5:19 But 1 since they found 2 no way to carry him in because of the crowd, they went up on the roof 3 and let him down on the stretcher 4 through the roof tiles 5 right 6 in front of Jesus. 7 5:20 When 8 Jesus 9 saw their 10 faith he said, “Friend, 11 your sins are forgiven.” 12 5:21 Then 13 the experts in the law 14 and the Pharisees began to think 15 to themselves, 16 “Who is this man 17 who is uttering blasphemies? 18 Who can forgive sins but God alone?” 5:22 When Jesus perceived 19 their hostile thoughts, 20 he said to them, 21 “Why are you raising objections 22 within yourselves? 5:23 Which is easier, 23 to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Stand up and walk’? 5:24 But so that you may know 24 that the Son of Man 25 has authority on earth to forgive sins” – he said to the paralyzed man 26 – “I tell you, stand up, take your stretcher 27 and go home.” 28 5:25 Immediately 29 he stood up before them, picked 30 up the stretcher 31 he had been lying on, and went home, glorifying 32 God. 5:26 Then 33 astonishment 34 seized them all, and they glorified 35 God. They were filled with awe, 36 saying, “We have seen incredible 37 things 38 today.” 39
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast implied in the context: They wanted to bring the man to Jesus, but found no way.
2 tn Grk “But finding.” The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.
3 sn A house in 1st century Palestine would have had a flat roof with stairs or a ladder going up. This access was often from the outside of the house.
4 tn This word, κλινίδιον (klinidion), is a different Greek word than the one used in the previous verse (κλίνη, klinh). In this context both may be translated “stretcher” (see L&N 6.106 and 6.107).
5 tn There is a translational problem at this point in the text. The term Luke uses is κέραμος (keramo"). It can in certain contexts mean “clay,” but usually this is in reference to pottery (see BDAG 540 s.v. 1). The most natural definition in this instance is “roof tile” (used in the translation above). However, tiles were generally not found in Galilee. Recent archaeological research has suggested that this house, which would have probably been typical for the area, could not have supported “a second story, nor could the original roof have been masonry; no doubt it was made from beams and branches of trees covered with a mixture of earth and straw” (J. F. Strange and H. Shanks, “Has the House Where Jesus Stayed in Capernaum Been Found?” BAR 8, no. 6 [Nov/Dec 1982]: 34). Luke may simply have spoken of building materials that would be familiar to his readers.
6 tn Grk “in the midst.”
7 sn The phrase right in front of Jesus trailing as it does at the end of the verse is slightly emphatic, adding a little note of drama: What would Jesus do?
8 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
9 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
10 sn The plural pronoun their makes it clear that Jesus was responding to the faith of the entire group, not just the paralyzed man.
11 tn Grk “Man,” but the term used in this way was not derogatory in Jewish culture. Used in address (as here) it means “friend” (see BDAG 82 s.v. ἄνθρωπος 8).
12 tn Grk “Man, your sins are forgiven you.” Luke stresses the forgiveness of sins (cf. 1:77; 3:3; 24:47). In 5:20 he uses both the perfect ἀφέωνται and the personal pronoun σοι which together combine to heighten the subjective aspect of the experience of forgiveness. The σοι has been omitted in translation in light of normal English style.
sn The passive voice here is a divine passive (ExSyn 437). It is clear that God does the forgiving.
13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
14 tn Or “Then the scribes.” The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as “scribe” does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean “professional copyist,” if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus “expert in the law” comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.
15 tn Or “to reason” (in a hostile sense). See G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:97.
16 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes, “saying”) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.
17 tn Grk “this one” (οὗτος, Joutos).
18 sn Uttering blasphemies meant to say something that dishonored God. To claim divine prerogatives or claim to speak for God when one really does not would be such an act of offense. The remark raised directly the issue of the nature of Jesus’ ministry.
20 tn Grk “reasonings.” This is the noun form of the infinitive διαλογίζεσθαι (dialogizesqai, “began to reason to themselves”) used in v. 21. Jesus’ reply to them in the latter part of the present verse makes clear that these reasonings were mental and internal, so the translation “thoughts” was used here. On the hostile or evil nature of these thoughts, see G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:97.
21 tn Grk “answering, he said to them.” This construction with passive participle and finite verb is pleonastic (redundant) and has been simplified in the translation.
22 tn The Greek verb διαλογίζεσθε (dialogizesqe, “you reason”), used in context with διαλογισμούς (dialogismous, “reasonings”), connotes more than neutral reasoning or thinking. While the verb can refer to normal “reasoning,” “discussion,” or “reflection” in the NT, its use here in Luke 5:22, alongside the noun – which is regularly used with a negative sense in the NT (cf. Matt 15:19; Mark 7:21; Luke 2:35, 6:8, 9:47; Rom 1:21; 1 Cor 3:20; G. Schrenk, TDNT 2:96-97; D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 1:484) – suggests the idea of “contention.” Therefore, in order to reflect the hostility evident in the reasoning of the Pharisees and teachers of the law, the verb has been translated as “raising objections.”
23 sn Which is easier is a reflective kind of question. On the one hand to declare sins are forgiven is easier, since one does not need to see it, unlike telling a paralyzed person to walk. On the other hand, it is harder, because for it to be true one must possess the authority to forgive the sin.
24 sn Now Jesus put the two actions together. The walking of the man would be proof (so that you may know) that his sins were forgiven and that God had worked through Jesus (i.e., the Son of Man).
25 sn The term Son of Man, which is a title in Greek, comes from a pictorial description in Dan 7:13 of one “like a son of man” (i.e., a human being). It is Jesus’ favorite way to refer to himself. Jesus did not reveal the background of the term here, which mixes human and divine imagery as the man in Daniel rides a cloud, something only God does. He just used it. It also could be an idiom in Aramaic meaning either “some person” or “me.” So there is a little ambiguity in its use here, since its origin is not clear at this point. However, the action makes it clear that Jesus used it to refer to himself here.
26 tn Grk “to the one who was paralyzed”; the Greek participle is substantival and has been simplified to a simple adjective and noun in the translation.
sn Jesus did not finish his sentence with words but with action, that is, healing the paralytic with an accompanying pronouncement to him directly.
28 tn Grk “to your house.”
29 tn Grk “And immediately.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
30 tn Grk “and picked up.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because contemporary English normally places a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series.
31 tn Grk “picked up what he had been lying on”; the referent of the relative pronoun (the stretcher) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
32 sn Note the man’s response, glorifying God. Joy at God’s work is also a key theme in Luke: 2:20; 4:15; 5:26; 7:16; 13:13; 17:15; 18:43; 23:47.
33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
34 tn Or “amazement.” See L&N 25.217, which translates this clause, “astonishment seized all of them.”
35 tn This imperfect verb could be translated as an ingressive (“they began to glorify God”), but this is somewhat awkward in English since the following verb is aorist and is normally translated as a simple past.
36 tn Grk “fear,” but the context and the following remark show that it is mixed with wonder; see L&N 53.59.
37 tn Or “remarkable.” The term παράδοξος (paradoxos) is hard to translate exactly; it suggests both the unusual and the awe inspiring in this context. For the alternatives see L&N 31.44 (“incredible”) and 58.56 (“remarkable”). It is often something beyond belief (G. Kittel, TDNT 2:255).
38 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied because the adjective παράδοξος (paradoxos) is substantival. Other translations sometimes supply alternate words like “miracles” or “signs,” but “things” is the most neutral translation.