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Mark 9:1

Context
9:1 And he said to them, “I tell you the truth, 1  there are some standing here who will not 2  experience 3  death before they see the kingdom of God come with power.” 4 

Mark 10:30

Context
10:30 who will not receive in this age 5  a hundred times as much – homes, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, fields, all with persecutions 6  – and in the age to come, eternal life. 7 

Mark 13:1-37

Context
The Destruction of the Temple

13:1 Now 8  as Jesus 9  was going out of the temple courts, one of his disciples said to him, “Teacher, look at these tremendous stones and buildings!” 10  13:2 Jesus said to him, “Do you see these great buildings? Not one stone will be left on another. 11  All will be torn down!” 12 

Signs of the End of the Age

13:3 So 13  while he was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter, James, John, 14  and Andrew asked him privately, 13:4 “Tell us, when will these things 15  happen? And what will be the sign that all these things are about to take place?” 13:5 Jesus began to say to them, “Watch out 16  that no one misleads you. 13:6 Many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am he,’ 17  and they will mislead many. 13:7 When you hear of wars and rumors of wars, do not be alarmed. These things must happen, but the end is still to come. 18  13:8 For nation will rise up in arms 19  against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and there will be famines. 20  These are but the beginning of birth pains.

Persecution of Disciples

13:9 “You must watch out for yourselves. You will be handed over 21  to councils 22  and beaten in the synagogues. 23  You will stand before governors and kings 24  because of me, as a witness to them. 13:10 First the gospel must be preached to all nations. 13:11 When they arrest you and hand you over for trial, do not worry about what to speak. But say whatever is given you at that time, 25  for it is not you speaking, but the Holy Spirit. 13:12 Brother will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against 26  parents and have them put to death. 13:13 You will be hated by everyone because of my name. 27  But the one who endures to the end will be saved. 28 

The Abomination of Desolation

13:14 “But when you see the abomination of desolation 29  standing where it should not be (let the reader understand), then those in Judea must flee 30  to the mountains. 13:15 The one on the roof 31  must not come down or go inside to take anything out of his house. 32  13:16 The one in the field must not turn back to get his cloak. 13:17 Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing their babies in those days! 13:18 Pray that it may not be in winter. 13:19 For in those days there will be suffering 33  unlike anything that has happened 34  from the beginning of the creation that God created until now, or ever will happen. 13:20 And if the Lord had not cut short those days, no one would be saved. But because of the elect, whom he chose, he has cut them 35  short. 13:21 Then 36  if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’ 37  or ‘Look, there he is!’ do not believe him. 13:22 For false messiahs 38  and false prophets will appear and perform signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, the elect. 13:23 Be careful! I have told you everything ahead of time.

The Arrival of the Son of Man

13:24 “But in those days, after that suffering, 39  the sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light; 13:25 the stars will be falling from heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken. 40  13:26 Then everyone 41  will see the Son of Man arriving in the clouds 42  with great power and glory. 13:27 Then he will send angels and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of heaven. 43 

The Parable of the Fig Tree

13:28 “Learn this parable from the fig tree: Whenever its branch becomes tender and puts out its leaves, you know that summer is near. 13:29 So also you, when you see these things happening, know 44  that he is near, right at the door. 13:30 I tell you the truth, 45  this generation 46  will not pass away until all these things take place. 13:31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 47 

Be Ready!

13:32 “But as for that day or hour no one knows it – neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son 48  – except the Father. 13:33 Watch out! Stay alert! 49  For you do not know when the time will come. 13:34 It is like a man going on a journey. He left his house and put his slaves 50  in charge, assigning 51  to each his work, and commanded the doorkeeper to stay alert. 13:35 Stay alert, then, because you do not know when the owner of the house will return – whether during evening, at midnight, when the rooster crows, or at dawn – 13:36 or else he might find you asleep when he returns suddenly. 13:37 What I say to you I say to everyone: Stay alert!”

