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Matthew 5:1--7:29

Context
The Beatitudes

5:1 When 1  he saw the crowds, he went up the mountain. 2  After he sat down his disciples came to him. 5:2 Then 3  he began to teach 4  them by saying:

5:3 “Blessed 5  are the poor in spirit, 6  for the kingdom of heaven belongs 7  to them.

5:4 “Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted. 8 

5:5 “Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth.

5:6 “Blessed are those who hunger 9  and thirst for righteousness, for they will be satisfied.

5:7 “Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy.

5:8 “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God.

5:9 “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the children 10  of God.

5:10 “Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.

5:11 “Blessed are you when people 11  insult you and persecute you and say all kinds of evil things about you falsely 12  on account of me. 5:12 Rejoice and be glad because your reward is great in heaven, for they persecuted the prophets before you in the same way.

Salt and Light

5:13 “You are the salt 13  of the earth. But if salt loses its flavor, 14  how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out and trampled on by people. 5:14 You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill cannot be hidden. 5:15 People 15  do not light a lamp and put it under a basket 16  but on a lampstand, and it gives light to all in the house. 5:16 In the same way, let your light shine before people, so that they can see your good deeds and give honor to your Father in heaven.

Fulfillment of the Law and Prophets

5:17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets. I have not come to abolish these things but to fulfill them. 17  5:18 I 18  tell you the truth, 19  until heaven and earth pass away not the smallest letter or stroke of a letter 20  will pass from the law until everything takes place. 5:19 So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others 21  to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 5:20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness goes beyond that of the experts in the law 22  and the Pharisees, 23  you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

Anger and Murder

5:21 “You have heard that it was said to an older generation, 24 Do not murder,’ 25  and ‘whoever murders will be subjected to judgment.’ 5:22 But I say to you that anyone who is angry with a brother 26  will be subjected to judgment. And whoever insults 27  a brother will be brought before 28  the council, 29  and whoever says ‘Fool’ 30  will be sent 31  to fiery hell. 32  5:23 So then, if you bring your gift to the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, 5:24 leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother and then come and present your gift. 5:25 Reach agreement 33  quickly with your accuser while on the way to court, 34  or he 35  may hand you over to the judge, and the judge hand you over to the warden, and you will be thrown into prison. 5:26 I tell you the truth, 36  you will never get out of there until you have paid the last penny! 37 

Adultery

5:27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Do not commit adultery.’ 38  5:28 But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to desire her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 5:29 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away! It is better to lose one of your members than to have your whole body thrown into hell. 39  5:30 If your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away! It is better to lose one of your members than to have your whole body go into hell.

Divorce

5:31 “It was said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife must give her a legal document.’ 40  5:32 But I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except for immorality, makes her commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.

Oaths

5:33 “Again, you have heard that it was said to an older generation, 41 Do not break an oath, but fulfill your vows to the Lord.’ 42  5:34 But I say to you, do not take oaths at all – not by heaven, because it is the throne of God, 5:35 not by earth, because it is his footstool, and not by Jerusalem, 43  because it is the city of the great King. 5:36 Do not take an oath by your head, because you are not able to make one hair white or black. 5:37 Let your word be ‘Yes, yes’ or ‘No, no.’ More than this is from the evil one. 44 

Retaliation

5:38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ 45  5:39 But I say to you, do not resist the evildoer. 46  But whoever strikes you on the 47  right cheek, turn the other to him as well. 5:40 And if someone wants to sue you and to take your tunic, 48  give him your coat also. 5:41 And if anyone forces you to go one mile, 49  go with him two. 5:42 Give to the one who asks you, 50  and do not reject 51  the one who wants to borrow from you.

Love for Enemies

5:43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor 52  and ‘hate your enemy.’ 5:44 But I say to you, love your enemy and 53  pray for those who persecute you, 5:45 so that you may be like 54  your Father in heaven, since he causes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. 5:46 For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Even the tax collectors 55  do the same, don’t they? 5:47 And if you only greet your brothers, what more do you do? Even the Gentiles do the same, don’t they? 5:48 So then, be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 56 

Pure-hearted Giving

6:1 “Be 57  careful not to display your righteousness merely to be seen by people. 58  Otherwise you have no reward with your Father in heaven. 6:2 Thus whenever you do charitable giving, 59  do not blow a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in synagogues 60  and on streets so that people will praise them. I tell you the truth, 61  they have their reward. 6:3 But when you do your giving, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, 6:4 so that your gift may be in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 62 

Private Prayer

6:5 “Whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, because they love to pray while standing in synagogues 63  and on street corners so that people can see them. Truly I say to you, they have their reward. 6:6 But whenever you pray, go into your room, 64  close the door, and pray to your Father in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 65  6:7 When 66  you pray, do not babble repetitiously like the Gentiles, because they think that by their many words they will be heard. 6:8 Do 67  not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him. 6:9 So pray this way: 68 

Our Father 69  in heaven, may your name be honored, 70 

6:10 may your kingdom come, 71 

may your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.

