who obey 3 the law of the Lord.
119:2 How blessed are those who observe his rules,
and seek him with all their heart,
119:3 who, moreover, do no wrong,
but follow in his footsteps. 4
119:4 You demand that your precepts
be carefully kept. 5
to keep your statutes!
119:6 Then I would not be ashamed,
when I learn your just regulations.
119:8 I will keep your statutes.
Do not completely abandon me! 10
By guarding it according to your instructions! 13
119:10 With all my heart I seek you.
Do not allow me to stray from your commands!
so I might not sin against you.
Teach me your statutes!
119:13 With my lips I proclaim
all the regulations you have revealed. 17
I do not forget your instructions. 25
119:17 Be kind to your servant!
the marvelous things in your law!
Do not hide your commands from me!
your regulations at all times.
119:21 You reprimand arrogant people.
Those who stray from your commands are doomed. 33
for I observe your rules.
your servant meditates on your statutes.
119:24 Yes, I find delight in your rules;
they give me guidance. 36
Revive me with your word! 38
Teach me your statutes!
Sustain me by your word! 44
Graciously give me 46 your law!
119:30 I choose the path of faithfulness;
I am committed to 47 your regulations.
O Lord, do not let me be ashamed!
119:32 I run along the path of your commands,
for you enable me to do so. 49
so that I might observe it continually. 51
119:34 Give me understanding so that I might observe your law,
and keep it with all my heart. 52
for I delight to walk in it. 54
rather than for wealth gained unjustly. 56
Revive me with your word! 58
which you made to the one who honors you. 60
Indeed, 62 your regulations are good.
119:40 Look, I long for your precepts.
Revive me with your deliverance! 63
for I trust in your word.
for I await your justice.
now and for all time. 70
for I seek your precepts.
and not be ashamed.
119:47 I will find delight in your commands,
which I love.
which I love,
and I will meditate on your statutes.
119:49 Remember your word to your servant,
for you have given me hope.
for your promise revives me. 75
Yet I do not turn aside from your law.
O Lord, and console myself. 78
119:53 Rage takes hold of me because of the wicked,
those who reject your law.
in the house where I live. 80
119:55 I remember your name during the night, O Lord,
and I will keep 81 your law.
for I observe your precepts.
Have mercy on me as you promised! 87
and follow 89 your rules.
119:60 I keep your commands
eagerly and without delay. 90
but I do not forget your law.
for your just regulations.
and to those who keep your precepts.
119:64 O Lord, your loyal love fills the earth.
Teach me your statutes!
O Lord, just as you promised. 95
For I consider your commands to be reliable. 97
but now I keep your instructions. 99
119:68 You are good and you do good.
Teach me your statutes!
but I observe your precepts with all my heart.
but I find delight in your law.
119:71 It was good for me to suffer,
so that I might learn your statutes.
119:72 The law you have revealed is more important to me
than thousands of pieces of gold and silver. 102
Give me understanding so that I might learn 104 your commands.
for I find hope in your word.
You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me. 107
119:76 May your loyal love console me,
as you promised your servant. 108
For I find delight in your law.
But I meditate on your precepts.
those who know your rules.
so that I might not be ashamed.
I find hope in your word.
I say, 115 “When will you comfort me?”
I do not forget your statutes.
When will you judge those who pursue me?
which violates your law. 121
119:86 All your commands are reliable.
I am pursued without reason. 122 Help me!
119:87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,
but I do not reject your precepts.
119:89 O Lord, your instructions endure;
they stand secure in heaven. 126
You established the earth and it stood firm.
119:91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,
for all things are your servants.
I would have died in my sorrow. 129
119:93 I will never forget your precepts,
for by them you have revived me.
119:94 I belong to you. Deliver me!
For I seek your precepts.
yet I concentrate on your rules.
119:96 I realize that everything has its limits,
but your commands are beyond full comprehension. 131
119:97 O how I love your law!
All day long I meditate on it.
for I am always aware of them.
119:99 I have more insight than all my teachers,
for I meditate on your rules.
119:100 I am more discerning than those older than I,
for I observe your precepts.
so that I might keep your instructions. 134
119:102 I do not turn aside from your regulations,
for you teach me.
119:103 Your words are sweeter
in my mouth than honey! 135
119:104 Your precepts give me discernment.
Therefore I hate all deceitful actions. 136
and a light to illumine my path. 138
119:106 I have vowed and solemnly sworn
to keep your just regulations.
119:107 I am suffering terribly.
O Lord, revive me with your word! 139
Teach me your regulations!
but I do not forget your law.
119:110 The wicked lay a trap for me,
but I do not wander from your precepts.
119:111 I claim your rules as my permanent possession,
for they give me joy. 142
at all times, to the very end.
but I love your law.
119:114 You are my hiding place and my shield.
I find hope in your word.
119:115 Turn away from me, you evil men,
Do not disappoint me! 149
119:117 Support me, so that I will be delivered.
Then I will focus 150 on your statutes continually.
for they are deceptive and unreliable. 152
Therefore I love your rules. 154
I am afraid of your judgments.
Do not abandon me to my oppressors!
Do not let the arrogant oppress me!
for your reliable promise to be fulfilled. 161
Teach me your statutes!
119:125 I am your servant. Give me insight,
so that I can understand 163 your rules.
119:126 It is time for the Lord to act –
they break your law!
more than gold, even purest gold.
I hate all deceitful actions. 166
119:129 Your rules are marvelous.
Therefore I observe them.
119:131 I open my mouth and pant,
because I long 170 for your commands.
119:132 Turn toward me and extend mercy to me,
as you typically do to your loyal followers. 171
Do not let any sin dominate me!
so that I can keep 174 your precepts.
Teach me your statutes!
because people 177 do not keep your law.
119:137 You are just, O Lord,
and your judgments are fair.
and absolutely reliable.
for my enemies forget your instructions. 181
119:140 Your word is absolutely pure,
and your servant loves it!
119:141 I am insignificant and despised,
yet I do not forget your precepts.
and your law is reliable. 183
yet I find delight in your commands.
Give me insight so that I can live. 186
119:145 I cried out with all my heart, “Answer me, O Lord!
I will observe your statutes.”
119:146 I cried out to you, “Deliver me,
so that I can keep 187 your rules.”
119:147 I am up before dawn crying for help.
I find hope in your word.
119:148 My eyes anticipate the nighttime hours,
so that I can meditate on your word.
O Lord, revive me, as you typically do! 190
they are far from your law.
119:151 You are near, O Lord,
and all your commands are reliable. 192
119:152 I learned long ago that
you ordained your rules to last. 193
119:153 See my pain and rescue me!
For I do not forget your law.
Revive me with your word!
for they do not seek your statutes.
119:156 Your compassion is great, O Lord.
Revive me, as you typically do! 197
Yet I do not turn aside from your rules.
119:158 I take note of the treacherous and despise them,
because they do not keep your instructions. 199
119:159 See how I love your precepts!
O Lord, revive me with your loyal love!
119:160 Your instructions are totally reliable;
all your just regulations endure. 200
119:161 Rulers pursue me for no reason,
yet I am more afraid of disobeying your instructions. 201
119:162 I rejoice in your instructions,
like one who finds much plunder. 202
119:163 I hate and despise deceit;
I love your law.
because of your just regulations.
nothing causes them to stumble. 205
119:166 I hope for your deliverance, O Lord,
and I obey 206 your commands.
119:167 I keep your rules;
I love them greatly.
119:168 I keep your precepts and rules,
for you are aware of everything I do. 207
Give me insight by your word!
Deliver me, as you promised. 210
119:171 May praise flow freely from my lips,
for you teach me your statutes.
for all your commands are just.
119:173 May your hand help me,
for I choose to obey 212 your precepts.
119:174 I long for your deliverance, O Lord;
I find delight in your law.
May your regulations help me! 214
Come looking for your servant,
for I do not forget your commands.
A song of ascents. 217
120:1 In my distress I cried out
to the Lord and he answered me.
from those who lie with their lips 220
and those who deceive with their tongue. 221
120:3 How will he severely punish you,
you deceptive talker? 222
with arrowheads forged over the hot coals. 224
For I have lived temporarily 226 in Meshech;
I have resided among the tents of Kedar. 227
120:6 For too long I have had to reside
with those who hate 228 peace.
but when I speak, they want to make war. 230
A song of ascents. 232
From where 234 does my help come?
the Creator 236 of heaven and earth!
121:3 May he not allow your foot to slip!
does not sleep or slumber!
121:5 The Lord is your protector;
the Lord is the shade at your right hand.
121:6 The sun will not harm you by day,
or the moon by night. 240
121:7 The Lord will protect you from all harm;
he will protect your life.
now and forevermore.
A song of ascents, 243 by David.
“We will go to the Lord’s temple.”
inside your gates, O Jerusalem.
to accommodate an assembly. 247
the tribes of the Lord,
where it is required that Israel
give thanks to the name of the Lord. 250
on the thrones of the house of David. 253
May those who love her prosper! 255
122:7 May there be peace inside your defenses,
122:8 For the sake of my brothers and my neighbors
I will say, “May there be peace in you!”
122:9 For the sake of the temple of the Lord our God
I will pray for you to prosper. 258
A song of ascents. 260
the one enthroned 262 in heaven.
123:2 Look, as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master,
as the eyes of a female servant look to the hand of her mistress, 263
so my eyes will look to the Lord, our God, until he shows us favor.
123:3 Show us favor, O Lord, show us favor!
For we have had our fill of humiliation, and then some. 264
of the taunts of the self-assured,
of the contempt of the proud.
A song of ascents, 267 by David.
124:1 “If the Lord had not been on our side” –
let Israel say this! –
124:2 if the Lord had not been on our side,
when men attacked us, 268
124:3 they would have swallowed us alive,
when their anger raged against us.
124:4 The water would have overpowered us;
124:5 The raging water
would have overwhelmed us. 272
for 274 he did not hand us over as prey to their teeth.
The snare broke, and we escaped.
the Creator 277 of heaven and earth.
A song of ascents. 279
125:1 Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion;
it cannot be upended and will endure forever.
so the Lord surrounds his people,
now and forevermore.
upon the allotted land of the godly.
Otherwise the godly might
do what is wrong. 284
125:4 Do good, O Lord, to those who are good,
to the morally upright! 285
May Israel experience peace! 289
A song of ascents. 291
we thought we were dreaming. 293
126:2 At that time we laughed loudly
and shouted for joy. 294
At that time the nations said, 295
“The Lord has accomplished great things for these people.”
126:3 The Lord did indeed accomplish great things for us.
We were happy.
126:4 O Lord, restore our well-being,
just as the streams in the arid south are replenished. 296
126:5 Those who shed tears as they plant
will shout for joy when they reap the harvest. 297
will certainly come in with a shout of joy, carrying his sheaves of grain. 299
A song of ascents, 301 by Solomon.
then those who build it work in vain.
If the Lord does not guard a city, 303
then the watchman stands guard in vain.