Mark 11:1-6

Context
The Triumphal Entry

11:1 Now 52  as they approached Jerusalem, 53  near Bethphage 54  and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, 55  Jesus 56  sent two of his disciples 11:2 and said to them, “Go to the village ahead of you. 57  As soon as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden. 58  Untie it and bring it here. 11:3 If anyone says to you, ‘Why are you doing this?’ say, ‘The Lord needs it 59  and will send it back here soon.’” 11:4 So 60  they went and found a colt tied at a door, outside in the street, and untied it. 11:5 Some people standing there said to them, “What are you doing, untying that colt?” 11:6 They replied as Jesus had told them, and the bystanders 61  let them go.

Mark 11:14

Context
11:14 He said to it, 62  “May no one ever eat fruit from you again.” And his disciples heard it. 63 

Mark 14:12-31

Context
The Passover

14:12 Now 64  on the first day of the feast of 65  Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb is sacrificed, 66  Jesus’ 67  disciples said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?” 68  14:13 He sent two of his disciples and told them, “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar 69  of water will meet you. Follow him. 14:14 Wherever he enters, tell the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher says, “Where is my guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 14:15 He will show you a large room upstairs, furnished and ready. Make preparations for us there.” 14:16 So 70  the disciples left, went 71  into the city, and found things just as he had told them, 72  and they prepared the Passover.

14:17 Then, 73  when it was evening, he came to the house 74  with the twelve. 14:18 While they were at the table 75  eating, Jesus said, “I tell you the truth, 76  one of you eating with me will betray me.” 77  14:19 They were distressed, and one by one said to him, “Surely not I?” 14:20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who dips his hand 78  with me into the bowl. 79  14:21 For the Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.”

The Lord’s Supper

14:22 While they were eating, he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to them, and said, “Take it. This is my body.” 14:23 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 14:24 He said to them, “This is my blood, the blood 80  of the covenant, 81  that is poured out for many. 14:25 I tell you the truth, 82  I will no longer drink of the fruit 83  of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.” 14:26 After singing a hymn, 84  they went out to the Mount of Olives.

The Prediction of Peter’s Denial

14:27 Then 85  Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away, for it is written,

I will strike the shepherd,

and the sheep will be scattered. 86 

14:28 But after I am raised, I will go ahead of you into Galilee.” 14:29 Peter said to him, “Even if they all fall away, I will not!” 14:30 Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth, 87  today – this very night – before a rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” 14:31 But Peter 88  insisted emphatically, 89  “Even if I must die with you, I will never deny you.” And all of them said the same thing.

Mark 14:42

Context
14:42 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer 90  is approaching!”

Mark 14:62

Context
14:62 “I am,” said Jesus, “and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand 91  of the Power 92  and coming with the clouds of heaven.” 93 

Mark 16:17

Context
16:17 These signs will accompany those who believe: In my name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new languages; 94 

1 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

2 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is the strongest possible.

3 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).

4 sn Several suggestions have been made as to the referent for the phrase the kingdom of God come with power: (1) the transfiguration itself, which immediately follows in the narrative; (2) Jesus’ resurrection and ascension; (3) the coming of the Spirit; (4) Jesus’ second coming and the establishment of the kingdom. The reference to after six days in 9:2 seems to indicate that Mark had the transfiguration in mind insofar as it was a substantial prefiguring of the consummation of the kingdom (although this interpretation is not without its problems). As such, the transfiguration was a tremendous confirmation to the disciples that even though Jesus had just finished speaking of his death (8:31; 9:31; 10:33), he was nonetheless the promised Messiah and things were proceeding according to God’s plan.

5 tn Grk “this time” (καιρός, kairos), but for stylistic reasons this has been translated “this age” here.

6 tn Grk “with persecutions.” The “all” has been supplied to clarify that the prepositional phrase belongs not just to the “fields.”

7 sn Note that Mark (see also Matt 19:29; Luke 10:25, 18:30) portrays eternal life as something one receives in the age to come, unlike John, who emphasizes the possibility of receiving eternal life in the present (John 5:24).

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

9 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 sn The Jerusalem temple was widely admired around the world. See Josephus, Ant. 15.11 [15.380-425]; J. W. 5.5 [5.184-227] and Tacitus, History 5.8, who called it “immensely opulent.” Josephus compared it to a beautiful snowcapped mountain.

11 sn With the statement not one stone will be left on another Jesus predicted the total destruction of the temple, something that did occur in a.d. 70.

12 tn Grk “not one stone will be left here on another which will not be thrown down.”