6:11 Give us today our daily bread, 72 

6:12 and forgive us our debts, as we ourselves 73  have forgiven our debtors.

6:13 And do not lead us into temptation, 74  but deliver us from the evil one. 75 

6:14 “For if you forgive others 76  their sins, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6:15 But if you do not forgive others, your Father will not forgive you your sins.

Proper Fasting

6:16 “When 77  you fast, do not look sullen like the hypocrites, for they make their faces unattractive 78  so that people will see them fasting. I tell you the truth, 79  they have their reward. 6:17 When 80  you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, 6:18 so that it will not be obvious to others when you are fasting, but only to your Father who is in secret. And your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.

Lasting Treasure

6:19 “Do not accumulate for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth 81  and rust destroy and where thieves break in and steal. 6:20 But accumulate for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and thieves do not break in and steal. 6:21 For where your 82  treasure 83  is, there your heart will be also.

6:22 “The eye is the lamp of the body. If then your eye is healthy, 84  your whole body will be full of light. 6:23 But if your eye is diseased, 85  your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light in you is darkness, how great is the darkness!

6:24 “No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate 86  the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise 87  the other. You cannot serve God and money. 88 

Do Not Worry

6:25 “Therefore I tell you, do not worry 89  about your life, what you will eat or drink, or about your body, what you will wear. Isn’t there more to life than food and more to the body than clothing? 6:26 Look at the birds in the sky: 90  They do not sow, or reap, or gather into barns, yet your heavenly Father feeds 91  them. Aren’t you more valuable 92  than they are? 6:27 And which of you by worrying can add even one hour to his life? 93  6:28 Why do you worry about clothing? Think about how the flowers 94  of the field grow; they do not work 95  or spin. 6:29 Yet I tell you that not even Solomon in all his glory was clothed like one of these! 6:30 And if this is how God clothes the wild grass, 96  which is here today and tomorrow is tossed into the fire to heat the oven, 97  won’t he clothe you even more, 98  you people of little faith? 6:31 So then, don’t worry saying, ‘What will we eat?’ or ‘What will we drink?’ or ‘What will we wear?’ 6:32 For the unconverted 99  pursue these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them. 6:33 But above all pursue his kingdom 100  and righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. 6:34 So then, do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Today has enough trouble of its own. 101 

Do Not Judge

7:1 “Do not judge so that you will not be judged. 102  7:2 For by the standard you judge you will be judged, and the measure you use will be the measure you receive. 103  7:3 Why 104  do you see the speck 105  in your brother’s eye, but fail to see 106  the beam of wood 107  in your own? 7:4 Or how can you say 108  to your brother, ‘Let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while there is a beam in your own? 7:5 You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye. 7:6 Do not give what is holy to dogs or throw your pearls before pigs; otherwise they will trample them under their feet and turn around and tear you to pieces. 109 

Ask, Seek, Knock

7:7 “Ask 110  and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door 111  will be opened for you. 7:8 For everyone who asks 112  receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door will be opened. 7:9 Is 113  there anyone among you who, if his son asks for bread, will give him a stone? 7:10 Or if he asks for a fish, will give him a snake? 114  7:11 If you then, although you are evil, 115  know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give good gifts 116  to those who ask him! 7:12 In 117  everything, treat others as you would want them 118  to treat you, 119  for this fulfills 120  the law and the prophets.

The Narrow Gate

7:13 “Enter through the narrow gate, because the gate is wide and the way is spacious that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it. 7:14 But the gate is narrow and the way is difficult that leads to life, and there are few who find it.

A Tree and Its Fruit

7:15 “Watch out for false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are voracious wolves. 121  7:16 You will recognize them by their fruit. Grapes are not gathered 122  from thorns or figs from thistles, are they? 123  7:17 In the same way, every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad 124  tree bears bad fruit. 7:18 A good tree is not able to bear bad fruit, nor a bad tree to bear good fruit. 7:19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. 7:20 So then, you will recognize them by their fruit.

