10:16 “I 1 am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, 2 so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. 10:17 Beware 3 of people, because they will hand you over to councils 4 and flog 5 you in their synagogues. 6 10:18 And you will be brought before governors and kings 7 because of me, as a witness to them and the Gentiles.
2 sn This imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism; see Pss. Sol. 8:23, 30.
3 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
4 sn Councils in this context refers to local judicial bodies attached to the Jewish synagogue. This group would be responsible for meting out justice and discipline within the Jewish community.
5 tn BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “of flogging as a punishment decreed by the synagogue (Dt 25:2f; s. the Mishna Tractate Sanhedrin-Makkoth, edited w. notes by SKrauss ’33) w. acc. of pers. Mt 10:17; 23:34.”
7 sn These statements look at persecution both from a Jewish context as the mention of courts and synagogues suggests, and from a Gentile one as the reference to governors and kings suggests. Some fulfillment of Jewish persecution can be seen in Acts.