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Numbers 13:3-26

Context
13:3 So Moses sent them from the wilderness of Paran at the command 1  of the Lord. All of them were leaders 2  of the Israelites.

13:4 Now these were their names: from the tribe of Reuben, Shammua son of Zaccur; 13:5 from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat son of Hori; 13:6 from the tribe of Judah, Caleb son of Jephunneh; 13:7 from the tribe of Issachar, Igal son of Joseph; 13:8 from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea son of Nun; 13:9 from the tribe of Benjamin, Palti son of Raphu; 13:10 from the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel son of Sodi; 13:11 from the tribe 3  of Joseph, namely, the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi son of Susi; 13:12 from the tribe of Dan, Ammiel son of Gemalli; 13:13 from the tribe of Asher, Sethur son of Michael; 13:14 from the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi son of Vopshi; 13:15 from the tribe of Gad, Geuel son of Maki. 13:16 These are the names of the men whom Moses sent to investigate the land. And Moses gave Hoshea son of Nun the name Joshua. 4 

The Spies’ Instructions

13:17 When Moses sent 5  them to investigate the land of Canaan, he told them, “Go up through the Negev, 6  and then go up into the hill country 13:18 and see 7  what the land is like, 8  and whether the people who live in it are strong or weak, few or many, 13:19 and whether the land they live in is good or bad, and whether the cities they inhabit are like camps or fortified cities, 13:20 and whether the land is rich or poor, and whether or not there are forests in it. And be brave, 9  and bring back some of the fruit of the land.” Now it was the time of year 10  for the first ripe grapes. 11 

The Spies’ Activities

13:21 So they went up and investigated the land from the wilderness of Zin to Rehob, 12  at the entrance of Hamath. 13  13:22 When they went up through the Negev, they 14  came 15  to Hebron where Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, 16  descendants of Anak, were living. (Now Hebron had been built seven years before Zoan 17  in Egypt.) 13:23 When they came to the valley of Eshcol, they cut down from there a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they carried it on a staff 18  between two men, as well as some of the pomegranates and the figs. 13:24 That place was called 19  the Eshcol Valley, 20  because of the cluster 21  of grapes that the Israelites cut from there. 13:25 They returned from investigating the land after forty days.

The Spies’ Reports

13:26 They came back 22  to Moses and Aaron and to the whole community of the Israelites in the wilderness of Paran at Kadesh. 23  They reported 24  to the whole community and showed the fruit of the land.

Numbers 14:29-33

Context
14:29 Your dead bodies 25  will fall in this wilderness – all those of you who were numbered, according to your full number, from twenty years old and upward, who have murmured against me. 14:30 You will by no means enter into the land where 26  I swore 27  to settle 28  you. The only exceptions are Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun. 14:31 But I will bring in your little ones, whom you said would become victims of war, 29  and they will enjoy 30  the land that you have despised. 14:32 But as for you, your dead bodies will fall in this wilderness, 14:33 and your children will wander 31  in the wilderness forty years and suffer for your unfaithfulness, 32  until your dead bodies lie finished 33  in the wilderness.

Numbers 20:1

Context
The Israelites Complain Again

20:1 34 Then the entire community of Israel 35  entered the wilderness of Zin in the first month, 36  and the people stayed in Kadesh. 37  Miriam died and was buried there. 38 

Numbers 27:14

Context
27:14 For 39  in the wilderness of Zin when the community rebelled against me, you 40  rebelled against my command 41  to show me as holy 42  before their eyes over the water – the water of Meribah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.”

1 tn Heb “mouth.”

2 tn Heb “heads.”

3 tc Some scholars emend “tribe” to “sons.” Cf. Num 1:10.

4 sn The difference in the names is slight, a change from “he saves” to “the Lord saves.” The Greek text of the OT used Iesoun for Hebrew Yeshua.

5 tn The preterite with vav (ו) consecutive is here subordinated to the next verb of the same formation to express a temporal clause.

6 tn The instructions had them first go up into the southern desert of the land, and after passing through that, into the hill country of the Canaanites. The text could be rendered “into the Negev” as well as “through the Negev.”

7 tn The form is the perfect tense with vav (ו) consecutive; the word therefore carries the volitional mood of the preceding imperatives. It may be either another imperative, or it may be subordinated as a purpose clause.

8 tn Heb “see the land, what it is.”

9 tn The verb is the Hitpael perfect with vav (ו) consecutive, from the root חָזַק (khazaq, “to be strong”). Here it could mean “strengthen yourselves” or “be courageous” or “determined.” See further uses in 2 Sam 10:12; 1 Kgs 20:22; 1 Chr 19:13.

10 tn Heb “Now the days were the days of.”

11 sn The reference to the first ripe grapes would put the time somewhere at the end of July.

12 sn Zin is on the southern edge of the land, but Rehob is far north, near Mount Hermon. The spies covered all the land.