Judgment of Pretenders

7:21 “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ 125  will enter into the kingdom of heaven – only the one who does the will of my Father in heaven. 7:22 On that day, many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, and in your name cast out demons and do 126  many powerful deeds?’ 7:23 Then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you. Go away from me, you lawbreakers!’ 127 

Hearing and Doing

7:24 “Everyone 128  who hears these words of mine and does them is like 129  a wise man 130  who built his house on rock. 7:25 The rain fell, the flood 131  came, and the winds beat against that house, but it did not collapse because it had been founded on rock. 7:26 Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them is like a foolish man who built his house on sand. 7:27 The rain fell, the flood came, and the winds beat against that house, and it collapsed; it was utterly destroyed!” 132 

7:28 When 133  Jesus finished saying these things, the crowds were amazed by his teaching, 7:29 because he taught them like one who had authority, 134  not like their experts in the law. 135 

1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

2 tn Or “up a mountain” (εἰς τὸ ὄρος, eis to oro").

sn The expression up the mountain here may be idiomatic or generic, much like the English “he went to the hospital” (cf. 15:29), or even intentionally reminiscent of Exod 24:12 (LXX), since the genre of the Sermon on the Mount seems to be that of a new Moses giving a new law.

3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

4 tn Grk “And opening his mouth he taught them, saying.” The imperfect verb ἐδίδασκεν (edidasken) has been translated ingressively.

5 sn The term Blessed introduces the first of several beatitudes promising blessing to those whom God cares for. They serve as an invitation to come into the grace God offers.

6 sn The poor in spirit is a reference to the “pious poor” for whom God especially cares. See Ps 14:6; 22:24; 25:16; 34:6; 40:17; 69:29.

7 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized.

8 sn The promise they will be comforted is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.

9 sn Those who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Ps 37:16-19; 107:9).

10 tn Grk “sons,” though traditionally English versions have taken this as a generic reference to both males and females, hence “children” (cf. KJV, NAB, NRSV, NLT).

11 tn Grk “when they insult you.” The third person pronoun (here implied in the verb ὀνειδίσωσιν [ojneidiswsin]) has no specific referent, but refers to people in general.

12 tc Although ψευδόμενοι (yeudomenoi, “bearing witness falsely”) could be a motivated reading, clarifying that the disciples are unjustly persecuted, its lack in only D it sys Tert does not help its case. Since the Western text is known for numerous free alterations, without corroborative evidence the shorter reading must be judged as secondary.

13 sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.

14 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its flavor since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested that the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens; under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca. a.d. 90), when asked the question “When salt loses its flavor, how can it be made salty again?” is said to have replied, “By salting it with the afterbirth of a mule.” He was then asked, “Then does the mule (being sterile) bear young?” to which he replied: “Can salt lose its flavor?” The point appears to be that both are impossible. The saying, while admittedly late, suggests that culturally the loss of flavor by salt was regarded as an impossibility. Genuine salt can never lose its flavor. In this case the saying by Jesus here may be similar to Matt 19:24, where it is likewise impossible for the camel to go through the eye of a sewing needle.

15 tn Grk “Nor do they light.” The plural in Greek is indefinite, referring to people in general.

16 tn Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151).

17 tn Grk “not come to abolish but to fulfill.” Direct objects (“these things,” “them”) were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but have been supplied here to conform to contemporary English style.

18 tn Grk “For I tell.” Here an explanatory γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

19 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

20 tn Grk “Not one iota or one serif.”

sn The smallest letter refers to the smallest Hebrew letter (yod) and the stroke of a letter to a serif (a hook or projection on a Hebrew letter).

21 tn Grk “teaches men” ( in a generic sense, people).

22 tn Or “that of the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

23 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

24 tn Grk “to the ancient ones.”

25 sn A quotation from Exod 20:13; Deut 5:17.

26 tc The majority of mss read the word εἰκῇ (eikh, “without cause”) here after “brother.” This insertion has support from א2 D L W Θ 0233 Ë1,13 33 Ï it sy co Irlat Ormss Cyp Cyr. Thus the Western, Caesarean, and Byzantine texttypes all include the word, while the best Alexandrian and some other witnesses (Ì64 א* B 1424mg pc aur vg Or Hiermss) lack it. The ms evidence favors its exclusion, though there is a remote possibility that εἰκῇ could have been accidentally omitted from these witnesses by way of homoioarcton (the next word, ἔνοχος [enocos, “guilty”], begins with the same letter). An intentional change would likely arise from the desire to qualify “angry,” especially in light of the absolute tone of Jesus’ words. While “without cause” makes good practical sense in this context, and must surely be a true interpretation of Jesus’ meaning (cf. Mark 3:5), it does not commend itself as original.

