6:1 Jesus 1 was going through the grain fields on 2 a Sabbath, 3 and his disciples picked some heads of wheat, 4 rubbed them in their hands, and ate them. 5 6:2 But some of the Pharisees 6 said, “Why are you 7 doing what is against the law 8 on the Sabbath?” 6:3 Jesus 9 answered them, 10 “Haven’t you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry – 6:4 how he entered the house of God, took 11 and ate the sacred bread, 12 which is not lawful 13 for any to eat but the priests alone, and 14 gave it to his companions?” 15 6:5 Then 16 he said to them, “The Son of Man is lord 17 of the Sabbath.”
6:6 On 18 another Sabbath, Jesus 19 entered the synagogue 20 and was teaching. Now 21 a man was there whose right hand was withered. 22 6:7 The experts in the law 23 and the Pharisees 24 watched 25 Jesus 26 closely to see if 27 he would heal on the Sabbath, 28 so that they could find a reason to accuse him. 6:8 But 29 he knew 30 their thoughts, 31 and said to the man who had the withered hand, “Get up and stand here.” 32 So 33 he rose and stood there. 6:9 Then 34 Jesus said to them, “I ask you, 35 is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath or to do evil, to save a life or to destroy it?” 6:10 After 36 looking around 37 at them all, he said to the man, 38 “Stretch out your hand.” The man 39 did so, and his hand was restored. 40 6:11 But they were filled with mindless rage 41 and began debating with one another what they would do 42 to Jesus.
1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
2 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
3 tc Most later
4 tn Or “heads of grain.” While the generic term στάχυς (stacus) can refer to the cluster of seeds at the top of grain such as barley or wheat, in the NT the term is restricted to wheat (L&N 3.40; BDAG 941 s.v. 1).
5 tn Grk “picked and ate some heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands.” The participle ψώχοντες (ywconte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style, and the order of the clauses has been transposed to reflect the logical order, which sounds more natural in English.
7 tn Note that the verb is second person plural (with an understood plural pronominal subject in Greek). The charge is again indirectly made against Jesus by charging the disciples.
8 sn The alleged violation expressed by the phrase what is against the law is performing work on the Sabbath. That the disciples ate from such a field is no problem given Deut 23:25, but Sabbath activity is another matter in the leaders’ view (Exod 20:8-11 and Mishnah, m. Shabbat 7.2). The supposed violation involved reaping, threshing, winnowing, and preparing food. This probably explains why the clause describing the disciples “rubbing” the heads of grain in their hands is mentioned last, in emphatic position. This was preparation of food.
9 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
10 tn Grk “Jesus, answering them, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered them.”
11 tn Grk “and took.”
12 tn Grk “the bread of presentation.”
sn The sacred bread refers to the “bread of presentation,” “showbread,” or “bread of the Presence,” twelve loaves prepared weekly for the tabernacle and later, the temple. See Exod 25:30; 35:13; 39:36; Lev 24:5-9. Each loaf was made from 3 quarts (3.5 liters; Heb “two tenths of an ephah”) of fine flour. The loaves were placed on a table in the holy place of the tabernacle, on the north side opposite the lampstand (Exod 26:35). It was the duty of the priest each Sabbath to place fresh bread on the table; the loaves from the previous week were then given to Aaron and his descendants, who ate them in the holy place, because they were considered sacred (Lev 24:9). These were the loaves that David requested from Ahimelech for himself and his men (1 Sam 21:1-6; cf. also Matt 12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28).
13 sn Jesus’ response to the charge that what his disciples were doing was not lawful is one of analogy: ‘If David did it for his troops in a time of need, then so can I with my disciples.’ Jesus is clear that on the surface there was a violation here. What is not as clear is whether he is arguing a “greater need” makes this permissible or that this was within the intention of the law all along.
15 tc The Western ms D adds here a full saying that reads, “On the same day, as he saw someone working on the Sabbath he said, ‘Man, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed, but if you do not know, you are cursed and a violator of the law.’” Though this is not well enough attested to be considered authentic, many commentators have debated whether this saying might go back to Jesus. Most reject it, though it does have wording that looks like Rom 2:25, 27 and Jas 2:11.
sn See 1 Sam 21:1-6.
16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
17 tn The term “lord” is in emphatic position in the Greek text. To make this point even clearer a few
sn A second point in Jesus’ defense of his disciples’ actions was that his authority as Son of Man also allowed it, since as Son of Man he was lord of the Sabbath.
18 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. In addition, because the Greek sentence is rather long and complex, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
22 tn Grk “a man was there and his right hand was withered.”
sn Withered means the man’s hand was shrunken and paralyzed.
25 sn The term translated watched…closely is emotive, since it carries negative connotations. It means they were watching him out of the corner of their eye or spying on him.
26 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
27 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text; Jesus’ opponents anticipated he would do this.
28 sn The background for this is the view that only if life was endangered should one attempt to heal on the Sabbath (see the Mishnah, m. Shabbat 6.3; 12.1; 18.3; 19.2; m. Yoma 8.6).
29 tn Here the conjunction δέ (de) has been translated as contrastive.
31 tn Grk “their reasonings.” The implication is that Jesus knew his opponents’ plans and motives, so the translation “thoughts” was used here.
32 sn Most likely synagogues were arranged with benches along the walls and open space in the center for seating on the floor.
33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the man’s action was a result of Jesus’ order.
34 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
35 sn With the use of the plural pronoun (“you”), Jesus addressed not just the leaders but the crowd with his question to challenge what the leadership was doing. There is irony as well. As Jesus sought to restore on the Sabbath (but improperly according to the leaders’ complaints) the leaders were seeking to destroy, which surely is wrong. The implied critique recalls the OT: Isa 1:1-17; 58:6-14.
36 tn Grk “And after.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
37 tn The aorist participle περιβλεψάμενος (peribleyameno") has been translated as antecedent (prior) to the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as contemporaneous (“Looking around… he said”).
38 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man with the withered hand) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
39 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
40 sn The passive was restored points to healing by God. Now the question became: Would God exercise his power through Jesus, if what Jesus was doing were wrong? Note also Jesus’ “labor.” He simply spoke and it was so.
41 tn The term ἄνοια (anoia) denotes a kind of insane or mindless fury; the opponents were beside themselves with rage. They could not rejoice in the healing, but could only react against Jesus.
42 tn The use of the optative (ποιήσαιεν, poihsaien, “might do”) in an indirect question indicates that the formal opposition and planning of Jesus’ enemies started here (BDF §§385.1; 386.1).