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Luke 4:1-2

Context
The Temptation of Jesus

4:1 Then 1  Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan River 2  and was led by the Spirit 3  in 4  the wilderness, 5  4:2 where for forty days he endured temptations 6  from the devil. He 7  ate nothing 8  during those days, and when they were completed, 9  he was famished.

1 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate continuity with the previous topic.

2 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity.

3 sn The double mention of the Spirit in this verse makes it clear that the temptation was neither the fault of Jesus nor an accident.

4 tc Most mss (A Θ Ξ Ψ 0102 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) read εἰς τὴν ἔρημον (ei" thn erhmon, “into the wilderness”), apparently motivated by the parallel in Matt 4:1. However, the reading behind the translation (ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, en th ejrhmw) is found in overall better witnesses (Ì4vid,7,75vid א B D L W 579 892 1241 pc it).

5 tn Or “desert.”

6 tn Grk “in the desert, for forty days being tempted.” The participle πειραζόμενος (peirazomeno") has been translated as an adverbial clause in English to avoid a run-on sentence with a second “and.” Here the present participle suggests a period of forty days of testing. Three samples of the end of the testing are given in the following verses.

7 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

8 sn The reference to Jesus eating nothing could well be an idiom meaning that he ate only what the desert provided; see Exod 34:28. A desert fast simply meant eating only what one could obtain in the desert. The parallel in Matt 4:2 speaks only of Jesus fasting.

9 tn The Greek word here is συντελεσθείσων (suntelesqeiswn) from the verb συντελέω (suntelew).

sn This verb and its cognate noun, sunteleia, usually implies not just the end of an event, but its completion or fulfillment. The noun is always used in the NT in eschatological contexts; the verb is often so used (cf. Matt 13:39, 40; 24:3; 28:20; Mark 13:4; Rom 9:28; Heb 8:8; 9:26). The idea here may be that the forty-day period of temptation was designed for a particular purpose in the life of Christ (the same verb is used in v. 13). The cognate verb teleiow is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.



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