27 tn Grk “whoever says to his brother ‘Raca,’” an Aramaic word of contempt or abuse meaning “fool” or “empty head.”

28 tn Grk “subjected,” “guilty,” “liable.”

29 tn Grk “the Sanhedrin.”

30 tn The meaning of the term μωρός (mwros) is somewhat disputed. Most take it to mean, following the Syriac versions, “you fool,” although some have argued that it represents a transliteration into Greek of the Hebrew term מוֹרֵה (moreh) “rebel” (Deut 21:18, 20; cf. BDAG 663 s.v. μωρός c).

31 tn Grk “subjected,” “guilty,” “liable.”

32 tn Grk “the Gehenna of fire.”

sn The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2, 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36).

33 tn Grk “Make friends.”

34 tn The words “to court” are not in the Greek text but are implied.

35 tn Grk “the accuser.”

36 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

37 tn Here the English word “penny” is used as opposed to the parallel in Luke 12:59 where “cent” appears since the Greek word there is different and refers to a different but similar coin.

sn The penny here was a quadrans, a Roman copper coin worth 1/64 of a denarius (L&N 6.78). The parallel passage in Luke 12:59 mentions the lepton, equal to one-half of a quadrans and thus the smallest coin available.

38 sn A quotation from Exod 20:14; Deut 5:17.

39 sn On this word here and in the following verse, see the note on the word hell in 5:22.

40 sn A quotation from Deut 24:1.

41 tn Grk “the ancient ones.”

42 sn A quotation from Lev 19:12.

43 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

44 tn The term πονηροῦ (ponhrou) may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified, however, since it is articular (τοῦ πονηροῦ, tou ponhrou). Cf. also “the evildoer” in v. 39, which is the same construction.

45 sn A quotation from Exod 21:24; Lev 24:20.

46 tn The articular πονηρός (ponhro", “the evildoer”) cannot be translated simply as “evil” for then the command would be “do not resist evil.” Every instance of this construction in Matthew is most likely personified, referring either to an evildoer (13:49) or, more often, “the evil one” (as in 5:37; 6:13; 13:19, 38).

47 tc ‡ Many mss (B D K L Δ Θ Ë13 565 579 700 1424 pm) have σου (sou) here (“your right cheek”), but many others lack the pronoun (א W Ë1 33 892 1241 pm). The pronoun was probably added by way of clarification. NA27 has σου in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

48 tn Or “shirt” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a “tunic” was any more than they would be familiar with a “chiton.” On the other hand, attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “Shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.

49 sn If anyone forces you to go one mile. In NT times Roman soldiers had the authority to press civilians into service to carry loads for them.

50 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to the one who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).

51 tn Grk “do not turn away from.”

52 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

53 tc Most mss ([D] L [W] Θ Ë13 33 Ï lat) read “bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you,” before “those who persecute you.” But this is surely a motivated reading, importing the longer form of this aphorism from Luke 6:27-28. The shorter text is found in א B Ë1 pc sa, as well as several fathers and versional witnesses.

54 tn Grk “be sons of your Father in heaven.” Here, however, the focus is not on attaining a relationship (becoming a child of God) but rather on being the kind of person who shares the characteristics of God himself (a frequent meaning of the Semitic idiom “son of”). See L&N 58.26.

55 sn The tax collectors would bid to collect taxes for the Roman government and then add a surcharge, which they kept. Since tax collectors worked for Rome, they were viewed as traitors to their own people and were not well liked.

56 sn This remark echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”

57 tc ‡ Several mss (א L Z Θ Ë1 33 892 1241 1424 al) have δέ (de, “but, now”) at the beginning of this verse; the reading without δέ is supported by B D W 0250 Ë13 Ï lat. A decision is difficult, but apparently the conjunction was added by later scribes to indicate a transition in the thought-flow of the Sermon on the Mount. NA27 has δέ in brackets, indicating reservations about its authenticity.

58 tn Grk “before people in order to be seen by them.”

59 tn Grk “give alms,” but this term is not in common use today. The giving of alms was highly regarded in the ancient world (Deut 15:7-11).

60 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23.

61 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

62 tc L W Θ 0250 Ï it read ἐν τῷ φανερῷ (en tw fanerw, “openly”) at the end of this verse, giving a counterweight to what is done in secret. But this reading is suspect because of the obvious literary balance, because of detouring the point of the passage (the focus of vv. 1-4 is not on two kinds of public rewards but on human vs. divine approbation), and because of superior external testimony that lacks this reading (א B D Z Ë1,13 33 al).

