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Matthew 19:16--20:16

Context
The Rich Young Man

19:16 Now 1  someone came up to him and said, “Teacher, what good thing must I do to gain eternal life?” 19:17 He said to him, “Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.” 19:18 “Which ones?” he asked. Jesus replied, “Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not give false testimony, 19:19 honor your father and mother, 2  and love your neighbor as yourself.” 3  19:20 The young man said to him, “I have wholeheartedly obeyed 4  all these laws. 5  What do I still lack?” 19:21 Jesus said to him, “If you wish to be perfect, go sell your possessions and give the money 6  to the poor, and you will have treasure 7  in heaven. Then come, follow me.” 19:22 But when the young man heard this he went away sorrowful, for he was very rich. 8 

19:23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “I tell you the truth, 9  it will be hard for a rich person to enter the kingdom of heaven! 19:24 Again I say, 10  it is easier for a camel 11  to go through the eye of a needle 12  than for a rich person to enter into the kingdom of God.” 19:25 The 13  disciples were greatly astonished when they heard this and said, “Then who can be saved?” 14  19:26 Jesus 15  looked at them and replied, “This is impossible for mere humans, 16  but for God all things are possible.” 19:27 Then Peter said 17  to him, “Look, 18  we have left everything to follow you! 19  What then will there be for us?” 19:28 Jesus 20  said to them, “I tell you the truth: 21  In the age when all things are renewed, 22  when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging 23  the twelve tribes of Israel. 19:29 And whoever has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or fields for my sake will receive a hundred times as much 24  and will inherit eternal life. 19:30 But many who are first will be last, and the last first.

Workers in the Vineyard

20:1 “For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner 25  who went out early in the morning to hire workers for his vineyard. 20:2 And after agreeing with the workers for the standard wage, 26  he sent them into his vineyard. 20:3 When it was about nine o’clock in the morning, 27  he went out again and saw others standing around in the marketplace without work. 20:4 He said to them, ‘You go into the vineyard too, and I will give you whatever is right.’ 20:5 So they went. When 28  he went out again about noon and three o’clock that afternoon, 29  he did the same thing. 20:6 And about five o’clock that afternoon 30  he went out and found others standing around, and said to them, ‘Why are you standing here all day without work?’ 20:7 They said to him, ‘Because no one hired us.’ He said to them, ‘You go and work in the vineyard too.’ 20:8 When 31  it was evening 32  the owner of the vineyard said to his manager, ‘Call the workers and give the pay 33  starting with the last hired until the first.’ 20:9 When those hired about five o’clock came, each received a full day’s pay. 34  20:10 And when those hired first came, they thought they would receive more. But each one also received the standard wage. 20:11 When 35  they received it, they began to complain 36  against the landowner, 20:12 saying, ‘These last fellows worked one hour, and you have made them equal to us who bore the hardship and burning heat of the day.’ 20:13 And the landowner 37  replied to one of them, 38  ‘Friend, I am not treating you unfairly. Didn’t you agree with me to work for the standard wage? 39  20:14 Take what is yours and go. I 40  want to give to this last man 41  the same as I gave to you. 20:15 Am I not 42  permitted to do what I want with what belongs to me? Or are you envious because I am generous?’ 43  20:16 So the last will be first, and the first last.”

1 tn Grk “And behold one came.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

2 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12-16; Deut 5:16-20.

3 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

4 tn Grk “kept.” The implication of this verb is that the man has obeyed the commandments without fail, so the adverb “wholeheartedly” has been added to the translation to bring out this nuance.

5 tn Grk “these things.” The referent of the pronoun (the laws mentioned by Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to external obedience. The rich man’s response to Jesus’ command – to give away all he had – revealed that internally he loved money more than God.

6 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

7 sn The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward: You will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the man is to God’s direction through him. Will he walk the path God’s agent calls him to walk? For a rich person who got it right, see Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10.

8 tn Grk “he had many possessions.” This term (κτῆμα, kthma) is often used for land as a possession.

9 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

10 tn Grk “I say to you.”

11 tc A few late witnesses (579 1424 pc) read κάμιλον (kamilon, “rope”) for κάμηλον (kamhlon, “camel”), either through accidental misreading of the text or intentionally so as to soften Jesus’ words.

12 sn The eye of a needle refers to a sewing needle. (The gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” was built during the middle ages and was not in existence in Jesus’ day.) Jesus was saying rhetorically that it is impossible for a rich person to enter God’s kingdom, unless God (v. 26) intervenes.

13 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

14 sn The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?

15 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

16 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anqrwpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NASB 1995 update, “people”). Because of the contrast here between mere mortals and God (“impossible for men, but for God all things are possible”) the phrase “mere humans” has been used in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” in v. 28.

17 tn Grk “Then answering, Peter said.” This construction is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

18 sn Peter wants reassurance that the disciples’ response and sacrifice have been noticed.

19 tn Grk “We have left everything and followed you.” Koine Greek often used paratactic structure when hypotactic was implied.

20 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

21 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

22 sn The Greek term translated the age when all things are renewed (παλιγγενεσία, palingenesia) is understood as a reference to the Messianic age, the time when all things are renewed and restored (cf. Rev 21:5).

23 sn The statement you…will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when Jesus returns. They will share in Israel’s judgment.

24 sn Jesus reassures his disciples with a promise that (1) much benefit in this life (a hundred times as much) and (2) eternal life will be given.

25 sn The term landowner here refers to the owner and manager of a household.

26 tn Grk “agreeing with the workers for a denarius a day.”

sn The standard wage was a denarius a day. The denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s wage for a laborer in Palestine in the 1st century.

27 tn Grk “about the third hour.”

28 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

29 tn Grk “he went out again about the sixth and ninth hour.”

30 tn Grk “about the eleventh hour.”

31 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

32 sn That is, six o’clock in the evening, the hour to pay day laborers. See Lev 19:13b.

33 tc ‡ Most witnesses (including B D W Θ Ë1,13 33vid Ï latt sy) have αὐτοῖς (autois, “to them”) after ἀπόδος (apodos, “give the pay”), but this seems to be a motivated reading, clarifying the indirect object. The omission is supported by א C L Z 085 Or. Nevertheless, NA27 includes the pronoun on the basis of the greater external attestation.

34 tn Grk “each received a denarius.” See the note on the phrase “standard wage” in v. 2.

35 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

36 tn The imperfect verb ἐγόγγυζον (egonguzon) has been translated ingressively.

37 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the landowner) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

38 tn Grk “And answering, he said to one of them.” This construction is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

39 tn Grk “for a denarius a day.”

40 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

41 tn Grk “this last one,” translated as “this last man” because field laborers in 1st century Palestine were men.

42 tc ‡ Before οὐκ (ouk, “[am I] not”) a number of significant witnesses read (h, “or”; e.g., א C W 085 Ë1,13 33 and most others). Although in later Greek the οι in σοι (oi in soi) – the last word of v. 14 – would have been pronounced like , since is lacking in early mss (B D; among later witnesses, note L Z Θ 700) and since mss were probably copied predominantly by sight rather than by sound, even into the later centuries, the omission of cannot be accounted for as easily. Thus the shorter reading is most likely original. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

43 tn Grk “Is your eye evil because I am good?”



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