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Mark 14:12-25

Context
The Passover

14:12 Now 1  on the first day of the feast of 2  Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb is sacrificed, 3  Jesus’ 4  disciples said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?” 5  14:13 He sent two of his disciples and told them, “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar 6  of water will meet you. Follow him. 14:14 Wherever he enters, tell the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher says, “Where is my guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 14:15 He will show you a large room upstairs, furnished and ready. Make preparations for us there.” 14:16 So 7  the disciples left, went 8  into the city, and found things just as he had told them, 9  and they prepared the Passover.

14:17 Then, 10  when it was evening, he came to the house 11  with the twelve. 14:18 While they were at the table 12  eating, Jesus said, “I tell you the truth, 13  one of you eating with me will betray me.” 14  14:19 They were distressed, and one by one said to him, “Surely not I?” 14:20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who dips his hand 15  with me into the bowl. 16  14:21 For the Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.”

The Lord’s Supper

14:22 While they were eating, he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to them, and said, “Take it. This is my body.” 14:23 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 14:24 He said to them, “This is my blood, the blood 17  of the covenant, 18  that is poured out for many. 14:25 I tell you the truth, 19  I will no longer drink of the fruit 20  of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.”

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

2 tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

3 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Mark had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.

4 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

5 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 14:18). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

6 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for the two disciples (Luke 22:8 states that they were Peter and John) to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.

7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the flow within the narrative.

8 tn Grk “and came.”

9 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.

10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

11 tn The prepositional phrase “to the house” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity.

12 tn Grk “while they were reclined at the table.”

sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

13 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

14 tn Or “will hand me over”; Grk “one of you will betray me, the one who eats with me.”

15 tn Grk “one who dips with me.” The phrase “his hand” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

16 sn One who dips with me in the bowl. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

17 tn Grk “this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”

18 tc Most mss (A Ë1,13 Ï lat sy) have καινῆς (kainh", “new”) before διαθήκης (diaqhkh", “covenant”), a reading that is almost surely influenced by the parallel passage in Luke 22:20. Further, the construction τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης (to th" kainh" diaqhkh"), in which the resumptive article τό (referring back to τὸ αἷμα [to |aima, “the blood”]) is immediately followed by the genitive article, is nowhere else used in Mark except for constructions involving a genitive of relationship (cf. Mark 2:14; 3:17, 18; 16:1). Thus, on both transcriptional and intrinsic grounds, this reading looks to be a later addition (which may have derived from τὸ τῆς διαθήκης of D* W 2427). The most reliable mss, along with several others (א B C Dc L Θ Ψ 565), lack καινῆς. This reading is strongly preferred.

sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

19 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

20 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).



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