127:2 It is vain for you to rise early, come home late,
and work so hard for your food. 304
the fruit of the womb is a reward.
127:4 Sons born during one’s youth
are like arrows in a warrior’s hand. 309
127:5 How blessed is the man who fills his quiver with them!
A song of ascents. 313
each one who keeps his commands! 315
You will be blessed and secure. 318
in the inner rooms of your house;
your children 320 will be like olive branches,
as they sit all around your table.
128:4 Yes indeed, the man who fears the Lord
will be blessed in this way. 321
all the days of your life,
May Israel experience peace! 327
A song of ascents. 329
129:1 “Since my youth they have often attacked me,”
let Israel say.
129:2 “Since my youth they have often attacked me,
but they have not defeated me.
129:3 The plowers plowed my back;
they made their furrows long.
129:4 The Lord is just;
he cut the ropes of the wicked.” 330
129:5 May all who hate Zion
be humiliated and turned back!
129:6 May they be like the grass on the rooftops
which withers before one can even pull it up, 331
129:7 which cannot fill the reaper’s hand,
or the lap of the one who gathers the grain!
“May you experience the Lord’s blessing!
We pronounce a blessing on you in the name of the Lord.”
A song of ascents. 334
Pay attention to 337 my plea for mercy!
O Lord, who could stand before you? 339
I rely on him with my whole being; 345
I wait for his assuring word. 346
more than watchmen do for the morning,
yes, more than watchmen do for the morning. 348
130:7 O Israel, hope in the Lord,
for the Lord exhibits loyal love, 349
and is more than willing to deliver. 350
from all the consequences of their sins. 352
A song of ascents, 354 by David.
131:1 O Lord, my heart is not proud,
nor do I have a haughty look. 355
I do not have great aspirations,
or concern myself with things that are beyond me. 356
like a young child carried by its mother; 359
I am content like the young child I carry. 360
131:3 O Israel, hope in the Lord
now and forevermore!
A song of ascents. 362
132:1 O Lord, for David’s sake remember
all his strenuous effort, 363
132:2 and how he made a vow to the Lord,
and swore an oath to the powerful ruler of Jacob. 364
or get into my bed. 367
132:4 I will not allow my eyes to sleep,
or my eyelids to slumber,
132:5 until I find a place for the Lord,
we found it in the territory of Jaar. 372
132:7 Let us go to his dwelling place!
Let us worship 373 before his footstool!
132:8 Ascend, O Lord, to your resting place,
you and the ark of your strength!
May your loyal followers shout for joy!
132:10 For the sake of David, your servant,
do not reject your chosen king! 375
he will not go back on his word. 377
132:12 If your sons keep my covenant
and the rules I teach them,
their sons will also sit on your throne forever.”
he decided to make it his home. 381
I will live here, for I have chosen it. 383
I will give her poor all the food they need. 385
and her godly people will shout exuberantly. 387
I have determined that my chosen king’s dynasty will continue. 389
and his crown will shine.
A song of ascents, 392 by David.
133:1 Look! How good and how pleasant it is
when brothers live together! 393
133:2 It is like fine oil poured on the head
which flows down the beard 394 –
and then flows down his garments. 395
which flows down upon the hills of Zion. 397
Indeed 398 that is where the Lord has decreed
a blessing will be available – eternal life. 399
A song of ascents. 401
all you servants of the Lord,
who serve 403 in the Lord’s temple during the night.
134:2 Lift your hands toward the sanctuary
and praise the Lord!
134:3 May the Lord, the Creator of heaven and earth,
135:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise the name of the Lord!
Offer praise, you servants of the Lord,
in the courts of the temple of our God.
135:3 Praise the Lord, for the Lord is good!
Sing praises to his name, for it is pleasant! 408
Israel to be his special possession. 410
and our Lord is superior to all gods.
135:6 He does whatever he pleases
in heaven and on earth,
in the seas and all the ocean depths.
135:7 He causes the clouds to arise from the end of the earth,
makes lightning bolts accompany the rain,
and brings the wind out of his storehouses.
135:8 He struck down the firstborn of Egypt,
including both men and animals.
in your midst, O Egypt,
against Pharaoh and all his servants.
135:10 He defeated many nations,
and killed mighty kings –
135:11 Sihon, king of the Amorites,
and Og, king of Bashan,
and all the kingdoms of Canaan.
135:12 He gave their land as an inheritance,
as an inheritance to Israel his people.
your reputation, O Lord, lasts. 415
and has compassion on his servants. 417
135:15 The nations’ idols are made of silver and gold,
they are man-made. 418
135:16 They have mouths, but cannot speak,
eyes, but cannot see,
135:17 and ears, but cannot hear.
Indeed, they cannot breathe. 419
as will everyone who trusts in them.
O family of Aaron, praise the Lord!
135:20 O family of Levi, praise the Lord!
You loyal followers 422 of the Lord, praise the Lord!
he who dwells in Jerusalem. 424
Praise the Lord!
136:1 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
for his loyal love endures. 426
136:2 Give thanks to the God of gods,
for his loyal love endures.
136:3 Give thanks to the Lord of lords,
for his loyal love endures,
136:4 to the one who performs magnificent, amazing deeds all by himself,
for his loyal love endures,
136:5 to the one who used wisdom to make the heavens,
for his loyal love endures,
136:6 to the one who spread out the earth over the water,
for his loyal love endures,
136:7 to the one who made the great lights,
for his loyal love endures,
136:8 the sun to rule by day,
for his loyal love endures,
136:9 the moon and stars to rule by night,
for his loyal love endures,
136:10 to the one who struck down the firstborn of Egypt,
for his loyal love endures,
136:11 and led Israel out from their midst,
for his loyal love endures,
136:12 with a strong hand and an outstretched arm,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures,
136:14 and led Israel through its midst,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures,
136:16 to the one who led his people through the wilderness,
for his loyal love endures,
136:17 to the one who struck down great kings,
for his loyal love endures,
136:18 and killed powerful kings,
for his loyal love endures,
136:19 Sihon, king of the Amorites,
for his loyal love endures,
136:20 Og, king of Bashan,
for his loyal love endures,
136:21 and gave their land as an inheritance,
for his loyal love endures,
136:22 as an inheritance to Israel his servant,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures,
136:24 and snatched us away from our enemies,
for his loyal love endures,
for his loyal love endures.
136:26 Give thanks to the God of heaven,
for his loyal love endures!
137:1 By the rivers of Babylon
we sit down and weep 434
when we remember Zion.
137:2 On the poplars in her midst
we hang our harps,
those who mock us demand that we be happy, saying: 436
“Sing for us a song about Zion!” 437
137:4 How can we sing a song to the Lord
in a foreign land?
137:5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
may my right hand be crippled! 438
137:6 May my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth,
if I do not remember you,
and do not give Jerusalem priority
over whatever gives me the most joy. 439
137:7 Remember, O Lord, what the Edomites did
on the day Jerusalem fell. 440
They said, “Tear it down, tear it down, 441
right to its very foundation!”
How blessed will be the one who repays you
for what you dished out to us! 443
137:9 How blessed will be the one who grabs your babies
and smashes them on a rock! 444
138:1 I will give you thanks with all my heart;
before the heavenly assembly 446 I will sing praises to you.
138:2 I will bow down toward your holy temple,
and give thanks to your name,
because of your loyal love and faithfulness,
for you have exalted your promise above the entire sky. 447
You made me bold and energized me. 449
when they hear the words you speak. 451
for the Lord’s splendor is magnificent. 453
138:6 Though the Lord is exalted, he takes note of the lowly,
and recognizes the proud from far away.
You oppose my angry enemies, 455
and your right hand delivers me.
O Lord, your loyal love endures.
Do not abandon those whom you have made! 457
For the music director, a psalm of David.
139:2 You know when I sit down and when I get up;
even from far away you understand my motives.
you are aware of everything I do. 461
without you, O Lord, being thoroughly aware of it. 463
139:5 You squeeze me in from behind and in front;
you place your hand on me.
139:6 Your knowledge is beyond my comprehension;
it is so far beyond me, I am unable to fathom it. 464
139:7 Where can I go to escape your spirit?
Where can I flee to escape your presence? 465
If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be. 467
and settle down on the other side 470 of the sea,
139:10 even there your hand would guide me,
your right hand would grab hold of me.
and the light will turn to night all around me,” 472
and the night is as bright as 474 day;
darkness and light are the same to you. 475
you wove me together 478 in my mother’s womb.
You knew me thoroughly; 480
139:15 my bones were not hidden from you,
when 481 I was made in secret
and sewed together in the depths of the earth. 482
All the days ordained for me
were recorded in your scroll
before one of them came into existence. 484
How vast is their sum total! 486
139:18 If I tried to count them,
they would outnumber the grains of sand.
Even if I finished counting them,
I would still have to contend with you. 487
Get away from me, you violent men! 489
your enemies lie. 493
139:21 O Lord, do I not hate those who hate you,
and despise those who oppose you? 494
they have become my enemies!
Test me, and know my concerns! 497
and lead me in the reliable ancient path! 499
For the music director; a psalm of David.
Protect me from violent men, 502
All day long they stir up conflict. 504
Protect me from violent men,
who plan to knock me over. 509
140:5 Proud men hide a snare for me;
evil men 510 spread a net by the path;
they set traps for me. (Selah)
140:6 I say to the Lord, “You are my God.”
O Lord, pay attention to my plea for mercy!
you shield 512 my head in the day of battle.
140:9 As for the heads of those who surround me –
may the harm done by 516 their lips overwhelm them!
May he throw them into the fire!
From bottomless pits they will not escape. 518
calamity will hunt down a violent man and strike him down. 521
and vindicates the poor. 523
140:13 Certainly the godly will give thanks to your name;
the morally upright will live in your presence.
A psalm of David.
141:1 O Lord, I cry out to you. Come quickly to me!
Pay attention to me when I cry out to you!
141:2 May you accept my prayer like incense,
my uplifted hands like the evening offering! 525
141:3 O Lord, place a guard on my mouth!
or participate in sinful activities
with men who behave wickedly. 529
I will not eat their delicacies. 530
141:5 May the godly strike me in love and correct me!
Indeed, my prayer is a witness against their evil deeds. 533
They 535 will listen to my words, for they are pleasant.
so our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol.
In you I take shelter.
Do not expose me to danger! 538
141:9 Protect me from the snare they have laid for me,
and the traps the evildoers have set. 539
while I escape. 542
to the Lord I plead for mercy. 547
142:2 I pour out my lament before him;
I tell him about 548 my troubles.
you watch my footsteps. 550
In the path where I walk
they have hidden a trap for me.
142:4 Look to the right and see!
No one cares about me. 551
I have nowhere to run; 552
no one is concerned about my life. 553
142:5 I cry out to you, O Lord;
I say, “You are my shelter,
my security 554 in the land of the living.”
142:6 Listen to my cry for help,
for I am in serious trouble! 555
Rescue me from those who chase me,
for they are stronger than I am.
that I may give thanks to your name.