13 tn The idiom uses the infinitive construct: “to enter Hamath,” meaning, “on the way that people go to Hamath.”

14 tc The MT has the singular, but the ancient versions and Smr have the plural.

15 tn The preterite with vav (ו) consecutive is here subordinated to the following clause. The first verse gave the account of their journey over the whole land; this section focuses on what happened in the area of Hebron, which would be the basis for the false report.

16 sn These names are thought to be three clans that were in the Hebron area (see Josh 15:14; Judg 1:20). To call them descendants of Anak is usually taken to mean that they were large or tall people (2 Sam 21:18-22). They were ultimately driven out by Caleb.

17 sn The text now provides a brief historical aside for the readers. Zoan was probably the city of Tanis, although that is disputed today by some scholars. It was known in Egypt in the New Kingdom as “the fields of Tanis,” which corresponded to the “fields of Zoar” in the Hebrew Bible (Ps 78:12, 43).

18 tn The word is related etymologically to the verb for “slip, slide, bend, totter.” This would fit the use very well. A pole that would not bend would be hard to use to carry things, but a pole or stave that was flexible would serve well.

19 tn The verb is rendered as a passive because there is no expressed subject.

20 tn Or “Wadi Eshcol.” The translation “brook” is too generous; the Hebrew term refers to a river bed, a ravine or valley through which torrents of rain would rush in the rainy season; at other times it might be completely dry.

21 tn The word “Eshcol” is drawn from the Hebrew expression concerning the “cluster of grapes.” The word is probably retained in the name Burj Haskeh, two miles north of Damascus.

22 tn The construction literally has “and they went and they entered,” which may be smoothed out as a verbal hendiadys, the one verb modifying the other.

23 sn Kadesh is Ain Qadeis, about 50 miles (83 km) south of Beer Sheba. It is called Kadesh-barnea in Num 32:8.

24 tn Heb “They brought back word”; the verb is the Hiphil preterite of שׁוּב (shuv).

25 tn Or “your corpses” (also in vv. 32, 33).

26 tn The relative pronoun “which” is joined with the resumptive pronoun “in it” to form a smoother reading “where.”

27 tn The Hebrew text uses the anthropomorphic expression “I raised my hand” in taking an oath.

28 tn Heb “to cause you to dwell; to cause you to settle.”

29 tn Or “plunder.”

30 tn Heb “know.”

31 tn The word is “shepherds.” It means that the people would be wilderness nomads, grazing their flock on available land.

32 tn Heb “you shall bear your whoredoms.” The imagery of prostitution is used throughout the Bible to reflect spiritual unfaithfulness, leaving the covenant relationship and following after false gods. Here it is used generally for their rebellion in the wilderness, but not for following other gods.

33 tn The infinitive is from תָּמַם (tamam), which means “to be complete.” The word is often used to express completeness in a good sense – whole, blameless, or the like. Here and in v. 35 it seems to mean “until your deaths have been completed.” See also Gen 47:15; Deut 2:15.

34 sn This chapter is the account of how Moses struck the rock in disobedience to the Lord, and thereby was prohibited from entering the land. For additional literature on this part, see E. Arden, “How Moses Failed God,” JBL 76 (1957): 50-52; J. Gray, “The Desert Sojourn of the Hebrews and the Sinai Horeb Tradition,” VT 4 (1954): 148-54; T. W. Mann, “Theological Reflections on the Denial of Moses,” JBL 98 (1979): 481-94; and J. R. Porter, “The Role of Kadesh-Barnea in the Narrative of the Exodus,” JTS 44 (1943): 130-43.

35 tn The Hebrew text stresses this idea by use of apposition: “the Israelites entered, the entire community, the wilderness.”

36 sn The text does not indicate here what year this was, but from comparing the other passages about the itinerary, this is probably the end of the wanderings, the fortieth year, for Aaron died some forty years after the exodus. So in that year the people come through the wilderness of Zin and prepare for a journey through the Moabite plains.

37 sn The Israelites stayed in Kadesh for some time during the wandering; here the stop at Kadesh Barnea may have lasted several months. See the commentaries for the general itinerary.

38 sn The death of Miriam is recorded without any qualifications or epitaph. In her older age she had been self-willed and rebellious, and so no doubt humbled by the vivid rebuke from God. But she had made her contribution from the beginning.

39 tn The preposition on the relative pronoun has the force of “because of the fact that.”

40 tn The verb is the second masculine plural form.

41 tn Heb “mouth.”

42 sn Using the basic meaning of the word קָדַשׁ (qadash, “to be separate, distinct, set apart”), we can understand better what Moses failed to do. He was supposed to have acted in a way that would have shown God to be distinct, different, holy. Instead, he gave the impression that God was capricious and hostile – very human. The leader has to be aware of what image he is conveying to the people.



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