9:2 Just then 7 some people 8 brought to him a paralytic lying on a stretcher. 9 When Jesus saw their 10 faith, he said to the paralytic, “Have courage, son! Your sins are forgiven.” 11 9:3 Then 12 some of the experts in the law 13 said to themselves, “This man is blaspheming!” 14 9:4 When Jesus saw their reaction he said, “Why do you respond with evil in your hearts? 9:5 Which is easier, 15 to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven’ or to say, ‘Stand up and walk’? 9:6 But so that you may know 16 that the Son of Man 17 has authority on earth to forgive sins” – then he said to the paralytic 18 – “Stand up, take your stretcher, and go home.” 19
9:10 As 20 Jesus 21 was having a meal 22 in Matthew’s 23 house, many tax collectors 24 and sinners came and ate with Jesus and his disciples. 9:11 When the Pharisees 25 saw this they said to his disciples, “Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?” 26 9:12 When 27 Jesus heard this he said, “Those who are healthy don’t need a physician, but those who are sick do. 28 9:13 Go and learn what this saying means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice.’ 29 For I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
9:14 Then John’s 30 disciples came to Jesus 31 and asked, “Why do we and the Pharisees 32 fast often, 33 but your disciples don’t fast?” 9:15 Jesus said to them, “The wedding guests 34 cannot mourn while the bridegroom 35 is with them, can they? But the days 36 are coming when the bridegroom will be taken from them, 37 and then they will fast. 9:16 No one sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, because the patch will pull away from the garment and the tear will be worse. 9:17 And no one pours new wine into old wineskins; 38 otherwise the skins burst and the wine is spilled out and the skins are destroyed. Instead they put new wine into new wineskins 39 and both are preserved.”
15:1 Then Pharisees 40 and experts in the law 41 came from Jerusalem 42 to Jesus and said, 43 15:2 “Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don’t wash their 44 hands when they eat.” 45 15:3 He answered them, 46 “And why do you disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15:4 For God said, 47 ‘Honor your father and mother’ 48 and ‘Whoever insults his father or mother must be put to death.’ 49 15:5 But you say, ‘If someone tells his father or mother, “Whatever help you would have received from me is given to God,” 50 15:6 he does not need to honor his father.’ 51 You have nullified the word of God on account of your tradition. 15:7 Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said,
15:8 ‘This people honors me with their lips,
but their heart 52 is far from me,
15:9 and they worship me in vain,
teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’” 53
15:10 Then he called the crowd to him and said, 54 “Listen and understand. 15:11 What defiles a person is not what goes into the mouth; it is what 55 comes out of the mouth that defiles a person.” 15:12 Then the disciples came to him and said, “Do you know that when the Pharisees 56 heard this saying they were offended?” 15:13 And he replied, 57 “Every plant that my heavenly Father did not plant will be uprooted. 15:14 Leave them! They are blind guides. 58 If someone who is blind leads another who is blind, 59 both will fall into a pit.” 15:15 But Peter 60 said to him, “Explain this parable to us.” 15:16 Jesus 61 said, “Even after all this, are you still so foolish? 15:17 Don’t you understand that whatever goes into the mouth enters the stomach and then passes out into the sewer? 62 15:18 But the things that come out of the mouth come from the heart, and these things defile a person. 15:19 For out of the heart come evil ideas, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false testimony, slander. 15:20 These are the things that defile a person; it is not eating with unwashed hands that defiles a person.” 63
1 sn Capernaum was a town on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region.
2 sn A centurion was a noncommissioned officer in the Roman army or one of the auxiliary territorial armies, commanding a centuria of (nominally) 100 men. The responsibilities of centurions were broadly similar to modern junior officers, but there was a wide gap in social status between them and officers, and relatively few were promoted beyond the rank of senior centurion. The Roman troops stationed in Judea were auxiliaries, who would normally be rewarded with Roman citizenship after 25 years of service. Some of the centurions may have served originally in the Roman legions (regular army) and thus gained their citizenship at enlistment. Others may have inherited it, like the apostle Paul did.
4 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
5 tn Grk “having been thrown down.” The verb βεβλημένην (beblhmenhn) is a perfect passive participle of the verb βάλλω (ballw, “to throw”). This indicates the severity of her sickness.
6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then.”
7 tn Grk “And behold, they were bringing.” Here καὶ ἰδού (kai idou) has been translated as “just then” to indicate the somewhat sudden appearance of the people carrying the paralytic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1), especially in conjunction with the suddenness of the stretcher bearers’ appearance.
8 tn Grk “they”; the referent (some unnamed people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
9 tn Traditionally, “on a bed,” but this could be confusing to the modern reader who might envision a large piece of furniture. In various contexts, κλίνη (klinh) may be translated “bed, couch, cot, stretcher, or bier” (in the case of a corpse). See L&N 6.106.
10 sn The plural pronoun their makes it clear that Jesus was responding to the faith of the entire group, not just the paralyzed man.
11 sn The passive voice here is a divine passive (ExSyn 437). It is clear that God does the forgiving.