Because of me the godly will assemble, 557
for you will vindicate me. 558
A psalm of David.
143:1 O Lord, hear my prayer!
Pay attention to my plea for help!
Because of your faithfulness and justice, answer me!
for no one alive is innocent before you. 561
They smash me into the ground. 564
like those who have been dead for ages.
I am absolutely shocked. 568
I meditate on all you have done;
I reflect on your accomplishments. 570
143:7 Answer me quickly, Lord!
My strength is fading. 574
Do not reject me, 575
for I trust in you.
Show me the way I should go, 579
because I long for you. 580
143:9 Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord!
I run to you for protection. 581
for you are my God.
May your kind presence 583
Because of your justice, rescue me from trouble! 588
for I am your servant.
the one who trains my hands for battle, 595
and my fingers for war,
my refuge 597 and my deliverer,
my shield and the one in whom I take shelter,
who makes nations submit to me. 598
their days like a shadow that disappears. 603
Touch the mountains and make them smolder! 606
144:6 Hurl lightning bolts and scatter them!
Shoot your arrows and rout them! 607
Grab me and rescue me from the surging water, 609
from the power of foreigners, 610
144:8 who speak lies,
and make false promises. 611
144:9 O God, I will sing a new song to you!
Accompanied by a ten-stringed instrument, I will sing praises to you,
and rescued David his servant from a deadly 613 sword.
who speak lies,
and make false promises. 615
that quickly grow to full size. 617
Our daughters will be like corner pillars, 618
carved like those in a palace. 619
providing all kinds of food. 621
Our sheep will multiply by the thousands
No one will break through our walls,
no one will be taken captive,
and there will be no terrified cries in our city squares. 625
How blessed are the people whose God is the Lord!
A psalm of praise, by David.
145:1 I will extol you, my God, O king!
I will praise your name continually! 628
145:2 Every day I will praise you!
I will praise your name continually! 629
145:3 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise!
No one can fathom his greatness! 630
145:4 One generation will praise your deeds to another,
and tell about your mighty acts! 631
145:5 I will focus on your honor and majestic splendor,
and your amazing deeds! 632
I will declare your great deeds!
and sing about your justice. 635
145:8 The Lord is merciful and compassionate;
145:9 The Lord is good to all,
and has compassion on all he has made. 638
145:10 All he has made will give thanks to the Lord.
Your loyal followers will praise you.
145:11 They will proclaim the splendor of your kingdom;
they will tell about your power,
and the majestic splendor of your kingdom.
and your dominion endures through all generations.
and lifts up all who are bent over. 642
and you provide them with food on a regular basis. 644
145:16 You open your hand,
and fill every living thing with the food they desire. 645
and exhibits love in all he does. 647
145:18 The Lord is near all who cry out to him,
all who cry out to him sincerely. 648
he hears their cry for help and delivers them.
145:20 The Lord protects those who love him,
but he destroys all the wicked.
Let all who live 652 praise his holy name forever!
146:1 Praise the Lord!
Praise the Lord, O my soul!
146:2 I will praise the Lord as long as I live!
I will sing praises to my God as long as I exist!
146:3 Do not trust in princes,
or in human beings, who cannot deliver! 654
146:4 Their life’s breath departs, they return to the ground;
on that day their plans die. 655
146:5 How blessed is the one whose helper is the God of Jacob,
whose hope is in the Lord his God,
146:6 the one who made heaven and earth,
the sea, and all that is in them,
who remains forever faithful, 656
and gives food to the hungry.
The Lord releases the imprisoned.
146:8 The Lord gives sight to the blind.
The Lord lifts up all who are bent over. 658
The Lord loves the godly.
146:9 The Lord protects those residing outside their native land;
he lifts up the fatherless and the widow, 659
but he opposes the wicked. 660
146:10 The Lord rules forever,
your God, O Zion, throughout the generations to come! 661
Praise the Lord!
147:1 Praise the Lord,
for it is good to sing praises to our God!
Yes, 663 praise is pleasant and appropriate!
and gathers the exiles of Israel.
and bandages their wounds.
147:4 He counts the number of the stars;
he names all of them.
there is no limit to his wisdom. 667
147:6 The Lord lifts up the oppressed,
but knocks 668 the wicked to the ground.
Sing praises to our God to the accompaniment of a harp!
provides the earth with rain,
and causes grass to grow on the hillsides. 671
147:9 He gives food to the animals,
and to the young ravens when they chirp. 672
147:10 He is not enamored with the strength of a horse,
nor is he impressed by the warrior’s strong legs. 673
and in those who wait for his loyal love.
147:12 Extol the Lord, O Jerusalem!
Praise your God, O Zion!
147:13 For he makes the bars of your gates strong.
He blesses your children 675 within you.
He abundantly provides for you 678 the best grain.
swiftly his order reaches its destination. 681
147:16 He sends the snow that is white like wool;
he spreads the frost that is white like ashes. 682
Who can withstand the cold wind he sends? 684
he breathes on it, 686 and the water flows.
147:19 He proclaims his word to Jacob,
his statutes and regulations to Israel.
147:20 He has not done so with any other nation;
they are not aware of his regulations.
Praise the Lord!
1 sn Psalm 119. The psalmist celebrates God’s law and the guidance it provides his people. He expresses his desire to know God’s law thoroughly so that he might experience the blessings that come to those who obey it. This lengthy psalm exhibits an elaborate acrostic pattern. The psalm is divided into twenty-two sections (corresponding to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet), each of which is comprised of eight verses. Each of the verses in the first section (vv. 1-8) begins with the letter alef (א), the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This pattern continues throughout the psalm as each new section highlights a successive letter of the alphabet. Each verse in section two (vv. 9-16) begins with the second letter of the alphabet, each verse in section three (vv. 17-24) with the third letter, etc. This rigid pattern creates a sense of order and completeness and may have facilitated memorization.
2 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness of those who are blameless of way.”
3 tn Heb “walk in.”
4 tn Heb “walk in his ways.”
5 tn Heb “you, you commanded your precepts, to keep, very much.”
6 tn Heb “if only my ways were established.”
7 tn Or “when.”
8 tn Heb “I gaze at.”
9 tn Heb “I will give you thanks with an upright heart.”
11 tn Heb “young man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender specific “young man” has been translated with the more neutral “young person.”
12 tn Heb “purify his path.”
13 tn Heb “by keeping according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
14 tn Or “hide.”
15 tn Heb “your word.” Some medieval Hebrew
16 tn Heb “[are] blessed.”
17 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
18 tn Heb “in the way of your rules.”
21 tn The cohortative verbal forms in this verse express the psalmist’s resolve.
22 tn Heb “gaze [at].”
23 tn Heb “ways” (referring figuratively to God’s behavior here).
24 tn The imperfects in this verse emphasize the attitude the psalmist maintains toward God’s law. Another option is to translate with the future tense, “I will find delight…I will not forget.”
25 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
26 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a cohortative indicating purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
27 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the imperative that begins the verse.
28 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
29 tn Heb “uncover.” The verb form גַּל (gal) is an apocopated Piel imperative from גָּלָה (galah, see GKC 214 §75.cc).
30 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
31 tn Heb “I am a resident alien in the land.” Resident aliens were especially vulnerable and in need of help. They needed to know the social and legal customs of the land to avoid getting into trouble. The translation (note the addition of “like”) assumes the psalmist is speaking metaphorically, not literally.
32 tn Heb “my soul languishes for longing for.”
33 tn Heb “accursed.” The traditional punctuation of the Hebrew text takes “accursed” with the previous line (“arrogant, accursed ones”), but it is preferable to take it with the second line as the predicate of the statement.
34 tn Heb “roll away from upon me.” Some derive the imperatival form גַּל (gal) from גָּלָה (galah, “uncover,” as in v. 18), but here the form is from גָּלַל (galal, “roll”; see Josh 5:9, where חֶרְפָּה [kherpah, “shame; reproach”] also appears as object of the verb). Some, following the lead of a Dead Sea scroll (11QPsa), emend the form to גֹּל (gol).
36 tn Heb “men of my counsel.” That is, God’s rules are like advisers to the psalmist, for they teach him how to live in a godly manner that refutes the accusations of his enemies.
37 tn Heb “my soul clings to the dirt.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
38 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
39 tn Heb “my ways I proclaimed.”
40 tn Heb “the way of your precepts make me understand.”
41 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
43 tn Some translate “my soul weeps,” taking the verb דָלַף (dalaf) from a root meaning “to drip; to drop” (BDB 196 s.v. דֶּלַף). On the basis of cognate evidence from Arabic and Akkadian, HALOT 223 s.v. II דלף proposes a homonymic root here, meaning “be sleepless.” Following L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 127, 135) the translation assumes that the verb is cognate with Ugaritic dlp, “to collapse; to crumple” in CTA 2 iv. 17, 26. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 44, 144.
44 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
47 tn BDB 1000-1001 s.v. I שָׁוָה derives the verb from the first homonym listed, meaning “to agree with; to be like; to resemble.” It here means (in the Piel stem) “to be accounted suitable,” which in turn would mean by metonymy “to accept; to be committed to.” Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonym meaning “to place; to set,” but in this case an elliptical prepositional phrase must be understood, “I place your regulations [before me]” (see Ps 16:8).
48 tn Or “cling to.”
49 tn Heb “for you make wide my heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and understanding. The
50 tn Heb “the way of your statutes.”
51 tn Heb “and I will keep it to the end.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative. The Hebrew term עֵקֶב (’eqev) is understood to mean “end” here. Another option is to take עֵקֶב (’eqev) as meaning “reward” here (see Ps 19:11) and to translate, “so that I might observe it and be rewarded.”
52 tn The two prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the introductory imperative.
53 tn Or “make me walk.”
54 tn Heb “for in it I delight.”
55 tn Heb “turn my heart to your rules.”
56 tn Heb “and not unjust gain.”
57 tn Heb “Make my eyes pass by from looking at what is worthless.”
58 tn Heb “by your word.”
59 tn Heb “word.”
60 tn Heb “which [is] for your fear,” that is, the promise made to those who exhibit fear of God.
61 tn Heb “my reproach that I fear.”
62 tn Or “for.”
63 tn Or “righteousness.”
64 tn Heb “and may your loyal love come to me.”
65 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions).
66 tn Heb “according to your word.”
68 tn Heb “do not snatch from my mouth a word of truth to excess.” The psalmist wants to be able to give a reliable testimony about the
70 tn Or “forever and ever.”
71 tn Heb “and I will walk about in a wide place.” The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive gives a further consequence of the anticipated positive divine response (see vv. 43-44). Another option is to take the cohortative as expressing the psalmist’s request. In this case one could translate, “and please give me security.”
73 tn Lifting the hands is often associated with prayer (Pss 28:2; 63:4; Lam 2:19). (1) Because praying to God’s law borders on the extreme, some prefer to emend the text to “I lift up my hands to you,” eliminating “your commands, which I love” as dittographic. In this view these words were accidentally repeated from the previous verse. (2) However, it is possible that the psalmist closely associates the law with God himself because he views the law as the expression of the divine will. (3) Another option is that “lifting the hands” does not refer to prayer here, but to the psalmist’s desire to receive and appropriate the law. (4) Still others understand this to be an action praising God’s commands (so NCV; cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).
