Written by David, when he pretended to be insane before Abimelech, causing the king to send him away. 2
my mouth will continually praise him. 4
let the oppressed hear and rejoice! 6
34:3 Magnify the Lord with me!
Let’s praise 7 his name together!
he delivered me from all my fears.
34:5 Those who look to him for help are happy;
their faces are not ashamed. 9
34:6 This oppressed man cried out and the Lord heard;
he saved him 10 from all his troubles.
34:7 The Lord’s angel camps around
for his loyal followers 20 lack nothing!
34:10 Even young lions sometimes lack food and are hungry,
but those who seek the Lord lack no good thing.
34:11 Come children! Listen to me!
I will teach you what it means to fear the Lord. 21
Would you love to live a long, happy life? 23
or use deceptive speech! 25
Strive for peace and promote it! 27
34:15 The Lord pays attention to the godly
and hears their cry for help. 28
34:16 But the Lord opposes evildoers
and wipes out all memory of them from the earth. 29
he saves them from all their troubles. 31
34:18 The Lord is near the brokenhearted;
not one of them is broken. 40
those who hate the godly are punished. 42
all who take shelter in him escape punishment. 44
I trust in you.
in God I trust, I am not afraid.
they make a habit of plotting my demise. 60
they watch my every step, 63
Put my tears in your leather container! 70
Are they not recorded in your scroll? 71
I know that God is on my side. 73
in the Lord – I boast in his promise 75 –
56:11 in God I trust, I am not afraid.
I will give you the thank-offerings you deserve, 79
You keep my feet from stumbling, 81
1 sn Psalm 34. In this song of thanksgiving the psalmist praises God for delivering him from distress. He encourages others to be loyal to the Lord, tells them how to please God, and assures them that the Lord protects his servants. The psalm is an acrostic; vv. 1-21 begin with successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. (Verse 6 begins with the letter he (ה) and v. 7 with the letter zayin (ז). The letter vav (ו), which comes between ה and ז, seems to be omitted, although it does appear at the beginning of v. 6b. The final verse of the psalm, which begins with the letter pe (פ), is outside the acrostic scheme.
2 tn Heb “By David, when he changed his sense before Abimelech and he drove him away and he went.”
sn Pretended to be insane. The psalm heading appears to refer to the account in 1 Sam 21:10-15 which tells how David, fearful that King Achish of Gath might kill him, pretended to be insane in hopes that the king would simply send him away. The psalm heading names the king Abimelech, not Achish, suggesting that the tradition is confused on this point. However, perhaps “Abimelech” was a royal title, rather than a proper name. See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 278.
3 tn Heb “bless.”
4 tn Heb “continually [will] his praise [be] in my mouth.”
7 tn Or “exalt.”
8 tn Heb “I sought the
9 tc Heb “they look to him and are radiant and their faces are not ashamed.” The third person plural subject (“they”) is unidentified; there is no antecedent in the Hebrew text. For this reason some prefer to take the perfect verbal forms in the first line as imperatives, “look to him and be radiant” (cf. NEB, NRSV). Some medieval Hebrew
10 tn The pronoun refers back to “this oppressed man,” namely, the psalmist.
11 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the
12 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
13 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the same generalizing force as the active participle in the first line. See GKC 329 §111.u.
14 tn This verb is normally used of tasting or savoring food. The metaphor here appears to compare the
15 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
16 tn Heb “man.” The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the more neutral “one.”
17 tn “Taking shelter” in the
18 tn Heb “fear.”
19 tn Heb “O holy ones of his.”
20 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
22 tn Heb “Who is the man who desires life?” The rhetorical question is used to grab the audience’s attention. “Life” probably refers here to quality of life, not just physical existence or even duration of life. See the following line.
23 tn Heb “[Who] loves days to see good?”
24 tn Heb “guard your tongue from evil.”
25 tn Heb “and your lips from speaking deception.”
26 tn Or “do good.”
27 tn Heb “seek peace and pursue it.”
28 tn Heb “the eyes of the
29 tn Heb “the face of the
32 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form highlights the generalizing statement and draws attention to the fact that the
33 tn Heb “the crushed in spirit.”
34 tn The Hebrew text uses the singular form; the representative or typical godly person is envisioned.
35 tn Or “trials.”
36 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form highlights the generalizing statement and draws attention to the fact that the
37 tn Heb “him,” agreeing with the singular form in the preceding line.
38 tn The Hebrew participial form suggests such protection is characteristic.
39 tn That is, he protects the godly from physical harm.
40 sn Not one of them is broken. The author of the Gospel of John saw a fulfillment of these words in Jesus’ experience on the cross (see John 19:31-37), for the Roman soldiers, when they saw that Jesus was already dead, did not break his legs as was customarily done to speed the death of crucified individuals. John’s use of the psalm seems strange, for the statement in its original context suggests that the Lord protects the godly from physical harm. Jesus’ legs may have remained unbroken, but he was brutally and unjustly executed by his enemies. John seems to give the statement a literal sense that is foreign to its original literary context by applying a promise of divine protection to a man who was seemingly not saved by God. However, John saw in this incident a foreshadowing of Jesus’ ultimate deliverance and vindication. His unbroken bones were a reminder of God’s commitment to the godly and a sign of things to come. Jesus’ death on the cross was not the end of the story; God vindicated him, as John goes on to explain in the following context (John 19:38-20:18).
41 tn Heb “evil kills the wicked [one].” The singular form is representative; the typical evil person is envisioned. The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the typical nature of the action.
