfect verbal form is here used rhetorically to indicate that the action is certain to take place (the so-called perfect of certitude).

97 tn Heb “he will redeem in peace my life from [those who] draw near to me.”

98 tn Or “for.”

99 tn Heb “among many they are against me.” For other examples of the preposition עִמָּד (’immad) used in the sense of “at, against,” see HALOT 842 s.v.; BDB 767 s.v.; IBHS 219 §11.2.14b.

100 tc Heb “God will hear and answer them, even [the] one who sits [from] ancient times.” The prefixed verbal from with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the anticipatory force of the preceding imperfect. The verb appears to be a Qal form from עָנָה (’anah, “to answer”). If this reading is retained, the point would be that God “answered” them in judgment. The translation assumes an emendation to the Piel וַיְעַנֵּם (vayannem; see 2 Kgs 17:20) and understands the root as עָנָה (’anah, “to afflict”; see also 1 Kgs 8:35).

101 tn Heb “[the ones] for whom there are no changes, and they do not fear God.”

102 sn He. This must refer to the psalmist’s former friend, who was addressed previously in vv. 12-14.

103 tn Heb “stretches out his hand against.”

104 tc The form should probably be emended to an active participle (שֹׁלְמָיו, sholÿmayv) from the verbal root שָׁלַם (shalam, “be in a covenant of peace with”). Perhaps the translation “his friends” suggests too intimate a relationship. Another option is to translate, “he attacks those who made agreements with him.”

105 tn Heb “he violates his covenant.”

106 tn Heb “the butter-like [words] of his mouth are smooth.” The noun מַחְמָאֹת (makhmaot, “butter-like [words]”) occurs only here. Many prefer to emend the form to מֵחֶמְאָה (mekhemah, from [i.e., “than”] butter”), cf. NEB, NRSV “smoother than butter.” However, in this case “his mouth” does not agree in number with the plural verb חָלְקוּ (kholqu, “they are smooth”). Therefore some further propose an emendation of פִּיו (piv, “his mouth”) to פָּנָיו (panayv, “his face”). In any case, the point seems to that the psalmist’s former friend spoke kindly to him and gave the outward indications of friendship.

107 tn Heb “and war [is in] his heart.”

108 tn Heb “his words are softer than oil, but they are drawn swords.”

109 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.

110 tn The pronoun is singular; the psalmist addresses each member of his audience individually.

111 tn Heb “he will never allow swaying for the righteous.”

112 tn The pronominal suffix refers to the psalmist’s enemies (see v. 19).

113 tn Heb “well of the pit.” The Hebrew term שַׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 16:10; 30:9; 49:9; 103:4).

114 tn Heb “men of bloodshed and deceit.”

115 tn Heb “will not divide in half their days.”

116 sn Psalm 67. The psalmist prays for God’s blessing upon his people and urges the nations to praise him for he is the just ruler of the world.

117 tn Or “have mercy on us.”

118 tn The prefixed verbal forms are understood as jussives expressing the psalmist’s prayer. Note the jussive form יָאֵר (yaer) in the next line.

119 tn Heb “may he cause his face to shine with us.”

120 tn Heb “to know in the earth your way, among all nations your deliverance.” The infinitive with -לְ (lamed) expresses purpose/result. When God demonstrates his favor to his people, all nations will recognize his character as a God who delivers. The Hebrew term דֶּרֶךְ (derekh, “way”) refers here to God’s characteristic behavior, more specifically, to the way he typically saves his people.

121 tn Heb “let the nations, all of them, thank you.” The prefixed verbal forms in vv. 3-4a are understood as jussives in this call to praise.

122 tn Or “peoples.”

123 tn Heb “for you judge nations fairly, and [as for the] peoples in the earth, you lead them.” The imperfects are translated with the present tense because the statement is understood as a generalization about God’s providential control of the world. Another option is to understand the statement as anticipating God’s future rule (“for you will rule…and govern”).

124 tn Heb “let the nations, all of them, thank you.” The prefixed verbal forms in v. 5 are understood as jussives in this call to praise.

125 tn The prefixed verb forms in vv. 6b-7a are understood as jussives.