74 tn The demonstrative “this” refers back to the hope just mentioned or forward to the statement in the second line concerning the promise’s power to revive. See the note on the word “me” at the end of the verse for further discussion.
75 tn The hope generated by the promise (see v. 49b) brings comfort because (note “for” at the beginning of the line) the promise revives the psalmist’s spirits. Another option is to take כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line in the sense of “that,” in which case “this” refers to the promise’s power to revive.
76 tn Heb “scoff at me to excess.”
77 tn Heb “I remember your regulations from of old.” The prepositional phrase “from of old” apparently modifies “your regulations,” alluding to the fact that God revealed them to Israel in the distant past. Another option is to understand the prepositional phrase as modifying the verb, in which case one might translate, “I have long remembered your regulations.”
78 tn Or “find comfort.”
79 tn Heb “songs were your statutes to me.”
80 tn Heb “in the house of my dwelling place.” Some take the Hebrew noun מָגוֹר (magor) in the sense of “temporary abode,” and see this as a reference to the psalmist’s status as a resident alien (see v. 19). But the noun can refer to a dwelling place in general (see Ps 55:15).
81 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve to obey the law.
82 tn Heb “this has been to me.” The demonstrative “this” (1) refers back to the practices mentioned in vv. 54-55, or (2) looks forward to the statement in the second line, in which case the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line should be translated “that.”
84 tn Heb “I said.”
86 tn Heb “I appease your face.”
87 tn Heb “according to your word.”
88 tn Heb “my ways.”
89 tn Heb “and I turn my feet toward.”
90 tn Heb “I hurry and I do not delay to keep your commands.”
91 tn Heb “surround.”
92 tn The psalmist uses an imperfect verbal form to emphasize that this is his continuing practice.
93 tn Heb “to all who fear you.”
94 tn Heb “do good.”
95 tn Heb “according to your word.”
96 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.
97 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”
98 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”
99 tn Heb “your word.”
100 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”
101 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”
102 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”
104 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
105 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”
106 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.
107 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”
108 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”
109 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”
110 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”
111 tn Heb “those who fear you.”
112 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”
115 tn Heb “saying.”
116 tn Or “even though.”
118 tn Heb “in the smoke.”
119 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”
120 tn Heb “for me.”
121 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”
122 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.
123 tn Heb “according to.”
124 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
125 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
126 tn Heb “Forever, O
127 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”
128 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”
129 tn Or “my suffering.”
130 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”
132 tn The plural form needs to be revocalized as a singular in order to agree with the preceding singular verb and the singular pronoun in the next line. The
133 tn Heb “I hold back my feet.”
134 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew
135 tn Heb “How smooth they are to my palate, your word, more than honey to my mouth.” A few medieval Hebrew
136 tn Heb “every false path.”
137 tn Many medieval Hebrew
138 tn Heb “[is] a lamp for my foot and a light for my path.”
139 tn Heb “according to your word.”
140 tn Heb “of my mouth.”
141 tn Heb “my life [is] in my hands continually.”
142 tn Heb “for the joy of my heart [are] they.”
143 tn Heb “I turn my heart to do.”
144 tn Heb “divided ones.” The word occurs only here; it appears to be derived from a verbal root, attested in Arabic, meaning “to split” (see HALOT 762 s.v. *סֵעֵף). Since the psalmist is emphasizing his unswerving allegiance to God and his law, the term probably refers to those who lack such loyalty. The translation is similar to that suggested by L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 131.
145 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
146 tn The psalmist has already declared that he observes God’s commands despite persecution, so here the idea must be “so that I might observe the commands of my God unhindered by threats.”
147 tn Heb “according to your word.”
148 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
149 tn Heb “do not make me ashamed of my hope.” After the Hebrew verb בּוֹשׁ (bosh, “to be ashamed”) the preposition מִן (min, “from”) often introduces the reason for shame.
150 tn Or “and that I might focus.” The two cohortatives with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the imperative at the beginning of the verse.
151 tn The Hebrew verb סָלָה (salah, “to disdain”) occurs only here and in Lam 1:15. Cognate usage in Aramaic and Akkadian, as well as Lam 1:15, suggest it may have a concrete nuance of “to throw away.”
152 tn Heb “for their deceit [is] falsehood.”
153 sn Traditionally “dross” (so KJV, ASV, NIV). The metaphor comes from metallurgy; “slag” is the substance left over after the metallic ore has been refined.
154 sn As he explains in the next verse, the psalmist’s fear of judgment motivates him to obey God’s rules.
155 tn Heb “my flesh.”
157 tn Heb “from fear of you.” The pronominal suffix on the noun is an objective genitive.
158 tn Heb “do justice and righteousness.”
159 tn Heb “be surety for your servant for good.”
160 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your deliverance.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See the similar phrase in v. 82.
161 tn Heb “and for the word of your faithfulness.”
162 tn Heb “do with your servant according to your loyal love.”
163 tn or “know.” The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
165 tn Heb “for this reason all the precepts of everything I regard as right.” The phrase “precepts of everything” is odd. It is preferable to take the kaf (כ) on כֹּל (kol, “everything) with the preceding form as a pronominal suffix, “your precepts,” and the lamed (ל) with the following verb as an emphatic particle. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 138.
166 tn Heb “every false path.”
168 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doorway] gives.”
170 tn The verb occurs only here in the OT.
173 tn Or “redeem me.”
174 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
175 tn Heb “cause your face to shine.”
176 tn Heb “[with] flowing streams my eyes go down.”
177 tn Heb “they”; even though somewhat generic, the referent (people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
178 tn Heb “you commanded [in] justice your rules.”
179 tn or “zeal.”
180 tn Heb “destroys,” in a hyperbolic sense.
181 tn Heb “your words.”
182 tn Heb “your justice [is] justice forever.”
183 tn Or “truth.”
184 tn Heb “find.”
185 tn Heb “just are your rules forever.”
186 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
187 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
188 tn Heb “my voice.”
189 tn Heb “according to.”
190 tn Heb “according to your custom.”
191 tn Heb “those who pursue.”
192 tn Or “truth.”
193 tn Heb “long ago I knew concerning your rules, that forever you established them.” See v. 89 for the same idea. The translation assumes that the preposition מִן (min) prefixed to “your rules” introduces the object of the verb יָדַע (yada’), as in 1 Sam 23:23. Another option is that the preposition indicates source, in which case one might translate, “Long ago I realized from your rules that forever you established them” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
194 tn Or “argue my case.”
196 tn Heb “far from the wicked [is] deliverance.”
197 tn Heb “according to your customs.”
198 tn Heb “many [are] those who chase me and my enemies.”
199 tn Heb “your word.”
200 tn Heb “the head of your word is truth, and forever [is] all your just regulation.” The term “head” is used here of the “sum total” of God’s instructions.
203 tn The number “seven” is use rhetorically to suggest thoroughness.
204 tn Heb “great peace [is] to the lovers of your law.”
205 tn Heb “and there is no stumbling to them.”
206 tn Heb “do.”
207 tn Heb “for all my ways [are] before you.”
208 tn Heb “may my cry approach before you.”
209 tn Heb “may my appeal for mercy come before you.”
210 tn Heb “according to your speech.”
211 tn Heb “your word.”
212 tn The words “to obey” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarity.
213 tn Heb “my life.”
214 tn God’s regulations will “help” the psalmist by giving him moral and ethical guidance.
215 tn Heb “I stray like a lost sheep.” It is possible that the point of the metaphor is vulnerability: The psalmist, who is threatened by his enemies, feels as vulnerable as a straying, lost sheep. This would not suggest, however, that he has wandered from God’s path (see the second half of the verse, as well as v. 110).
216 sn Psalm 120. The genre and structure of this psalm are uncertain. It begins like a thanksgiving psalm, with a brief notice that God has heard the psalmist’s prayer for help and has intervened. But v. 2 is a petition for help, followed by a taunt directed toward enemies (vv. 3-4) and a lament (vv. 5-7). Perhaps vv. 2-7 recall the psalmist’s prayer when he cried out to the Lord.
217 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
218 tn The words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarification. See the introductory note for this psalm.
219 tn Or “my life.”
220 tn Heb “from a lip of falsehood.”
221 tn Heb “from a tongue of deception.”
222 tn Heb “What will he give to you, and what will he add to you, O tongue of deception?” The psalmist addresses his deceptive enemies. The
224 tn Heb “with coals of the wood of the broom plant.” The wood of the broom plant was used to make charcoal, which in turn was used to fuel the fire used to forge the arrowheads.
225 tn Or “woe to me.” The Hebrew term אוֹיָה (’oyah, “woe”) which occurs only here, is an alternate form of אוֹי (’oy).
226 tn Heb “I live as a resident alien.”
227 sn Meshech was located in central Anatolia (modern Turkey). Kedar was located in the desert to east-southeast of Israel. Because of the reference to Kedar, it is possible that Ps 120:5 refers to a different Meshech, perhaps one associated with the individual mentioned as a descendant of Aram in 1 Chr 1:17. (However, the LXX in 1 Chr 1:17 follows the parallel text in Gen 10:23, which reads “Mash,” not Meshech.) It is, of course, impossible that the psalmist could have been living in both the far north and the east at the same time. For this reason one must assume that he is recalling his experience as a wanderer among the nations or that he is using the geographical terms metaphorically and sarcastically to suggest that the enemies who surround him are like the barbarians who live in these distant regions. For a discussion of the problem, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 146.
228 tn The singular participial form probably has a representative function here. The psalmist envisions the typical hater of peace who represents the entire category of such individuals.
229 tn Heb “I, peace.”
230 tn Heb “they [are] for war.”
231 sn Psalm 121. The psalm affirms that the Lord protects his people Israel. Unless the psalmist addresses an observer (note the second person singular forms in vv. 3-8), it appears there are two or three speakers represented in the psalm, depending on how one takes v. 3. The translation assumes that speaker one talks in vv. 1-2, that speaker two responds to him with a prayer in v. 3 (this assumes the verbs are true jussives of prayer), and that speaker three responds with words of assurance in vv. 4-8. If the verbs in v. 3 are taken as a rhetorical use of the jussive, then there are two speakers. Verses 3-8 are speaker two’s response to the words of speaker one. See the note on the word “sleep” at the end of v. 3.
232 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
233 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”
234 tn The Hebrew term מֵאַיִן (me’ayin) is interrogative, not relative, in function. Rather than directly stating that his source of help descends from the hills, the psalmist is asking, “From where does my help come?” Nevertheless, the first line does indicate that he is looking toward the hills for help, probably indicating that he is looking up toward the sky in anticipation of supernatural intervention. The psalmist assumes the dramatic role of one needing help. He answers his own question in v. 2.
235 tn Heb “my help [is] from with the
236 tn Or “Maker.”