63 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23.

64 sn The term translated room refers to the inner room of a house, normally without any windows opening outside, the most private location possible (BDAG 988 s.v. ταμεῖον 2).

65 tc See the tc note on “will reward you” in 6:4: The problem is the same and the ms support differs only slightly.

66 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

67 tn Grk “So do not.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

68 sn Pray this way. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection.

69 sn God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship.

70 tn Grk “hallowed be your name.”

71 sn Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule.

72 tn Or “Give us bread today for the coming day,” or “Give us today the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Luke 11:3 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376-77 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206.

73 tn Or “as even we.” The phrase ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς (Jw" kai Jhmei") makes ἡμεῖς emphatic. The translation above adds an appropriate emphasis to the passage.

74 tn Or “into a time of testing.”

sn The request do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin.

75 tc Most mss (L W Θ 0233 Ë13 33 Ï sy sa Didache) read (though some with slight variation) ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν (“for yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever, amen”) here. The reading without this sentence, though, is attested by generally better witnesses (א B D Z 0170 Ë1 pc lat mae Or). The phrase was probably composed for the liturgy of the early church and most likely was based on 1 Chr 29:11-13; a scribe probably added the phrase at this point in the text for use in public scripture reading (see TCGNT 13-14). Both external and internal evidence argue for the shorter reading.

tn The term πονηροῦ (ponhrou) may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified since it is articular (τοῦ πονηροῦ, tou ponhrou). Cf. also “the evildoer” in 5:39, which is the same construction.

76 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense: “people, others.”

77 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

78 tn Here the term “disfigure” used in a number of translations was not used because it could convey to the modern reader the notion of mutilation. L&N 79.17 states, “‘to make unsightly, to disfigure, to make ugly.’ ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ‘for they make their faces unsightly’ Mt 6:16.”

79 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

80 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

81 tn The term σής (shs) refers to moths in general. It is specifically the larvae of moths that destroy clothing by eating holes in it (L&N 4.49; BDAG 922 s.v.). See Jas 5:2, which mentions “moth-eaten” clothing.

82 tn The pronouns in this verse are singular while the pronouns in vv. 19-20 are plural. The change to singular emphasizes personal responsibility as opposed to corporate responsibility; even if others do not listen, the one who hears Jesus’ commands should obey.

83 sn Seeking heavenly treasure means serving others and honoring God by doing so.

84 tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107). partly due to the immediate context concerning money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”).

85 tn Or “if your eye is sick” (L&N 23.149).

sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at.

86 sn The contrast between hate and love here is rhetorical. The point is that one will choose the favorite if a choice has to be made.

87 tn Or “and treat [the other] with contempt.”

88 tn Grk “God and mammon.”

sn The term money is used to translate mammon, the Aramaic term for wealth or possessions. The point is not that money is inherently evil, but that it is often misused so that it is a means of evil; see 1 Tim 6:6-10, 17-19. God must be first, not money or possessions.

89 tn Or “do not be anxious,” and so throughout the rest of this paragraph.

90 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

91 tn Or “God gives them food to eat.” L&N 23.6 has both “to provide food for” and “to give food to someone to eat.”

92 tn Grk “of more value.”

93 tn Or “a cubit to his height.” A cubit (πῆχυς, phcu") can measure length (normally about 45 cm or 18 inches) or time (a small unit, “hour” is usually used [BDAG 812 s.v.] although “day” has been suggested [L&N 67.151]). The term ἡλικία (Jhlikia) is ambiguous in the same way as πῆχυς (phcus). Most scholars take the term to describe age or length of life here, although a few refer it to bodily stature (see BDAG 436 s.v. 3 for discussion). Worry about length of life seems a more natural figure than worry about height. However, the point either way is clear: Worrying adds nothing to life span or height.

94 tn Traditionally, “lilies.” According to L&N 3.32, “Though traditionally κρίνον has been regarded as a type of lily, scholars have suggested several other possible types of flowers, including an anemone, a poppy, a gladiolus, and a rather inconspicuous type of daisy.” In view of the uncertainty, the more generic “flowers” has been used in the translation.

95 tn Or, traditionally, “toil.” Although it might be argued that “work hard” would be a more precise translation of κοπιάω (kopiaw) here, the line in English reads better in terms of cadence with a single syllable.

96 tn Grk “grass of the field.”