42 tn Heb “are guilty,” but the verb is sometimes used metonymically with the meaning “to suffer the consequences of guilt,” the effect being substituted for the cause.
43 tn Heb “redeems the life of his servants.” The Hebrew participial form suggests such deliverance is characteristic.
44 tn “Taking shelter” in the
46 tn The literal meaning of this phrase is “silent dove, distant ones.” Perhaps it refers to a particular style of music, a tune title, or a type of musical instrument.
49 tn According to BDB 983 s.v. II שָׁאַף, the verb is derived from שָׁאַף (sha’af, “to trample, crush”) rather than the homonymic verb “pant after.”
51 tn The imperfect verbal form draws attention to the continuing nature of the enemies’ attacks.
53 tn Or “for.”
54 tn Some take the Hebrew term מָרוֹם (marom, “on high; above”) as an adverb modifying the preceding participle and translate, “proudly” (cf. NASB; NIV “in their pride”). The present translation assumes the term is a divine title here. The
55 tn Heb “[in] a day.”
56 tn Heb “in God I boast, his word.” The syntax in the Hebrew text is difficult. (1) The line could be translated, “in God I boast, [in] his word.” Such a translation assumes that the prepositional phrase “in God” goes with the following verb “I boast” (see Ps 44:8) and that “his word” is appositional to “in God” and more specifically identifies the basis for the psalmist’s confidence. God’s “word” is here understood as an assuring promise of protection. Another option (2) is to translate, “in God I will boast [with] a word.” In this case, the “word” is a song of praise. (In this view the pronominal suffix “his” must be omitted as in v. 10.) The present translation reflects yet another option (3): In this case “I praise his word” is a parenthetical statement, with “his word” being the object of the verb. The sentence begun with the prepositional phrase “in God” is then completed in the next line, with the prepositional phrase being repeated after the parenthesis.
58 tn The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “Nothing!” The imperfect is used in a modal sense here, indicating capability or potential.
59 tn Heb “my affairs they disturb.” For other instances of דָּבָר (davar) meaning “affairs, business,” see BDB 183 s.v.. The Piel of עָצַב (’atsav, “to hurt”) occurs only here and in Isa 63:10, where it is used of “grieving” (or “offending”) the Lord’s holy Spirit. Here in Ps 56:5, the verb seems to carry the nuance “disturb, upset,” in the sense of “cause trouble.”
60 tn Heb “against me [are] all their thoughts for harm.”
62 tn Or “hide.”
63 tn Heb “my heels.”
64 tn Heb “according to,” in the sense of “inasmuch as; since,” or “when; while.”
65 tn Heb “they wait [for] my life.”
66 tc Heb “because of wickedness, deliverance to them.” As it stands, the MT makes no sense. The negative particle אַיִן (’ayin, “there is not,” which is due to dittography of the immediately preceding אָוֶן, ’aven, “wickedness”), should probably be added before “deliverance” (see BHS, note a). The presence of an imperative in the next line (note “bring down”) suggests that this line should be translated as a prayer as well, “may there not be deliverance to them.”
67 tn Heb “in anger.” The pronoun “your” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
68 tn Or perhaps “people” in a general sense.
69 tn Heb “my wandering you count, you.” The Hebrew term נֹד (nod, “wandering,” derived from the verbal root נוֹד, nod, “to wander”; cf. NASB) here refers to the psalmist’s “changeable circumstances of life” and may be translated “misery.” The verb סָפַר (safar, “count”) probably carries the nuance “assess” here. Cf. NIV “my lament”; NRSV “my tossings.”
70 tn Traditionally “your bottle.” Elsewhere the Hebrew word נֹאד (no’d, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20). If such a container is metaphorically in view here, then the psalmist seems to be asking God to store up his tears as a reminder of his suffering.
71 tn The word “recorded” is supplied in the translation for clarification. The rhetorical question assumes a positive response (see the first line of the verse).
72 tn Heb “then my enemies will turn back in the day I cry out.” The Hebrew particle אָז (’az, “then”) is probably used here to draw attention to the following statement.
73 tn Heb “this I know, that God is for me.”
74 tn Heb “in God I praise a word.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult. The statement is similar to that of v. 4, except that the third person pronominal suffix is omitted here, where the text has simply “a word” instead of “his word.” (1) One could translate, “in God I will boast [with] a word.” In this case, the “word” refers to a song of praise. (2) If one assumes that God’s word is in view, as in v. 4, then one option is to translate, “in God I boast, [in] his word.” In this case the prepositional phrase “in God” goes with the following verb “I boast” (see Ps 44:8) and “[his] word” is appositional to “in God” and more specifically identifies the basis for the psalmist’s confidence. God’s “word” is here understood as an assuring promise of protection. (3) The present translation reflects another option: In this case “I praise [his] word” is a parenthetical statement, with “[his] word” being the object of the verb. The sentence begun with the prepositional phrase “in God” is then completed in v. 11, with the prepositional phrase being repeated after the parenthesis.
77 tn The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “Nothing!” The imperfect is used in a modal sense here, indicating capability or potential.
78 tn Heb “upon me, O God, [are] your vows.”
79 tn Heb “I will repay thank-offerings to you.”
80 tn The perfect verbal form is probably future perfect; the psalmist promises to make good on his vows once God has delivered him (see Pss 13:5; 52:9). (2) Another option is to understand the final two verses as being added later, after the
81 tn Heb “are not my feet [kept] from stumbling?” The rhetorical question expects the answer, “Of course they are!” The question has been translated as an affirmation for the sake of clarification of meaning.