237 tn Heb “the one who guards you.”
238 tn The prefixed verbal forms following the negative particle אל appear to be jussives. As noted above, if they are taken as true jussives of prayer, then the speaker in v. 3 would appear to be distinct from both the speaker in vv. 1-2 and the speaker in vv. 4-8. However, according to GKC 322 §109.e), the jussives are used rhetorically here “to express the conviction that something cannot or should not happen.” In this case one should probably translate, “he will not allow your foot to slip, your protector will not sleep,” and understand just one speaker in vv. 4-8.
239 tn Heb “the one who guards Israel.”
240 sn One hardly thinks of the moon’s rays as being physically harmful, like those of the sun. The reference to the moon may simply lend poetic balance to the verse, but it is likely that the verse reflects an ancient, primitive belief that the moon could have an adverse effect on the mind (note the English expression “moonstruck,” which reflects such a belief). Another possibility is that the sun and moon stand by metonymy for harmful forces characteristic of the day and night, respectively.
241 tn Heb “your going out and your coming in.”
243 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
244 tn Heb “in the ones saying to me.” After the verb שָׂמַח (samakh), the preposition בְּ (bet) usually introduces the reason for joy.
245 tn Or “were.”
247 tc Heb “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which is joined to her together.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Many regard this as a description of the compact way in which the city was designed or constructed. The translation assumes an emendation of the verb חֻבְּרָה (khubbÿrah, “is joined”) to a noun חֶבְרָה (khevrah, “association; company”). The text then reads literally, “Jerusalem, which is built like a city which has a company together.” This in turn can be taken as a reference to Jerusalem’s role as a city where people congregated for religious festivals and other civic occasions (see vv. 4-5).
248 tn Or “went up.”
249 tn Heb “which is where the tribes go up.”
250 tn Heb “[it is] a statute for Israel to give thanks to the name of the
251 tn Or “for.”
252 tn Or “sat.”
253 tn Heb “Indeed, there they sit [on] thrones for judgment, [on] thrones [belonging] to the house of David.”
254 tn Heb “ask [for].”
255 tn Or “be secure.”
256 tn or “security.”
257 tn The psalmist uses second feminine singular pronominal forms to address personified Jerusalem.
258 tn Heb “I will seek good for you.” The psalmist will seek Jerusalem’s “good” through prayer.
260 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
261 tn Heb “I lift my eyes.”
263 sn Servants look to their master for food, shelter, and other basic needs.
264 tn Heb “for greatly we are filled [with] humiliation.”
265 tn Heb “greatly our soul is full to it.”
267 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
268 tn Heb “rose up against us.”
269 tn Or “stream.”
270 tn Heb “would have passed over.”
271 tn Heb “our being.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
272 tn Heb “then they would have passed over our being, the raging waters.”
273 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
274 tn Heb “[the one] who.”
275 tn Heb “our life escaped.”
276 tn Heb “our help [is] in the name of the
277 tn Or “Maker.”
279 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
281 tn Or “for.”
282 tn Heb “a scepter of wickedness.” The “scepter” symbolizes royal authority; when collocated with “wickedness” the phrase refers to an oppressive foreign conqueror.
283 tn Or “rest.”
284 tn Heb “so that the godly might not stretch out their hands in wrongdoing.” A wicked king who sets a sinful example can have an adverse moral and ethical effect on the people he rules.
285 tn Heb “pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the
286 tn Heb “and the ones making their paths twisted.” A sinful lifestyle is compared to a twisting, winding road.
287 tn Heb “lead them away.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer here (note the prayers directly before and after this). Another option is to translate, “the
288 tn Heb “the workers of wickedness.”
291 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
292 tn Heb “turns with a turning [toward] his people.” The Hebrew noun שִׁיבַת (shivat) occurs only here in the OT. For this reason many prefer to emend the form to the more common שְׁבִית (shevit) or שְׁבוּת (shÿvut), both of which are used as a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv; see Ps 14:7). However an Aramaic cognate of שְׁבִית appears in an eighth century
293 tn Heb “we were like dreamers.” This could mean the speakers were so overcome with ecstatic joy (see v. 3b) that they were like those who fantasize about pleasurable experiences in their sleep (see Isa 29:7-8). Since dreams are more commonly associated in the OT with prophetic visions, the community may be comparing their experience of God’s renewed favor to a prophet’s receiving divine visions. Just as a prophetic dream sweeps the individual into a different dimension and sometimes brings one face-to-face with God himself (see Gen 28:11-15; 1 Kgs 3:5-15), so the community was aware of God’s presence in a special way in the day of Zion’s restoration. Though the MT as it stands makes good sense, some choose to understand a homonymic root here meaning “to be healthy; to be strong” (see BDB 321 s.v. I חָלַם) and translate, “we were like those restored to health.” This reading appears to have the support of several ancient translations as well as 11QPsa. See L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 170-71) for a discussion of the viewpoints.
294 tn Heb “then our mouth was filled with laughter, and our tongue with a shout.”
295 tn Heb “they said among the nations.”
296 tn Heb “like the streams in the Negev.”
sn The streams in the arid south. Y. Aharoni writes of the streams in the Negev: “These usually dry wadis collect water on rainy days from vast areas. The situation is also aggravated by floods from the desert mountains and southern Judah. For a day or two or, more frequently, for only a few hours they turn into dangerous torrents” (Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 26). God’s people were experiencing a “dry season” after a time of past blessing; they pray here for a “flash flood” of his renewed blessing. This does not imply that they are requesting only a brief display of God’s blessing. Rather the point of comparison is the suddenness with which the wadis swell during a rain, as well as the depth and power of these raging waters. The community desires a sudden display of divine favor in which God overwhelms them with blessings.
297 sn O. Borowski says regarding this passage: “The dependence on rain for watering plants, the uncertainty of the quantity and timing of the rains, and the possibility of crop failure due to pests and diseases appear to have kept the farmer in a gloomy mood during sowing” (Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 54). Perhaps the people were experiencing a literal drought, the effects of which cause them to lament their plight as they plant their seed in hopes that the rain would come. However, most take the language as metaphorical. Like a farmer sowing his seed, the covenant community was enduring hardship as they waited for a new outpouring of divine blessing. Yet they are confident that a time of restoration will come and relieve their anxiety, just as the harvest brings relief and joy to the farmer.
301 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
302 sn The expression build a house may have a double meaning here. It may refer on the surface level to a literal physical structure in which a family lives, but at a deeper, metaphorical level it refers to building, perpetuating, and maintaining a family line. See Deut 25:9; Ruth 4:11; 1 Sam 2:35; 2 Sam 7:27; 1 Kgs 11:38; 1 Chr 17:10, 25. Having a family line provided security in ancient Israel.
303 sn The city symbolizes community security, which is the necessary framework for family security.
304 tn Heb “[it is] vain for you, you who are early to rise, who delay sitting, who eat the food of hard work.” The three substantival participles are parallel and stand in apposition to the pronominal suffix on the preposition. See לָכֶם (lakhem, “for you”).
306 tn Heb “he gives to his beloved, sleep.” The translation assumes that the Hebrew term שֵׁנָא (shena’, “sleep,” an alternate form of שֵׁנָה, shenah) is an adverbial accusative. The point seems to be this: Hard work by itself is not what counts, but one’s relationship to God, for God is able to bless an individual even while he sleeps. (There may even be a subtle allusion to the miracle of conception following sexual intercourse; see the reference to the gift of sons in the following verse.) The statement is not advocating laziness, but utilizing hyperbole to give perspective and to remind the addressees that God must be one’s first priority. Another option is to take “sleep” as the direct object: “yes, he gives sleep to his beloved” (cf. NIV, NRSV). In this case the point is this: Hard work by itself is futile, for only God is able to bless one with sleep, which metonymically refers to having one’s needs met. He blesses on the basis of one’s relationship to him, not on the basis of physical energy expended.
307 tn or “look.”
308 tn Some prefer to translate this term with the gender neutral “children,” but “sons” are plainly in view here, as the following verses make clear. Daughters are certainly wonderful additions to a family, but in ancient Israelite culture sons were the “arrows” that gave a man security in his old age, for they could defend the family interests at the city gate, where the legal and economic issues of the community were settled.
309 tn Heb “like arrows in the hand of a warrior, so [are] sons of youth.” Arrows are used in combat to defend oneself against enemies; sons are viewed here as providing social security and protection (see v. 5). The phrase “sons of youth” is elliptical, meaning “sons [born during the father’s] youth.” Such sons will have grown up to be mature adults and will have children of their own by the time the father reaches old age and becomes vulnerable to enemies. Contrast the phrase “son of old age” in Gen 37:3 (see also 44:20), which refers to Jacob’s age when Joseph was born.
310 tn Being “put to shame” is here metonymic for being defeated, probably in a legal context, as the reference to the city gate suggests. One could be humiliated (Ps 69:12) or deprived of justice (Amos 5:12) at the gate, but with strong sons to defend the family interests this was less likely to happen.
311 tn Heb “speak with.”
313 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
314 tn Heb “every fearer of the
315 tn Heb “the one who walks in his ways.”
316 tn The psalmist addresses the representative God-fearing man, as indicated by the references to “your wife” (v. 3) and “the man” (v. 4), as well as the second masculine singular pronominal and verbal forms in vv. 2-6.
317 tn Heb “the work of your hands, indeed you will eat.”
318 tn Heb “how blessed you [will be] and it will be good for you.”
319 sn The metaphor of the fruitful vine pictures the wife as fertile; she will give her husband numerous children (see the next line).
321 tn Heb “look, indeed thus will the man, the fearer of the
322 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer (note the imperatives that are subordinated to this clause in vv. 5b-6a). Having described the blessings that typically come to the godly, the psalmist concludes by praying that this ideal may become reality for the representative godly man being addressed.
323 tn The imperative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding jussive.
326 tn Heb “sons to your sons.”
329 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
330 tn The background of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Perhaps the “ropes” are those used to harness the ox for plowing (see Job 39:10). Verse 3 pictures the wicked plowing God’s people as if they were a field. But when God “cut the ropes” of their ox, as it were, they could no longer plow. The point of the metaphor seems to be that God took away the enemies’ ability to oppress his people. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 187.
331 tn The Hebrew verb שָׁלַף (shalaf) normally means “to draw [a sword]” or “to pull.” BDB 1025 s.v. suggests the meaning “to shoot up” here, but it is more likely that the verb here means “to pluck; to pull up,” a nuance attested for this word in later Hebrew and Aramaic (see Jastrow 1587 s.v. שָׁלַף).
332 tn The perfect verbal form is used for rhetorical effect; it describes an anticipated development as if it were already reality.
334 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
336 tn Heb “my voice.”
337 tn Heb “may your ears be attentive to the voice of.”
338 tn Heb “observe.”
339 tn The words “before you” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The psalmist must be referring to standing before God’s judgment seat. The rhetorical question expects the answer, “No one.”
340 tn Or “surely.”
341 tn Heb “for with you [there is] forgiveness.”
