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Luke 6:17

Context
The Sermon on the Plain

6:17 Then 1  he came down with them and stood on a level place. 2  And a large number 3  of his disciples had gathered 4  along with 5  a vast multitude from all over Judea, from 6  Jerusalem, 7  and from the seacoast of Tyre 8  and Sidon. 9  They came to hear him and to be healed 10  of their diseases,

Luke 6:20-49

Context

6:20 Then 11  he looked up 12  at his disciples and said:

“Blessed 13  are you who are poor, 14  for the kingdom of God belongs 15  to you.

6:21 “Blessed are you who hunger 16  now, for you will be satisfied. 17 

“Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh. 18 

6:22 “Blessed are you when people 19  hate you, and when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil 20  on account of the Son of Man! 6:23 Rejoice in that day, and jump for joy, because 21  your reward is great in heaven. For their ancestors 22  did the same things to the prophets. 23 

6:24 “But woe 24  to you who are rich, for you have received 25  your comfort 26  already.

6:25 “Woe to you who are well satisfied with food 27  now, for you will be hungry.

“Woe to you 28  who laugh 29  now, for you will mourn and weep.

6:26 “Woe to you 30  when all people 31  speak well of you, for their ancestors 32  did the same things to the false prophets.

6:27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies, 33  do good to those who hate you, 6:28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat 34  you. 6:29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek, 35  offer the other as well, 36  and from the person who takes away your coat, 37  do not withhold your tunic 38  either. 39  6:30 Give to everyone who asks you, 40  and do not ask for your possessions 41  back 42  from the person who takes them away. 6:31 Treat others 43  in the same way that you would want them to treat you. 44 

6:32 “If 45  you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners 46  love those who love them. 47  6:33 And 48  if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even 49  sinners 50  do the same. 6:34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid, 51  what credit is that to you? Even sinners 52  lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full. 53  6:35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back. 54  Then 55  your reward will be great, and you will be sons 56  of the Most High, 57  because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people. 58  6:36 Be merciful, 59  just as your Father is merciful.

Do Not Judge Others

6:37 “Do 60  not judge, 61  and you will not be judged; 62  do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; forgive, 63  and you will be forgiven. 6:38 Give, and it will be given to you: A good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, 64  will be poured 65  into your lap. For the measure you use will be the measure you receive.” 66 

6:39 He also told them a parable: “Someone who is blind cannot lead another who is blind, can he? 67  Won’t they both fall 68  into a pit? 6:40 A disciple 69  is not greater than 70  his teacher, but everyone when fully trained will be like his teacher. 6:41 Why 71  do you see the speck 72  in your brother’s eye, but fail to see 73  the beam of wood 74  in your own? 6:42 How can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while you yourself don’t see the beam in your own? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.

6:43 “For 75  no good tree bears bad 76  fruit, nor again 77  does a bad tree bear good fruit, 6:44 for each tree is known 78  by its own fruit. For figs are not gathered 79  from thorns, nor are grapes picked 80  from brambles. 81  6:45 The good person out of the good treasury of his 82  heart 83  produces good, and the evil person out of his evil treasury 84  produces evil, for his mouth speaks 85  from what fills 86  his heart.

6:46 “Why 87  do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ 88  and don’t do what I tell you? 89 

6:47 “Everyone who comes to me and listens to my words and puts them into practice 90  – I will show you what he is like: 6:48 He is like a man 91  building a house, who dug down deep, 92  and laid the foundation on bedrock. When 93  a flood came, the river 94  burst against that house but 95  could not shake it, because it had been well built. 96  6:49 But the person who hears and does not put my words into practice 97  is like a man who built a house on the ground without a foundation. When 98  the river burst against that house, 99  it collapsed immediately, and was utterly destroyed!” 100 

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

2 tn Or “on a plateau.” This could refer to a message given in a flat locale or in a flat locale in the midst of a more mountainous region (Jer 21:13; Isa 13:2). It is quite possible that this sermon is a summary version of the better known Sermon on the Mount from Matt 5-7.

3 tn Grk “large crowd.”

4 tn There is no verb in Greek at this point, but since “a large crowd” (see preceding tn) is in the nominative case, one needs to be supplied.

5 tn Grk “and.”

6 tn Grk “and from,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

7 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

8 map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

9 sn These last two locations, Tyre and Sidon, represented an expansion outside of traditional Jewish territory. Jesus’ reputation continued to expand into new regions.

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

10 sn To hear him and to be healed. Jesus had a two-level ministry: The word and then wondrous acts of service that showed his message of God’s care were real.

11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

12 tn Grk “lifting up his eyes” (an idiom). The participle ἐπάρας (epara") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

13 sn The term Blessed introduces the first of several beatitudes promising blessing to those whom God cares for. They serve as an invitation to come into the grace God offers.

14 sn You who are poor is a reference to the “pious poor” for whom God especially cares. See Ps 14:6; 22:24; 25:16; 34:6; 40:17; 69:29.

