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Matthew 5:38-48

Context
Retaliation

5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 1  5:39 But I say to you, do not resist the evildoer. 2  But whoever strikes you on the 3  right cheek, turn the other to him as well. 5:40 And if someone wants to sue you and to take your tunic, 4  give him your coat also. 5:41 And if anyone forces you to go one mile, 5  go with him two. 5:42 Give to the one who asks you, 6  and do not reject 7  the one who wants to borrow from you.

Love for Enemies

5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor 8  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 9  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 10  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 11  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 12 

Matthew 7:12

Context
7:12 In 13  everything, treat others as you would want them 14  to treat you, 15  for this fulfills 16  the law and the prophets.

1 sn A quotation from Exod 21:24; Lev 24:20.

2 tn The articular πονηρός (ponhro", “the evildoer”) cannot be translated simply as “evil” for then the command would be “do not resist evil.” Every instance of this construction in Matthew is most likely personified, referring either to an evildoer (13:49) or, more often, “the evil one” (as in 5:37; 6:13; 13:19, 38).

3 tc ‡ Many mss (B D K L Δ Θ Ë13 565 579 700 1424 pm) have σου (sou) here (“your right cheek”), but many others lack the pronoun (א W Ë1 33 892 1241 pm). The pronoun was probably added by way of clarification. NA27 has σου in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

4 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.

5 sn If anyone forces you to go one mile. In NT times Roman soldiers had the authority to press civilians into service to carry loads for them.

6 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to the one who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).

7 tn Grk “do not turn away from.”

8 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

9 tc Most mss ([D] L [W] Θ Ë13 33 Ï lat) read “bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you,” before “those who persecute you.” But this is surely a motivated reading, importing the longer form of this aphorism from Luke 6:27-28. The shorter text is found in א B Ë1 pc sa, as well as several fathers and versional witnesses.

10 tn Grk “be sons of your Father in heaven.” Here, however, the focus is not on attaining a relationship (becoming a child of God) but rather on being the kind of person who shares the characteristics of God himself (a frequent meaning of the Semitic idiom “son of”). See L&N 58.26.

11 sn The tax collectors would bid to collect taxes for the Roman government and then add a surcharge, which they kept. Since tax collectors worked for Rome, they were viewed as traitors to their own people and were not well liked.

12 sn This remark echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”

13 tn Grk “Therefore in.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

14 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

15 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others as you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but here it is stated in its most emphatic, selfless form.

16 tn Grk “is.”



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