342 tn Or “consequently you are.”
343 tn Heb “feared.”
344 tn Or “wait for.”
345 tn Heb “my soul waits.”
346 tn Heb “his word.”
347 tn Heb “my soul for the master.”
348 tn Heb “more than watchmen for the morning, watchmen for the morning.” The words “yes, more” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
349 tn Heb “for with the
350 tn Heb “and abundantly with him [is] redemption.”
351 tn Or “redeem.”
352 tn The Hebrew noun עָוֹן (’avon) can refer to sin, the guilt sin produces, or the consequences of sin. Only here is the noun collocated with the verb פָּדָה (padah, “to redeem; to deliver”). The psalmist may refer to forgiveness per se (v. 4), but the emphasis in this context is likely on deliverance from the national consequences of sin. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 192.
354 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
355 tn Heb “and my eyes are not lifted up.”
356 tn Heb “I do not walk in great things, and in things too marvelous for me.”
357 tn Or “but.”
358 tn Heb “I make level and make quiet my soul.”
359 tn Heb “like a weaned [one] upon his mother.”
360 tn Heb “like the weaned [one] upon me, my soul.”
362 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
363 tn Heb “all his affliction.” This may refer to David’s strenuous and tireless efforts to make provision for the building of the temple (see 1 Chr 22:14). Some prefer to revocalize the text as עַנַוָתוֹ (’anavato, “his humility”).
364 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.”
365 tn The words “he said” are supplied in the translation to clarify that what follows is David’s vow.
366 tn Heb “the tent of my house.”
367 tn Heb “go up upon the bed of my couch.”
369 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.”
370 tn Rather than having an antecedent, the third feminine singular pronominal suffix here (and in the next line) appears to refer to the ark of the covenant, mentioned in v. 8. (The Hebrew term אָרוֹן [’aron, “ark”] is sometimes construed as grammatically feminine. See 1 Sam 4:17; 2 Chr 8:11.)
371 sn Some understand Ephrathah as a reference to Kiriath-jearim because of the apparent allusion to this site in the next line (see the note on “Jaar”). The ark was kept in Kiriath-jearim after the Philistines released it (see 1 Sam 6:21-7:2). However, the switch in verbs from “heard about” to “found” suggests that Ephrathah not be equated with Jair. The group who is speaking heard about the ark while they were in Ephrath. They then went to retrieve it from Kiriath-jearim (“Jaar”). It is more likely that Ephrathah refers to a site near Bethel (Gen 35:16, 19; 48:7) or to Bethlehem (Ruth 4:11; Mic 5:2).
372 tn Heb “fields of the forest.” The Hebrew term יָעַר (ya’ad, “forest”) is apparently a shortened alternative name for קִרְיַת יְעָרִים (qiryat yÿ’arim, “Kiriath-jearim”), the place where the ark was kept after it was released by the Philistines and from which David and his men retrieved it (see 1 Chr 13:6).
373 tn Or “bow down.”
374 tn Or “righteousness.”
375 tn Heb “do not turn away the face of your anointed one.”
376 tn Heb “the
377 tn Heb “he will not turn back from it.”
378 tn The words “he said” are supplied in the translation to clarify that what follows are the
379 tn Heb “the fruit of your body.”
380 tn Or “for.”
381 tn Heb “he desired it for his dwelling place.”
382 tn The words “he said” are added in the translation to clarify that what follows are the
383 tn Heb “for I desired it.”
384 tn Heb “I will greatly bless her provision.” The infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the verb.
385 tn Heb “her poor I will satisfy [with] food.”
386 tn Heb “and her priests I will clothe [with] deliverance.”
387 tn Heb “[with] shouting they will shout.” The infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the verb.
388 tn Heb “there I will cause a horn to sprout for David.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (cf. Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Pss 18:2; 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). In the ancient Near East powerful warrior-kings would sometimes compare themselves to a goring bull that used its horns to kill its enemies. For examples, see P. Miller, “El the Warrior,” HTR 60 (1967): 422-25, and R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 135-36.
390 tn Heb “his enemies I will clothe [with] shame.”
392 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
393 sn This statement refers to the extended family structure of ancient Israel, where brothers would often live in proximity to one another (Deut 25:5), giving the family greater social prominence and security. However, in its later application in the Israelite cult it probably envisions unity within the covenant community. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 212-15.
394 tn Heb “[it is] like the good oil on the head, going down on the beard.”
395 tn Heb “which goes down in accordance with his measured things.” The Hebrew phrase מִדּוֹתָיו (middotayv, “his measured things”) refers here to the robes worn by Aaron. HALOT 546 s.v. *מַד derives the form from מַד (midah, “robe”) rather than מִדָּה (middah, “measured thing”). Ugaritic md means “robe” and is pluralized mdt.
396 sn Hermon refers to Mount Hermon, located north of Israel.
397 sn The hills of Zion are those surrounding Zion (see Pss 87:1; 125:2). The psalmist does not intend to suggest that the dew from Mt. Hermon in the distant north actually flows down upon Zion. His point is that the same kind of heavy dew that replenishes Hermon may also be seen on Zion’s hills. See A. Cohen, Psalms (SoBB), 439. “Dew” here symbolizes divine blessing, as the next line suggests.
398 tn Or “for.”
399 tn Heb “there the
401 sn The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120-134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 219-21.
402 tn Heb “Look!”
403 tn Heb “stand.”
405 tn Heb “may the
407 tn Heb “stand.”
409 tn Or “for.”
411 tn Or “for.”
414 tn Or “is forever.”
416 tn Heb “judges,” but here the idea is that the
418 tn Heb “the work of the hands of man.”
419 tn Heb “indeed, there is not breath in their mouth.” For the collocation אַף אֵין (’af ’en, “indeed, there is not”) see Isa 41:26. Another option is to take אַף as “nose” (see Ps 115:6), in which case one might translate, “a nose, [but] they have no breath in their mouths.”
420 tn Heb “will be.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a prayer, “may those who make them end up like them.”
sn Because the idols are lifeless, they cannot help their worshipers in times of crisis. Consequently the worshipers end up as dead as the gods in which they trust.
421 tn Heb “house” (here and in the next two lines).
422 tn Heb “fearers.”
423 tn Heb “praised be the
425 sn Psalm 136. In this hymn the psalmist affirms that God is praiseworthy because of his enduring loyal love, sovereign authority, and compassion. Each verse of the psalm concludes with the refrain “for his loyal love endures.”
426 tn Or “is forever.”
427 tn Or “cut.”
428 tn Heb “Reed Sea” (also in v. 15). “Reed Sea” (or “Sea of Reeds”) is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew expression יָם סוּף (yam suf), traditionally translated “Red Sea.” See the note on the term “Red Sea” in Exod 13:18.
429 tn Heb “into pieces.”
430 tn Or “shook off.”
431 tn Heb “who, in our low condition, remembered us.”
432 tn Heb “to all flesh,” which can refer to all people (see Pss 65:2; 145:21) or more broadly to mankind and animals. Elsewhere the psalms view God as the provider for all living things (see Pss 104:27-28; 145:15).
434 tn Heb “there we sit down, also we weep.”
435 tn Heb “ask us [for] the words of a song.”
436 tn Heb “our [?] joy.” The derivation and meaning of the Hebrew phrase תוֹלָלֵינוּ (tolalenu, “our [?]”) are uncertain. A derivation from תָּלַל (talal, “to mock”) fits contextually, but this root occurs only in the Hiphil stem. For a discussion of various proposals, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 236.
437 tn Heb “from a song of Zion.” Most modern translations read, “one of the songs of Zion,” taking the preposition מִן (min, “from”) as partitive and “song” as collective. The present translation assumes the mem (ם) is enclitic, being misunderstood later as the prefixed preposition.
438 tn Heb “may my right hand forget.” In this case one must supply an object, such as “how to move.” The elliptical nature of the text has prompted emendations (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 236). The translation assumes an emendation to תִּכְשַׁח (tikhshakh), from an otherwise unattested root כשׁח, meaning “to be crippled; to be lame.” See HALOT 502 s.v. כשׁח, which cites Arabic cognate evidence in support of the proposal. The corruption of the MT can be explained as an error of transposition facilitated by the use of שָׁכַח (shakhakh, “forget”) just before this.
439 tn Heb “if I do not lift up Jerusalem over the top of my joy.”
440 tn Heb “remember, O
441 tn Heb “lay [it] bare, lay [it] bare.”
442 tn Heb “O devastated daughter of Babylon.” The psalmist dramatically anticipates Babylon’s demise.
443 tn Heb “O the happiness of the one who repays you your wage which you paid to us.”
446 tn The referent of the Hebrew term אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) is unclear. It refers either to the angelic assembly (see Gen 3:5; Ps 8:5) or to the pagan gods (see Pss 82:1, 6; 86:8; 97:7), in which case the psalmist’s praise takes on a polemical tone.
447 tc The MT reads, “for you have made great over all your name your word.” If retained, this must mean that God's mighty intervention, in fulfillment of his word of promise, surpassed anything he had done prior to this. However, the statement is odd and several emendations have been proposed. Some read, “for you have exalted over everything your name and your word,” while others suggest, “for you have exalted over all the heavens your name and your word.” The translation assumes an emendation of “your name” to “your heavens” (a construction that appears in Pss 8:3 and 144:5). The point is that God has been faithful to his promise and the reliability of that promise is apparent to all. For a fuller discussion of these options, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 244.
448 tn Heb “in the day.”
449 tn Heb “you made me bold in my soul [with] strength.”
450 tn The prefixed verbal forms here and in the following verse are understood as jussives, for the psalmist appears to be calling upon the kings to praise God. Another option is to take them as imperfects and translate, “the kings of the earth will give thanks…and will sing.” In this case the psalmist anticipates a universal response to his thanksgiving song.
451 tn Heb “the words of your mouth.”
452 tn Heb “ways.”
453 tn Heb “great.”
454 tn Or “distress.”
455 tn Heb “against the anger of my enemies you extend your hand.”
456 tn Heb “avenges on my behalf.” For the meaning “to avenge” for the verb גָּמַר (gamar), see HALOT 197-98 s.v. גמר.
457 tn Heb “the works of your hands.” Many medieval Hebrew
459 tn The statement is understood as generalizing – the psalmist describes what God typically does.
460 tn Heb “my traveling and my lying down you measure.” The verb זָרָה (zarah, “to measure”) is probably here a denominative from זָרָת (zarat, “a span; a measure”), though some derive it from זָרָה (zarat, “to winnow; to sift”; see BDB 279-80 s.v. זָרָה).
461 tn Heb “all my ways.”
462 tn Or “for.”
463 tn Heb “look, O
464 tn Heb “too amazing [is this] knowledge for me, it is elevated, I cannot attain to it.”
465 tn Heb “Where can I go from your spirit, and where from your face can I flee?” God’s “spirit” may refer here (1) to his presence (note the parallel term, “your face,” and see Ps 104:29-30, where God’s “face” is his presence and his “spirit” is the life-giving breath he imparts) or (2) to his personal Spirit (see Ps 51:10).
