23:33 So 1 when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,” 2 they crucified 3 him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. 23:34 [But Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”] 4 Then 5 they threw dice 6 to divide his clothes. 7 23:35 The people also stood there watching, but the rulers ridiculed 8 him, saying, “He saved others. Let him save 9 himself if 10 he is the Christ 11 of God, his chosen one!” 23:36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine, 12 23:37 and saying, “If 13 you are the king of the Jews, save yourself!” 23:38 There was also an inscription 14 over him, “This is the king of the Jews.”
23:39 One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t 15 you the Christ? 16 Save yourself and us!” 23:40 But the other rebuked him, saying, 17 “Don’t 18 you fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 19 23:41 And we rightly so, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did, but this man has done nothing 20 wrong.” 23:42 Then 21 he said, “Jesus, remember me 22 when you come in 23 your kingdom.” 23:43 And Jesus 24 said to him, “I tell you the truth, 25 today 26 you will be with me in paradise.” 27
23:44 It was now 28 about noon, 29 and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, 30 23:45 because the sun’s light failed. 31 The temple curtain 32 was torn in two. 23:46 Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!” 33 And after he said this he breathed his last.
23:47 Now when the centurion 34 saw what had happened, he praised God and said, “Certainly this man was innocent!” 35 23:48 And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts. 36 23:49 And all those who knew Jesus 37 stood at a distance, and the women who had followed him from Galilee saw 38 these things.
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.
2 sn The place that is called ‘The Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
4 tc Many important
5 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
6 tn Grk “cast lots” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent “threw dice” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.
8 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).
9 sn The irony in the statement Let him save himself is that salvation did come, but later, not while on the cross.
10 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.
11 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
12 sn Sour wine was cheap wine, called in Latin posca, and referred to a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion, who had some on hand, now used it to taunt Jesus further.
13 tn This is also a first class condition in the Greek text.
14 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
15 tc Most
sn The question in Greek expects a positive reply and is also phrased with irony.
16 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
17 tn Grk “But answering, the other rebuking him, said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
18 tn The particle used here (οὐδέ, oude), which expects a positive reply, makes this a rebuke – “You should fear God and not speak!”
19 tn The words “of condemnation” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
20 sn This man has done nothing wrong is yet another declaration that Jesus was innocent of any crime.
21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
22 sn Jesus, remember me is a statement of faith from the cross, as Jesus saves another even while he himself is dying. This man’s faith had shown itself when he rebuked the other thief. He hoped to be with Jesus sometime in the future in the kingdom.
23 tc ‡ The alternate readings of some
24 tn Grk “he.”
25 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
27 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.
28 tn Grk “And it was.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
29 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”
30 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”
31 tc The wording “the sun’s light failed” is a translation of τοῦ ἡλίου ἐκλιπόντος/ ἐκλείποντος (tou Jhliou eklipontos/ ekleipontos), a reading found in the earliest and best witnesses (among them Ì75 א B C*vid L 070 579 2542 pc) as well as several ancient versions. The majority of
sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15. Some students of the NT see in Luke’s statement the sun’s light failed (eklipontos) an obvious blunder in his otherwise meticulous historical accuracy. The reason for claiming such an error on the author’s part is due to an understanding of the verb as indicating a solar eclipse when such would be an astronomical impossibility during a full moon. There are generally two ways to resolve this difficulty: (a) adopt a different reading (“the sun was darkened”) that smoothes over the problem (discussed in the tc problem above), or (b) understand the verb eklipontos in a general way (such as “the sun’s light failed”) rather than as a technical term, “the sun was eclipsed.” The problem with the first solution is that it is too convenient, for the Christian scribes who, over the centuries, copied Luke’s Gospel would have thought the same thing. That is, they too would have sensed a problem in the wording and felt that some earlier scribe had incorrectly written down what Luke penned. The fact that the reading “was darkened” shows up in the later and generally inferior witnesses does not bolster one’s confidence that this is the right solution. But second solution, if taken to its logical conclusion, proves too much for it would nullify the argument against the first solution: If the term did not refer to an eclipse, then why would scribes feel compelled to change it to a more general term? The solution to the problem is that ekleipo did in fact sometimes refer to an eclipse, but it did not always do so. (BDAG 306 s.v. ἐκλείπω notes that the verb is used in Hellenistic Greek “Of the sun cease to shine.” In MM it is argued that “it seems more than doubtful that in Lk 2345 any reference is intended to an eclipse. To find such a reference is to involve the Evangelist in a needless blunder, as an eclipse is impossible at full moon, and to run counter to his general usage of the verb = ‘fail’…” [p. 195]. They enlist Luke 16:9; 22:32; and Heb 1:12 for the general meaning “fail,” and further cite several contemporaneous examples from papyri of this meaning [195-96]) Thus, the very fact that the verb can refer to an eclipse would be a sufficient basis for later scribes altering the text out of pious motives; conversely, the very fact that the verb does not always refer to an eclipse and, in fact, does not normally do so, is enough of a basis to exonerate Luke of wholly uncharacteristic carelessness.
32 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.
33 sn A quotation from Ps 31:5. It is a psalm of trust. The righteous, innocent sufferer trusts in God. Luke does not have the cry of pain from Ps 22:1 (cf. Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34), but notes Jesus’ trust instead.
35 tn Or “righteous.” It is hard to know whether “innocent” or “righteous” is intended, as the Greek term used can mean either, and both make good sense in this context. Luke has been emphasizing Jesus as innocent, so that is slightly more likely here. Of course, one idea entails the other.
sn Here is a fourth figure who said that Jesus was innocent in this chapter (Pilate, Herod, a criminal, and now a centurion).
36 sn Some apparently regretted what had taken place. Beating their breasts was a sign of lamentation.
37 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
38 tn Technically the participle ὁρῶσαι (Jorwsai) modifies only γυναῖκες (gunaike") since both are feminine plural nominative, although many modern translations refer this as well to the group of those who knew Jesus mentioned in the first part of the verse. These events had a wide array of witnesses.