13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

14 tn Grk “and James and John,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

15 sn Both references to these things are plural, so more than the temple’s destruction is in view. The question may presuppose that such a catastrophe signals the end.

16 tn Or “Be on guard.”

17 tn That is, “I am the Messiah.”

18 tn Grk “it is not yet the end.”

19 tn For the translation “rise up in arms” see L&N 55.2.

20 sn See Isa 5:13-14; 13:6-16; Hag 2:6-7; Zech 14:4.

21 tn Grk “They will hand you over.” “They” is an indefinite plural, referring to people in general. The parallel in Matt 10:17 makes this explicit.

22 sn Councils in this context refers to local judicial bodies attached to the Jewish synagogue. This group would be responsible for meting out justice and discipline within the Jewish community.

23 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.

24 sn These statements look at persecution both from a Jewish context as the mention of councils and synagogues suggests, and from a Gentile one as the reference to governors and kings suggests. Some fulfillment of Jewish persecution can be seen in Acts.

25 tn Grk “in that hour.”

26 tn Or “will rebel against.”

27 sn See 1 Cor 1:25-31.

28 sn But the one who endures to the end will be saved. Jesus was not claiming here that salvation is by works, because he had already taught that it is by grace (cf. 10:15). He was simply arguing that genuine faith evidences itself in persistence through even the worst of trials.

29 sn The reference to the abomination of desolation is an allusion to Dan 9:27. Though some have seen the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy in the actions of Antiochus IV (or a representative of his) in 167 b.c., the words of Jesus seem to indicate that Antiochus was not the final fulfillment, but that there was (from Jesus’ perspective) still another fulfillment yet to come. Some argue that this was realized in a.d. 70, while others claim that it refers specifically to Antichrist and will not be fully realized until the period of the great tribulation at the end of the age (cf. Mark 13:19, 24; Matt 24:21; Rev 3:10).

30 sn Fleeing to the mountains is a key OT image: Gen 19:17; Judg 6:2; Isa 15:5; Jer 16:16; Zech 14:5.

31 sn Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.

32 sn The nature of the judgment coming upon them will be so quick and devastating that one will not have time to come down or go inside to take anything out of his house. It is best just to escape as quickly as possible.

33 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”

34 sn Suffering unlike anything that has happened. Some refer this event to the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. While the events of a.d. 70 may reflect somewhat the comments Jesus makes here, the reference to the scope and severity of this judgment strongly suggest that much more is in view. Most likely Jesus is referring to the great end-time judgment on Jerusalem in the great tribulation.

35 tn Grk “the days.”

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

37 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.

38 tn Or “false christs”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

39 tn Traditionally, “tribulation.”

40 sn An allusion to Isa 13:10, 34:4 (LXX); Joel 2:10. The heavens were seen as the abode of heavenly forces, so their shaking indicates distress in the spiritual realm. Although some take the powers as a reference to bodies in the heavens (like stars and planets, “the heavenly bodies,” NIV) this is not as likely.

41 tn Grk “they.”

42 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13. Here is Jesus returning with full judging authority.

43 tn Or “of the sky”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.

44 tn The verb γινώσκετε (ginwskete, “know”) can be parsed as either present indicative or present imperative. In this context the imperative fits better, since the movement is from analogy (trees and seasons) to the future (the signs of the coming of the kingdom) and since the emphasis is on preparation for this event.

45 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

46 sn This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other options are possible. (2) Generation might mean “this type of generation” and refer to the generation of wicked humanity. Then the point is that humanity will not perish, because God will redeem it. Or (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (v. 26), who will also see the end itself. In other words, once the movement to the return of Christ starts, all the events connected with it happen very quickly, in rapid succession.

47 sn The words that Jesus predicts here will never pass away. They are more stable and lasting than creation itself! For this kind of image, see Isa 40:8; 55:10-11.

48 sn The phrase nor the Son has caused a great deal of theological debate because on the surface it appears to conflict with the concept of Jesus’ deity. The straightforward meaning of the text is that the Son does not know the time of his return. If Jesus were divine, though, wouldn’t he know this information? There are other passages which similarly indicate that Jesus did not know certain things. For example, Luke 2:52 indicates that Jesus grew in wisdom; this has to mean that Jesus did not know everything all the time but learned as he grew. So Mark 13:32 is not alone in implying that Jesus did not know certain things. The best option for understanding Mark 13:32 and similar passages is to hold the two concepts in tension: The Son in his earthly life and ministry had limited knowledge of certain things, yet he was still deity.