15 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized. Jesus was saying, in effect, “the kingdom belongs even now to people like you.”

16 sn You who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Ps 37:16-19; 107:9).

17 sn The promise you will be satisfied is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.

18 sn You will laugh alludes to the joy that comes to God’s people in the salvation to come.

19 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

20 tn Or “disdain you”; Grk “cast out your name as evil.” The word “name” is used here as a figure of speech to refer to the person as a whole.

sn The phrase when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil alludes to a person being ostracized and socially isolated because of association with the Son of Man, Jesus.

21 tn Grk “because behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

22 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

23 sn Mistreatment of the prophets is something Luke often notes (Luke 11:47-51; Acts 7:51-52).

24 sn Jesus promises condemnation (woe) to those who are callous of others, looking only to their own comforts. On Luke and the rich see 1:53; 12:16; 14:12; 16:1, 21-22; 18:23; 19:2; 21:1. These woes are unique to Luke.

25 sn Ironically the language of reward shows that what the rich have received is all they will get. This result looks at a current situation, just as the start of the beatitudes did. The rest of the conclusions to the woes look to the future at the time of judgment.

26 tn Grk “your consolation.”

27 tn Grk “who are filled.” See L&N 23.18 for the translation “well satisfied with food.”

28 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking in several witnesses (א B K L T W Θ Ξ 0147 Ë1,13 579 700 892 1241 2542 al), though found in most (Ì75 A D Q Ψ 33 Ï lat co). The longer reading looks to be a clarifying addition; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.

29 sn That is, laugh with happiness and joy.

30 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, Jumin) is lacking throughout the ms tradition except for a few witnesses (D W* Δ 1424 pc co). The Western witnesses tend to add freely to the text. Supported by the vast majority of witnesses and the likelihood that “to you” is a clarifying addition, the shorter reading should be considered original; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.

31 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

32 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

33 sn Love your enemies is the first of four short exhortations that call for an unusual response to those who are persecuting disciples. Disciples are to relate to hostility in a completely unprecedented manner.

34 tn The substantival participle ἐπηρεαζόντων (ephreazontwn), sometimes translated “those who abuse” (NRSV), is better rendered “those who mistreat,” a more general term (see L&N 88.129).

35 sn The phrase strikes you on the cheek probably pictures public rejection, like the act that indicated expulsion from the synagogue.

36 sn This command to offer the other cheek as well is often misunderstood. It means that there is risk involved in reaching out to people with God’s hope. But if one is struck down in rejection, the disciple is to continue reaching out.

37 tn Or “cloak.”

38 tn See the note on the word “tunics” in 3:11.

39 sn The command do not withhold your tunic either is again an image of continually being totally at risk as one tries to keep contact with those who are hostile to what Jesus and his disciples offer.

40 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to everyone who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).

41 tn Grk “your things,” sometimes translated “what is yours” or “what belongs to you.”

42 sn Do not ask for your possessions back… is an example of showing forgiveness. Paul’s remarks in 1 Cor 6:7 may reflect this principle.

43 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females.

44 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others in the same way you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but it is stated here in its most emphatic, selfless form.

45 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. This is a first class condition, but the next two conditional clauses are third class conditions, so that stylistic variation is probably at work.

46 sn Here the term sinners may refer to people who had no concern for observing the details of the Mosaic law; these were often treated as social outcasts. See L&N 88.295.

47 sn Jesus’ point in the statement even sinners love those who love them is that disciples are to go farther than sinners do. The examples replay vv. 29-30.

48 tc ‡ Three key mss (Ì75 א* B) have “for” here, but it is unlikely that it was present originally. The addition of conjunctions, especially to the beginning of a clause, are typically suspect because they fit the pattern of Koine tendencies toward greater explicitness. NA27 has the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

49 tc Most mss (A D L Θ Ξ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï lat) include γάρ (gar, “for”) following καί (kai, here translated “even”), but a few important mss (א B W 700 892* 1241 pc) lack the conjunction. The inclusion of the conjunction seems to be motivated by clarity and should probably be considered inauthentic.

50 sn See the note on the word sinners in v. 32.

51 tn Grk “to receive”; but in context the repayment of the amount lent is implied. Jesus was noting that utilitarian motives are the way of the world.

52 sn See the note on the word sinners in v. 32.

53 tn Grk “to receive as much again.”

54 tn Or “in return.”

55 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the outcome or result. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

56 sn The character of these actions reflects the grace and kindness of God, bearing witness to a “line of descent” or relationship of the individual to God (sons of the Most High). There is to be a unique kind of ethic at work with disciples. Jesus refers specifically to sons here because in the ancient world sons had special privileges which were rarely accorded to daughters. However, Jesus is most likely addressing both men and women in this context, so women too would receive these same privileges.

57 sn That is, “sons of God.”