12 tn Grk “And behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the narrative.
14 sn Blaspheming meant to say something that dishonored God. To claim divine prerogatives or claim to speak for God when one really does not would be such an act of offense. The remark raised directly the issue of the nature of Jesus’ ministry.
15 sn Which is easier is a reflective kind of question. On the one hand to declare sins are forgiven is easier, since one does not need to see it, unlike telling a paralyzed person to walk. On the other hand, it is harder, because for it to be true one must possess the authority to forgive the sin.
16 sn Now Jesus put the two actions together. The walking of the man would be proof (so that you may know) that his sins were forgiven and that God had worked through Jesus (i.e., the Son of Man).
17 sn The term Son of Man, which is a title in Greek, comes from a pictorial description in Dan 7:13 of one “like a son of man” (i.e., a human being). It is Jesus’ favorite way to refer to himself. Jesus did not reveal the background of the term here, which mixes human and divine imagery as the man in Daniel rides a cloud, something only God does. He just used it. It also could be an idiom in Aramaic meaning either “some person” or “me.” So there is a little ambiguity in its use here, since its origin is not clear at this point. However, the action makes it clear that Jesus used it to refer to himself here.
18 sn Jesus did not finish his sentence with words but with action, that is, healing the paralytic with an accompanying pronouncement to him directly.
19 tn Grk “to your house.”
20 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
21 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
22 tn Grk “was reclining at table.”
sn As Jesus was having a meal. 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
23 tn Grk “in the house.” The Greek article is used here in a context that implies possession, and the referent of the implied possessive pronoun (Matthew) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
26 sn The issue here is inappropriate associations. Jews were very careful about personal associations and contact as a matter of ritual cleanliness. Their question borders on an accusation that Jesus is ritually unclean.
27 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
28 sn Jesus’ point is that he associates with those who are sick because they have the need and will respond to the offer of help. A person who is healthy (or who thinks mistakenly that he is) will not seek treatment.
30 sn John refers to John the Baptist.
31 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
33 sn John’s disciples and the Pharisees followed typical practices with regard to fasting and prayer. Many Jews fasted regularly (Lev 16:29-34; 23:26-32; Num 29:7-11). The zealous fasted twice a week on Monday and Thursday.
34 tn Grk “sons of the wedding hall,” an idiom referring to wedding guests, or more specifically friends of the bridegroom present at the wedding celebration (L&N 11.7).
36 tn Grk “days.”
38 sn Wineskins were bags made of skin or leather, used for storing wine in NT times. As the new wine fermented and expanded, it would stretch the new wineskins. Putting new (unfermented) wine in old wineskins, which had already been stretched, would result in the bursting of the wineskins.
39 sn The meaning of the saying new wine into new wineskins is that the presence and teaching of Jesus was something new and signaled the passing of the old. It could not be confined within the old religion of Judaism, but involved the inauguration and consummation of the kingdom of God.
43 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb so that its telic (i.e., final or conclusive) force can be more easily detected: The Pharisees and legal experts came to Jesus in order to speak with him.
44 tc ‡ Although most witnesses read the genitive plural pronoun αὐτῶν (autwn, “their”), it may have been motivated by clarification (as it is in the translation above). Several other authorities do not have the pronoun, however (א B Δ 073 Ë1 579 700 892 1424 pc f g1); the lack of an unintentional oversight as the reason for omission strengthens their combined testimony in this shorter reading. NA27 has the pronoun in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
45 tn Grk “when they eat bread.”
46 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.”
47 tc Most
50 tn Grk “is a gift,” that is, something dedicated to God.
51 tc The logic of v. 5 would seem to demand that both father and mother are in view in v. 6. Indeed, the majority of
tn Grk “he will never honor his father.” Here Jesus is quoting the Pharisees, whose intent is to release the person who is giving his possessions to God from the family obligation of caring for his parents. The verb in this phrase is future tense, and it is negated with οὐ μή (ou mh), the strongest negation possible in Greek. A literal translation of the phrase does not capture the intended sense of the statement; it would actually make the Pharisees sound as if they agreed with Jesus. Instead, a more interpretive translation has been used to focus upon the release from family obligations that the Pharisees allowed in these circumstances.
sn Here Jesus refers to something that has been set aside as a gift to be given to God at some later date, but which is still in the possession of the owner. According to contemporary Jewish tradition, the person who made this claim was absolved from responsibility to support or assist his parents, a clear violation of the Mosaic law to honor one’s parents (v. 4).
52 tn The term “heart” is a collective singular in the Greek text.
54 tn Grk “And calling the crowd, he said to them.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesamenos) has been translated as attendant circumstance. The emphasis here is upon Jesus’ speaking to the crowd.
55 tn Grk “but what.”
57 tn Grk “And answering, he said.”
58 tc ‡ Most
59 tn Grk “If blind leads blind.”
60 tn Grk “And answering, Peter said to him.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
61 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
62 tn Or “into the latrine.”
63 tn Grk “but to eat with unwashed hands does not defile a person.”