466 tn The Hebrew verb סָלַק (salaq, “to ascend”) occurs only here in the OT, but the word is well-attested in Aramaic literature from different time periods and displays a wide semantic range (see DNWSI 2:788-90).
467 tn Heb “look, you.”
468 tn Heb “rise up.”
469 sn On the wings of the dawn. This personification of the “dawn” may find its roots in mythological traditions about the god Shachar, whose birth is described in an Ugaritic myth (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 126) and who is mentioned in Isa 14:12 as the father of Helel.
470 tn Heb “at the end.”
471 tn The Hebrew verb שׁוּף (shuf), which means “to crush; to wound,” in Gen 3:15 and Job 9:17, is problematic here. For a discussion of attempts to relate the verb to Arabic roots, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 251. Many emend the form to יְשׂוּכֵּנִי (yesukkeniy), from the root שׂכך (“to cover,” an alternate form of סכך), a reading assumed in the present translation.
472 tn Heb “and night, light, around me.”
473 tn The words “to see” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
474 tn Heb “shines like.”
475 tn Heb “like darkness, like light.”
476 tn Or “for.”
477 tn Heb “my kidneys.” The kidneys were sometimes viewed as the seat of one’s emotions and moral character (cf. Pss 7:9; 26:2). A number of translations, recognizing that “kidneys” does not communicate this idea to the modern reader, have generalized the concept: “inmost being” (NAB, NIV); “inward parts” (NASB, NRSV); “the delicate, inner parts of my body” (NLT). In the last instance, the focus is almost entirely on the physical body rather than the emotions or moral character. The present translation, by using a hendiadys (one concept expressed through two terms), links the concepts of emotion (heart) and moral character (mind).
479 tc Heb “because awesome things, I am distinct, amazing [are] your works.” The text as it stands is syntactically problematic and makes little, if any, sense. The Niphal of פָּלָה (pala’) occurs elsewhere only in Exod 33:16. Many take the form from פָלָא (pala’; see GKC 216 §75.qq), which in the Niphal perfect means “to be amazing” (see 2 Sam 1:26; Ps 118:23; Prov 30:18). Some, following the LXX and some other ancient witnesses, also prefer to emend the verb from first to second person, “you are amazing” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 249, 251). The present translation assumes the text conflates two variants: נפלאים, the otherwise unattested masculine plural participle of פָלָא, and נִפְלָאוֹת (nifla’ot), the usual (feminine) plural form of the Niphal participle. The latter has been changed to a verb by later scribes in an attempt to accommodate it syntactically. The original text likely read, נוראות נפלאותים מעשׂיך (“your works [are] awesome [and] amazing”).
480 tc Heb “and my being knows very much.” Better parallelism is achieved (see v. 15a) if one emends יֹדַעַת (yoda’at), a Qal active participle, feminine singular form, to יָדַעְתָּ (yada’ta), a Qal perfect second masculine singular perfect. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252.
481 tc The Hebrew term אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “which”) should probably be emended to כֲּאַשֶׁר (ka’asher, “when”). The kaf (כ) may have been lost by haplography (note the kaf at the end of the preceding form).
482 sn The phrase depths of the earth may be metaphorical (euphemistic) or it may reflect a prescientific belief about the origins of the embryo deep beneath the earth’s surface (see H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 96-97). Job 1:21 also closely associates the mother’s womb with the earth.
483 tn Heb “Your eyes saw my shapeless form.” The Hebrew noun גֹּלֶם (golem) occurs only here in the OT. In later Hebrew the word refers to “a lump, a shapeless or lifeless substance,” and to “unfinished matter, a vessel wanting finishing” (Jastrow 222 s.v. גּוֹלֶם). The translation employs the dynamic rendering “when I was inside the womb” to clarify that the speaker was still in his mother’s womb at the time he was “seen” by God.
484 tn Heb “and on your scroll all of them were written, [the] days [which] were formed, and [there was] not one among them.” This “scroll” may be the “scroll of life” mentioned in Ps 69:28 (see the note on the word “living” there).
485 tn Heb “and to me how precious are your thoughts, O God.” The Hebrew verb יָקַר (yaqar) probably has the sense of “difficult [to comprehend]” here (see HALOT 432 s.v. יקר qal.1 and note the use of Aramaic יַקִּר in Dan 2:11). Elsewhere in the immediate context the psalmist expresses his amazement at the extent of God’s knowledge about him (see vv. 1-6, 17b-18).
486 tn Heb “how vast are their heads.” Here the Hebrew word “head” is used of the “sum total” of God’s knowledge of the psalmist.
487 tc Heb “I awake and I [am] still with you.” A reference to the psalmist awaking from sleep makes little, if any, sense contextually. For this reason some propose an emendation to הֲקִצּוֹתִי (haqitsoti), a Hiphil perfect form from an otherwise unattested verb קָצַץ (qatsats) understood as a denominative of קֵץ (qets, “end”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 252-53.
489 tn Heb “men of bloodshed.”
490 tn Heb “who.”
491 tc Heb “they speak [of] you.” The suffixed form of the verb אָמַר (’amar, “to speak”) is peculiar. The translation assumes an emendation to יַמְרֻךָ (yamrukha), a Hiphil form from מָרָה (marah, “to rebel”; see Ps 78:40).
492 tn Heb “by deceit.”
493 tc Heb “lifted up for emptiness, your cities.” The Hebrew text as it stands makes no sense. The form נָשֻׂא (nasu’; a Qal passive participle) should be emended to נָשְׂאוּ (nosÿu; a Qal perfect, third common plural, “[they] lift up”). Many emend עָרֶיךָ (’arekha, “your cities”) to עָלֶיךָ (’alekha, “against you”), but it is preferable to understand the noun as an Aramaism and translate “your enemies” (see Dan 4:16 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 253).
494 tc Heb “who raise themselves up against you.” The form וּבִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvitqomÿmekha) should be emended to וּבְמִתְקוֹמְמֶיךָ (uvÿmitqomÿmekha), a Hitpolel participle (the prefixed mem [מ] of the participle is accidentally omitted in the MT, though a few medieval Hebrew
495 tn Heb “[with] completeness of hatred I hate them.”
496 tn Heb “and know my heart.”
498 tn Many understand the Hebrew term עֹצֶב (’otsev) as a noun meaning “pain,” and translate the phrase דֶּרֶךְ עֹצֶב (derekh ’otsev) as “of pain,” but this makes little sense here. (Some interpret it to refer to actions which bring pain to others.) It is preferable to take עֹצֶב as “idol” (see HALOT 865 s.v. I עֹצֶב) and understand “way of an idol” to refer to idolatrous actions or tendency. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 253.
499 tn Heb “in the path of antiquity.” This probably refers to the moral path prescribed by the
503 tn Heb “they devise wicked [plans] in [their] mind.”
504 tc Heb “they attack [for] war.” Some revocalize the verb (which is a Qal imperfect from גּוּר, gur, “to attack”) as יְגָרוּ (yÿgaru), a Piel imperfect from גָרָה (garah, “stir up strife”). This is followed in the present translation.
505 tn Heb “they sharpen their tongue like a serpent.” Ps 64:3 reads, “they sharpen their tongues like sword.” Perhaps Ps 140:3 uses a mixed metaphor, the point being that “they sharpen their tongues [like a sword],” as it were, so that when they speak, their words wound like a serpent’s bite. Another option is that the language refers to the pointed or forked nature of a serpent’s tongue, which is viewed metaphorically as “sharpened.”
506 tn The Hebrew term is used only here in the OT.
507 tn Heb “under.”
508 tn Heb “hands.”
509 tn Heb “to push down my steps.”
510 tn Heb “and ropes,” but many prefer to revocalize the noun as a participle (חֹבְלִים, khovÿlim) from the verb חָבַל (khaval, “act corruptly”).
511 tn Heb “the strength of my deliverance.”
512 tn Heb “cover.”
513 tn Heb “do not grant the desires of the wicked.”
515 tn Heb “his plot do not promote, they rise up.” The translation understands the final verb as being an unmarked temporal clause. Another option is to revocalize the verb as a Hiphil and take the verb with the next verse, “those who surround me lift up [their] head,” which could refer to their proud attitude as they anticipate victory (see Ps 27:6).
516 tn Heb “harm of their lips.” The genitive here indicates the source or agent of the harm.
517 tn The verb form in the Kethib (consonantal Hebrew text) appears to be a Hiphil imperfect from the root מוּט (mut, “to sway”), but the Hiphil occurs only here and in Ps 55:3, where it is preferable to read יַמְטִירוּ (yamtiru, “they rain down”). In Ps 140:10 the form יַמְטֵר (yamter, “let him rain down”) should probably be read.
518 tn Heb “into bottomless pits, they will not arise.” The translation assumes that the preposition -בְּ (bet) has the nuance “from” here. Another option is to connect the line with what precedes, take the final clause as an asyndetic relative clause, and translate, “into bottomless pits [from which] they cannot arise.” The Hebrew noun מַהֲמֹרָה (mahamorah, “bottomless pit”) occurs only here in the OT.
519 tn Heb “a man of a tongue.”
520 tn Heb “be established in.”
521 tn Heb “for blows.” The Hebrew noun מַדְחֵפֹה (madkhefoh, “blow”) occurs only here in the OT.
522 tc The translation follows the Qere and many medieval Hebrew
523 tn Heb “and the just cause of the poor.”
525 tn Heb “may my prayer be established [like] incense before you, the uplifting of my hands [like] an evening offering.”
526 tn Heb “door.” The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.
527 sn My mouth…my lips. The psalmist asks God to protect him from speaking inappropriately or sinfully.
528 tn Heb “do not turn my heart toward an evil thing.”
529 tn Heb “to act sinfully in practices in wickedness with men, doers of evil.”
530 sn Their delicacies. This probably refers to the enjoyment that a sinful lifestyle appears to offer.
531 tn The form יָנִי (yaniy) appears to be derived from the verbal root נוּא (nu’). Another option is to emend the form to יְנָא (yÿna’), a Piel from נָאָה (na’ah), and translate “may choice oil not adorn my head” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 271). In this case, choice oil, like delicacies in v. 4, symbolize the pleasures of sin.
532 sn May my head not refuse choice oil. The psalmist compares the constructive criticism of the godly (see the previous line) to having refreshing olive oil poured over one’s head.
533 tc Heb “for still, and my prayer [is] against their evil deeds.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult; the sequence -כִּי־עוֹד וּ (kiy-’od u-, “for still and”) occurs only here. The translation assumes an emendation to כִּי עֵד תְפלָּתִי (“indeed a witness [is] my prayer”). The psalmist’s lament about the evil actions of sinful men (see v. 4) testifies against the wicked in the divine court.
534 tn Heb “they are thrown down by the hands of a cliff, their judges.” The syntax of the Hebrew text is difficult and the meaning uncertain. The perfect verbal form is understood as rhetorical; the psalmist describes the anticipated downfall of the wicked as if it had already occurred. “Their judges” could be taken as the subject of the verb, but this makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes the judges are the agents and that the wicked, mentioned earlier in the psalm, are the subjects of the verb.