58 tn Or “to the ungrateful and immoral.” The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

59 sn Merciful is a characteristic of God often noted in the OT: Exod 34:6; Deut 4:31; Joel 2:31; Jonah 4:2; 2 Sam 24:14. This remark also echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”

60 tn Grk “And do.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

61 sn As the Gospel makes clear, with the statement do not judge Jesus had in mind making a judgment that caused one to cut oneself off from someone so that they ceased to be reached out to (5:27-32; 15:1-32). Jesus himself did make judgments about where people stand (11:37-54), but not in such a way that he ceased to continue to offer them God’s grace.

62 sn The point of the statement do not judge, and you will not be judged is that the standards one applies to others God applies back. The passive verbs in this verse look to God’s action.

63 sn On forgive see Luke 11:4; 1 Pet 3:7.

64 sn The background to the image pressed down, shaken together, running over is pouring out grain for measure in the marketplace. One often poured the grain into a container, shook it to level out the grain and then poured in some more. Those who are generous have generosity running over for them.

65 tn Grk “they will give”; that is, “pour.” The third person plural has been replaced by the passive in the translation.

66 tn Grk “by [the measure] with which you measure it will be measured back to you.”

67 tn Questions prefaced with μή (mh) in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end in English (here it is “can he?”).

68 sn The picture of a blind man leading a blind man is a warning to watch who one follows: Won’t they both fall into a pit? The sermon has been about religious choices and reacting graciously to those who oppose the followers of Jesus. Here Jesus’ point was to be careful who you follow and where they are taking you.

69 tn Or “student.”

70 tn Or “significantly different.” The idea, as the next phrase shows, is that teachers build followers who go the same direction they do.

71 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

72 sn A speck (also twice in v. 42) refers to a small piece of wood, chaff, or straw (L&N 3.66).

73 tn Or “do not notice.”

74 sn The beam of wood (also twice in v. 42) refers to a big piece of wood, the main beam of a building, in contrast to the speck in the other’s eye (L&N 7.78).

75 tn The explanatory connective γάρ (gar) is often dropped from translations, but the point of the passage is that one should be self-corrective and be careful who one follows (vv. 41-42), because such choices also reflect what the nature of the tree is and its product.

76 tn Grk “rotten.” The word σαπρός, modifying both “fruit” and “tree,” can also mean “diseased” (L&N 65.28).

77 tc Most mss, especially later ones (A C D Θ Ψ 33 Ï lat sy sa), lack the adverb πάλιν (palin, “again”) here. Its presence is attested, however, by several good witnesses (Ì75 א B L W Ξ Ë1,13 579 892 1241 2542).

78 sn The principle of the passage is that one produces what one is.

79 tn Grk “they do not gather”; this has been simplified to the passive voice in the translation since the subject “they” is not specified further in the context.

80 tn This is a different verb (τρυγῶσιν, trugwsin) for gathering from the previous one (συλλέγουσιν, sullegousin).

81 tn This is a different term (βάτος, batos) for a thorn or bramble bush than the previous one (ἄκανθα, akanqa).

sn The statement nor are grapes picked from brambles illustrates the principle: That which cannot produce fruit, does not produce fruit.

82 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here and in the following clause (“out of the evil”) as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

83 sn Mention of the heart shows that Jesus is not interested in what is done, but why. Motives are more important than actions for him.

84 tn The word “treasury” is not repeated in the Greek text at this point, but is implied.

85 sn What one utters from one’s mouth is especially singled out as the example of this principle. James seems to have known this teaching (Jas 1:26; 3:1-12).

86 tn Grk “for out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks.”

87 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

88 tn The double use of the vocative is normally used in situations of high emotion or emphasis. Even an emphatic confession without action means little.

89 sn Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and don’t do what I tell you? Respect is not a matter of mere words, but is reflected in obedient action. This short saying, which is much simpler than its more developed conceptual parallel in Matt 7:21-23, serves in this form to simply warn and issue a call to hear and obey, as the last parable also does in vv. 47-49.

90 tn Grk “and does them.”

91 tn Here and in v. 49 the Greek text reads ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), while the parallel account in Matt 7:24-27 uses ἀνήρ (anhr) in vv. 24 and 26.

92 tn There are actually two different Greek verbs used here: “who dug (ἔσκαψεν, eskayen) and dug deep (ἐβάθυνεν, ebaqunen).” Jesus is placing emphasis on the effort to which the man went to prepare his foundation.

93 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

94 sn The picture here is of a river overflowing its banks and causing flooding and chaos.

95 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the context.

96 tc Most mss, especially later ones (A C D Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï latt), read “because he built [it] on the rock” rather than “because it had been well built” (Ì75vid א B L W Ξ 33 579 892 1241 2542 pc sa). The reading of the later mss seems to be a harmonization to Matt 7:25, rendering it most likely secondary.

97 tn Grk “does not do [them].”

98 tn Grk “against which”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative clause was converted to a temporal clause in the translation and a new sentence started here.

99 tn Grk “it”; the referent (that house) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

100 tn Grk “and its crash was great.”

sn The extra phrase at the end of this description (and was utterly destroyed) portrays the great disappointment that the destruction of the house caused as it crashed and was swept away.



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