97 tn Grk “into the oven.” The expanded translation “into the fire to heat the oven” has been used to avoid misunderstanding; most items put into modern ovens are put there to be baked, not burned.

sn The oven was most likely a rounded clay oven used for baking bread, which was heated by burning wood and dried grass.

98 sn The phrase even more is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater. If God cares for the little things, surely he will care for the more important things.

99 tn Or “unbelievers”; Grk “Gentiles.”

100 tc ‡ Most mss (L W Θ 0233 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy mae) read τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ (thn basileian tou qeou kai thn dikaiosunhn aujtou, “the kingdom of God and his righteousness”) here, but the words “of God” are lacking in א B pc sa bo Eus. On the one hand, there is the possibility of accidental omission on the part of these Alexandrian witnesses, but it seems unlikely that the scribe’s eye would skip over both words (especially since τοῦ θεοῦ is bracketed by first declension nouns). Intrinsically, the author generally has a genitive modifier with βασιλεία – especially θεοῦ or οὐρανῶν (ouranwn) – but this argument cuts both ways: Although he might be expected to use such an adjunct here, scribes might also be familiar with his practice and would thus naturally insert it if it were missing in their copy of Matthew. Although a decision is difficult, the omission of τοῦ θεοῦ is considered most likely to be original. NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating doubt as to their authenticity.

sn God’s kingdom is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong.

101 tn Grk “Sufficient for the day is its evil.”

102 sn The point of the statement do not judge so that you will not be judged is that the standards we apply to others God applies to us. The passive verbs in this verse look to God’s action.

103 tn Grk “by [the measure] with which you measure it will be measured to you.”

104 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

105 sn The term translated speck refers to a small piece of wood, chaff, or straw; see L&N 3.66.

106 tn Or “do not notice.”

107 sn The term beam of wood refers to a very big piece of wood, the main beam of a building, in contrast to the speck in the other’s eye (L&N 7.78).

108 tn Grk “how will you say?”

109 tn Or “otherwise the latter will trample them under their feet and the former will turn around and tear you to pieces.” This verse is sometimes understood as a chiasm of the pattern a-b-b-a, in which the first and last clauses belong together (“dogs…turn around and tear you to pieces”) and the second and third clauses belong together (“pigs…trample them under their feet”).

110 sn The three present imperatives in this verse (Ask…seek…knock) are probably intended to call for a repeated or continual approach before God.

111 tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation here and in v. 8 for clarity.

112 sn The actions of asking, seeking, and knocking are repeated here from v. 7 with the encouragement that God does respond.

113 tn Grk “Or is there.”

114 sn The two questions of vv. 9-10 expect the answer, “No parent would do this!”

115 tn The participle ὄντες (ontes) has been translated concessively.

116 sn The provision of the good gifts is probably a reference to the wisdom and guidance supplied in response to repeated requests. The teaching as a whole stresses not that we get everything we want, but that God gives the good that we need.

117 tn Grk “Therefore in.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

118 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

119 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others as you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but here it is stated in its most emphatic, selfless form.

120 tn Grk “is.”

121 sn Sheeps clothing…voracious wolves. Jesus uses a metaphor here to point out that these false prophets appear to be one thing, but in reality they are something quite different and dangerous.

122 tn Grk “They do not gather.” This has been simplified to the passive voice in the translation since the subject “they” is not specified further in the context.

123 sn The statement illustrates the principle: That which cannot produce fruit does not produce fruit.

124 tn Grk “rotten.” The word σαπρός, modifying “tree” in both v. 17 and 18, can also mean “diseased” (L&N 65.28).

125 sn The double use of the vocative is normally used in situations of high emotion or emphasis. Even an emphatic confession without action means little.

126 tn Grk “and in your name do.” This phrase was not repeated here in the translation for stylistic reasons.

127 tn Grk “workers of lawlessness.”

128 tn Grk “Therefore everyone.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

129 tn Grk “will be like.” The same phrase occurs in v. 26.

130 tn Here and in v. 26 the Greek text reads ἀνήρ (anhr), while the parallel account in Luke 6:47-49 uses ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") in vv. 48 and 49.

131 tn Grk “the rivers.”

132 tn Grk “and great was its fall.”

133 tn Grk “And it happened when.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

134 sn Jesus’ teaching impressed the hearers with the directness of its claim; he taught with authority. A study of Jewish rabbinic interpretation shows that it was typical to cite a list of authorities to make one’s point. Apparently Jesus addressed the issues in terms of his own understanding.

135 tn Or “their scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.



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