535 tn It is unclear how this statement relates to the preceding sentence. Perhaps the judges are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the verb “will listen,” and “my words” are the referent of the pronominal subject (“they”) of the phrase “are pleasant.” The psalmist may be affirming here his confidence that he will be vindicated when he presents his case before the judges, while the wicked will be punished.
536 tn Heb “like splitting and breaking open in the earth.” The meaning of the statement and the point of the comparison are not entirely clear. Perhaps the psalmist is suggesting that he and other godly individuals are as good as dead; their bones are scattered about like dirt that is dug up and tossed aside.
537 tn Heb “my eyes [are] toward you.”
538 tn Heb “do not lay bare my life.” Only here is the Piel form of the verb collocated with the term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “life”). In Isa 53:12 the Lord’s servant “lays bare (the Hiphil form of the verb is used) his life to death.”
539 tn Heb “and the traps of the doers of evil.”
540 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer. Another option is to translate, “the wicked will fall.”
541 tn Heb “his.”
542 tn Heb “at the same [that] I, until I pass by.” Another option is to take יַחַד (yakhad) with the preceding line, “let the wicked fall together into their own nets.”
544 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
545 sn According to the superscription, David wrote this psalm while in “the cave.” This probably refers to either the incident recorded in 1 Sam 22:1 or to the one recorded in 1 Sam 24:3. See the superscription of Ps 57.
546 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
547 tn Heb “[with] my voice to the
548 tn Heb “my trouble before him I declare.”
549 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
550 tn Heb “you know my path.”
551 tn Heb “there is no one who recognizes me.”
552 tn Heb “ a place of refuge perishes from me.”
553 tn Heb “there is no one who seeks for the sake of my life.”
554 tn Heb “my portion.” The psalmist compares the
555 tn Heb “for I am very low.”
556 tn Heb “bring out my life.”
557 tn Or “gather around.”
558 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamal ’al) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.
560 tn Heb “do not enter into judgment with.”
561 tn Heb “for no one living is innocent before you.”
562 tn Or “for.”
564 tn Heb “he crushes on the ground my life.”
565 tn Or “sit.”
567 tn Heb “my spirit grows faint.”
569 tn Or “ancient times”; Heb “days from before.”
570 tn Heb “the work of your hands.”
571 tn The words “in prayer” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the psalmist is referring to a posture of prayer.
573 tc Heb “my soul like a faint land for you.” A verb (perhaps “thirsts”) is implied (see Ps 63:1). The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition -כְּ (kÿ, “like”) to -בְּ (bÿ, “in,” see Ps 63:1; cf. NEB “athirst for thee in a thirsty land”). If the MT is retained, one might translate, “my soul thirsts for you, as a parched land does for water/rain” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
574 tn Heb “my spirit is failing.”
576 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”
578 tn Heb “cause me to hear in the morning your loyal love.” Here “loyal love” probably stands metonymically for an oracle of assurance promising God’s intervention as an expression of his loyal love.
sn The morning is sometimes viewed as the time of divine intervention (see Pss 30:5; 59:16; 90:14).
580 tn Heb “for to you I lift up my life.” The Hebrew expression נָאָשׂ נֶפֶשׁ (na’as nefesh, “to lift up [one’s] life”) means “to desire; to long for” (see Deut 24:15; Prov 19:18; Jer 22:27; 44:14; Hos 4:8, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 16).
581 tn Heb “to you I cover,” which makes no sense. The translation assumes an emendation to נַסְתִּי (nastiy, “I flee,” a Qal perfect, first singular form from נוּס, nos). Confusion of kaf (כ) and nun (נ) is attested elsewhere (see P. K. McCarter, Textual Criticism [GBS], 48). The collocation of נוּס (“flee”) with אֶל (’el, “to”) is well-attested.
586 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
588 tn Heb “by your justice bring out my life from trouble.”
589 tn Heb “in [or “by”] your faithfulness.”
590 tn The perfect with vav (ו) consecutive carries on the mood of the preceding imperfect.
591 tn Heb “all the enemies of my life.”
592 sn Psalm 144. The psalmist expresses his confidence in God, asks for a mighty display of divine intervention in an upcoming battle, and anticipates God’s rich blessings on the nation in the aftermath of military victory.
594 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
595 sn The one who trains my hands for battle. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement (see Ps 18:34). Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.
597 tn Or “my elevated place.”
598 tn Heb “the one who subdues nations beneath me.”
600 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.
602 tn Heb “man,” or “mankind.”
604 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “to [cause to] bend; to [cause to] bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the
606 tn Heb “so they might smolder.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose after the preceding imperative.
607 sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 18:14; 77:17-18; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).
608 tn Heb “stretch out your hands.”
610 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
611 tn Heb “who [with] their mouth speak falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood.” The reference to the “right hand” is probably a metonymy for an oath. When making an oath, one would raise the hand as a solemn gesture. See Exod 6:8; Num 14:30; Deut 32:40. The figure thus represents the making of false oaths (false promises).
612 tn Heb “grants deliverance to.”
613 tn Heb “harmful.”
614 tn Heb “from the hand of the sons of foreignness.”
616 tn Some consider אֲשֶׁר (’asher) problematic, but here it probably indicates the anticipated consequence of the preceding request. (For other examples of אֲשֶׁר indicating purpose/result, see BDB 83 s.v. and HALOT 99 s.v.) If the psalmist – who appears to be a Davidic king preparing to fight a battle (see vv. 10-11) – is victorious, the whole nation will be spared invasion and defeat (see v. 14) and can flourish. Some prefer to emend the form to אַשְׁרֵי (“how blessed [are our sons]”). A suffixed noun sometimes follows אַשְׁרֵי (’ashrey; see 1 Kgs 10:8; Prov 20:7), but the presence of a comparative element (see “like plants”) after the suffixed noun makes the proposed reading too awkward syntactically.
617 tn Heb “grown up in their youth.” The translation assumes that “grown up” modifies “plants” (just as “carved” modifies “corner pillars” in the second half of the verse). Another option is to take “grown up” as a predicate in relation to “our sons,” in which case one might translate, “they will be strapping youths.”
619 tn Heb “carved [in] the pattern of a palace.”
620 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here.
621 tn Heb “from kind to kind.” Some prefer to emend the text to מָזוֹן עַל מָזוֹן (mazon ’al mazon, “food upon food”).
622 tn Heb “they are innumerable.”
624 tn Heb “weighted down.” This probably refers (1) to the cattle having the produce from the harvest placed on their backs to be transported to the storehouses (see BDB 687 s.v. סָבַל). Other options are (2) to take this as reference to the cattle being pregnant (see HALOT 741 s.v. סבל pu) or (3) to their being well-fed or fattened (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 288).
625 tn Heb “there [will be] no breach, and there [will be] no going out, and there [will be] no crying out in our broad places.”
626 tn Heb “[O] the happiness of the people who [it is] such to them.”
628 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
629 tn Or, hyperbolically, “forever.”
630 tn Heb “and concerning his greatness there is no searching.”
631 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 4 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may one generation praise…and tell about.”
632 tn Heb “the splendor of the glory of your majesty, and the matters of your amazing deeds I will ponder.”
633 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as an imperfect, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as a jussive, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they proclaim.”
634 tn Heb “the fame of the greatness of your goodness.”
635 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 7 are understood as imperfects, indicating how the psalmist expects his audience to respond to his praise. Another option is to take the forms as jussives, indicating the psalmist’s wish, “may they talk…and sing.”
638 tn Heb “and his compassion is over all his works.”
639 tn Heb “the sons of man.”
640 tn Heb “a kingdom of all ages.”
641 tc Psalm 145 is an acrostic psalm, with each successive verse beginning with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. However, in the traditional Hebrew (Masoretic) text of Psalm 145 there is no verse beginning with the letter nun. One would expect such a verse to appear as the fourteenth verse, between the mem (מ) and samek (ס) verses. Several ancient witnesses, including one medieval Hebrew manuscript, the Qumran scroll from cave 11, the LXX, and the Syriac, supply the missing nun (נ) verse, which reads as follows: “The Lord is reliable in all his words, and faithful in all his deeds.” One might paraphrase this as follows: “The Lord’s words are always reliable; his actions are always faithful.” Scholars are divided as to the originality of this verse. L. C. Allen argues for its inclusion on the basis of structural considerations (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 294-95), but there is no apparent explanation for why, if original, it would have been accidentally omitted. The psalm may be a partial acrostic, as in Pss 25 and 34 (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:335). The glaring omission of the nun line would have invited a later redactor to add such a line.
643 tn Heb “the eyes of all wait for you.”
645 tn Heb “[with what they] desire.”
646 tn Heb “in all his ways.”
647 tn Heb “and [is] loving in all his deeds.”
648 tn Heb “in truth.”
649 tn In this context “desire” refers to the followers’ desire to be delivered from wicked enemies.
650 tn Heb “the desire of those who fear him, he does.”
651 tn Heb “the praise of the
652 tn Heb “all flesh.”
654 tn Heb “in a son of man, to whom there is no deliverance.”
656 tn Heb “the one who guards faithfulness forever.”
657 tn Heb “executes justice for the oppressed.”
659 sn God is depicted here as a just ruler. In the ancient Near Eastern world a king was responsible for promoting justice, including caring for the weak and vulnerable, epitomized by resident aliens, the fatherless, and widows.
660 tn Heb “he makes the way of the wicked twisted.” The “way of the wicked” probably refers to their course of life (see Prov 4:19; Jer 12:1). God makes their path tortuous in the sense that he makes them pay the harmful consequences of their actions.
661 tn Heb “for a generation and a generation.”
663 tn Or “for.”
665 tn Heb “the one who heals.”
666 tn Heb “and great of strength.”
667 tn Heb “to his wisdom there is no counting.”
668 tn Heb “brings down.”
669 tn Heb “sing to the
670 tn Heb “the one who covers.”
671 tn Heb “hills.”
672 tn Heb “which cry out.”
673 tn Heb “he does not desire the strength of the horse, he does not take delight in the legs of the man.” Here “the horse” refers to the war horse used by ancient Near Eastern chariot forces, and “the man” refers to the warrior whose muscular legs epitomize his strength.
674 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
675 tn Heb “your sons.”
676 tn Heb “the one who.”
677 tn Heb “he makes your boundary peace.”
678 tn Heb “satisfies you with.”
679 tn Heb “the one who.”
680 tn Heb “the one who sends his word, the earth.” The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (’erets, “earth”) is an adverbial accusative; one must supply a preposition before it (such as “through” or “to”) in the English translation.
681 tn Heb “swiftly his word runs.”
682 tn Heb “the one who gives snow like wool, frost like ashes he scatters.”
683 tn Heb “his ice.”
684 tn Heb “Before his cold, who can stand?”
685 tn Heb “he sends his word and melts them.”
686 tn Heb “he blows his breath.”