126 tn Heb “will fear him.” After the jussive of the preceding line, the prefixed verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive is understood as indicating purpose/result. (Note how v. 3 anticipates the universal impact of God showing his people blessing.) Another option is to take the verb as a jussive and translate, “Let all the ends of the earth fear him.”

127 sn Psalm 76. The psalmist depicts God as a mighty warrior who destroys Israel’s enemies.

128 tn Or “God is known in Judah.”

129 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.

130 sn Salem is a shorter name for Jerusalem (see Gen 14:18).

131 tn Heb “and his place of refuge is in Salem, and his lair in Zion.” God may be likened here to a lion (see v. 4).

132 tn Heb “flames of the bow,” i.e., arrows.

133 tn Heb “shield and sword and battle.” “Battle” probably here stands by metonymy for the weapons of war in general.

sn This verse may allude to the miraculous defeat of the Assyrians in 701 b.c. (see Isa 36-37).

134 tn Heb “radiant [are] you, majestic from the hills of prey.” God is depicted as a victorious king and as a lion that has killed its victims.

135 tn Heb “strong of heart.” In Isa 46:12, the only other text where this phrase appears, it refers to those who are stubborn, but here it seems to describe brave warriors (see the next line).

136 tn The verb is a rare Aramaized form of the Hitpolel (see GKC 149 §54.a, n. 2); the root is שָׁלַל (shalal, “to plunder”).

137 tn Heb “they slept [in] their sleep.” “Sleep” here refers to the “sleep” of death. A number of modern translations take the phrase to refer to something less than death, however: NASB “cast into a deep sleep”; NEB “fall senseless”; NIV “lie still”; NRSV “lay stunned.”

138 tn Heb “and all the men of strength did not find their hands.”

139 tn Heb “from your shout.” The noun is derived from the Hebrew verb גָּעַר (gaar), which is often understood to mean “rebuke.” In some cases it is apparent that scolding or threatening is in view (see Gen 37:10; Ruth 2:16; Zech 3:2). However, in militaristic contexts this translation is inadequate, for the verb refers in this setting to the warrior’s battle cry, which terrifies and paralyzes the enemy. See A. Caquot, TDOT 3:53, and note the use of the verb in Pss 68:30; 106:9; Nah 1:4, as well as the related noun in Job 26:11; Pss 9:5; 18:15; 104:7; Isa 50:2; 51:20; 66:15.

140 tn Or “chariot,” but even so the term is metonymic for the charioteer.

141 tn Heb “he fell asleep, and [the] chariot and [the] horse.” Once again (see v. 5) “sleep” refers here to the “sleep” of death.

142 tc Heb “and who can stand before you from the time of your anger?” The Hebrew expression מֵאָז (meaz, “from the time of”) is better emended to מֵאֹז (meoz, “from [i.e., “because of”] the strength of your anger”; see Ps 90:11).

143 tn Heb “a [legal] decision,” or “sentence.”

144 tn “The earth” stands here by metonymy for its inhabitants.

145 tn Or “for.”

146 tn Heb “the anger of men will praise you.” This could mean that men’s anger (subjective genitive), when punished by God, will bring him praise, but this interpretation does not harmonize well with the next line. The translation assumes that God’s anger is in view here (see v. 7) and that “men” is an objective genitive. God’s angry judgment against men brings him praise because it reveals his power and majesty (see vv. 1-4).

147 tn Heb “the rest of anger you put on.” The meaning of the statement is not entirely clear. Perhaps the idea is that God, as he prepares for battle, girds himself with every last ounce of his anger, as if it were a weapon.

148 tn The phrase “all those who surround him” may refer to the surrounding nations (v. 12 may favor this), but in Ps 89:7 the phrase refers to God’s heavenly assembly.

149 tn Heb “he reduces the spirit of princes.” According to HALOT 148 s.v. II בצר, the Hebrew verb בָּצַר (batsar) is here a hapax legomenon meaning “reduce, humble.” The statement is generalizing, with the imperfect tense highlighting God’s typical behavior.

150 tn Heb “[he is] awesome to the kings of the earth.”



TIP #07: Use the Discovery Box to further explore word(s) and verse(s). [ALL]
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