49 tc The vast majority of witnesses (א A C L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy co) have καὶ προσεύχεσθε after ἀγρυπνεῖτε (agrupneite kai proseucesqe, “stay alert and pray”). This may be a motivated reading, influenced by the similar command in Mark 14:38 where προσεύχεσθε is solidly attested, and more generally from the parallel in Luke 21:36 (though δέομαι [deomai, “ask”] is used there). As B. M. Metzger notes, it is a predictable variant that scribes would have been likely to produce independently of each other (TCGNT 95). The words are not found in B D 2427 a c {d} k. Although the external evidence for the shorter reading is slender, it probably better accounts for the longer reading than vice versa.

50 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 10:44.

51 tn Grk “giving.”

52 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

53 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

54 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most put it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.

55 sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 30 meters (100 ft) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.

56 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

57 tn Grk “the village lying before you” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.b).

58 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”

59 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.

60 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.

61 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people mentioned in v. 5) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

62 tn Grk “And answering, he said to it.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant and has not been translated.

63 sn Mark 11:12-14. The incident of the cursing of the fig tree occurs before he enters the temple for a third time (11:27ff) and is questioned at length by the religious leaders (11:27-12:40). It appears that Mark records the incident as a portent of what is going to happen to the leadership in Jerusalem who were supposed to have borne spiritual fruit but have been found by Messiah at his coming to be barren. The fact that the nation as a whole is indicted is made explicit in chapter 13:1-37 where Jesus speaks of Jerusalem’s destruction and his second coming.

64 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

65 tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

66 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Mark had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.

67 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

68 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 14:18). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

69 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for the two disciples (Luke 22:8 states that they were Peter and John) to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.

70 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the flow within the narrative.

71 tn Grk “and came.”

72 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.

73 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

74 tn The prepositional phrase “to the house” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity.

75 tn Grk “while they were reclined at the table.”

sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

76 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

77 tn Or “will hand me over”; Grk “one of you will betray me, the one who eats with me.”

78 tn Grk “one who dips with me.” The phrase “his hand” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

79 sn One who dips with me in the bowl. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

80 tn Grk “this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”

81 tc Most mss (A Ë1,13 Ï lat sy) have καινῆς (kainh", “new”) before διαθήκης (diaqhkh", “covenant”), a reading that is almost surely influenced by the parallel passage in Luke 22:20. Further, the construction τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης (to th" kainh" diaqhkh"), in which the resumptive article τό (referring back to τὸ αἷμα [to |aima, “the blood”]) is immediately followed by the genitive article, is nowhere else used in Mark except for constructions involving a genitive of relationship (cf. Mark 2:14; 3:17, 18; 16:1). Thus, on both transcriptional and intrinsic grounds, this reading looks to be a later addition (which may have derived from τὸ τῆς διαθήκης of D* W 2427). The most reliable mss, along with several others (א B C Dc L Θ Ψ 565), lack καινῆς. This reading is strongly preferred.

sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

82 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

83 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

84 sn After singing a hymn. The Hallel Psalms (Pss 113-118) were sung during the meal. Psalms 113 and 114 were sung just before the second cup and 115-118 were sung at the end of the meal, after the fourth, or hallel cup.

85 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

86 sn A quotation from Zech 13:7.

87 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

88 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

89 tn Grk “said emphatically.”

90 tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”

91 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.

92 sn The expression the right hand of the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.

93 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13.

94 tn Grk “tongues,” though the word is used figuratively (perhaps as a metonymy of cause for effect). To “speak in tongues” meant to “speak in a foreign language,” though one that was new to the one speaking it and therefore due to supernatural causes. For a discussion concerning whether such was a human language, heavenly language, or merely ecstatic utterance, see BDAG 201-2 s.v. γλῶσσα 2, 3; BDAG 399 s.v. ἕτερος 2; L&N 33.2-4; ExSyn 698; C. M. Robeck Jr., “Tongues,” DPL, 939-43.



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