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Luke 22:7-20

Context
The Passover

22:7 Then the day for the feast 1  of Unleavened Bread came, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 2  22:8 Jesus 3  sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover 4  for us to eat.” 5  22:9 They 6  said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare 7  it?” 22:10 He said to them, “Listen, 8  when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water 9  will meet you. 10  Follow him into the house that he enters, 22:11 and tell the owner of the house, 11  ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 22:12 Then he will show you a large furnished room upstairs. Make preparations there.” 22:13 So 12  they went and found things 13  just as he had told them, 14  and they prepared the Passover.

The Lord’s Supper

22:14 Now 15  when the hour came, Jesus 16  took his place at the table 17  and the apostles joined 18  him. 22:15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired 19  to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 22:16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again 20  until it is fulfilled 21  in the kingdom of God.” 22  22:17 Then 23  he took a cup, 24  and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit 25  of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 26  22:19 Then 27  he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body 28  which is given for you. 29  Do this in remembrance of me.” 22:20 And in the same way he took 30  the cup after they had eaten, 31  saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant 32  in my blood.

1 tn The words “for the feast” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.

2 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Luke had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.

3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

4 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 22:14). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.

5 tn Grk “for us, so that we may eat.”

6 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

7 tn In the Greek text this a deliberative subjunctive.

8 tn Grk “behold.”

9 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for Peter and John to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.

10 sn Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke 22-23 as very aware of what will happen, almost directing events. Here this is indicated by his prediction that a man carrying a jar of water will meet you.

11 tn Grk “to the master of the household,” referring to one who owns and manages the household, including family, servants, and slaves (L&N 57.14).

12 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions.

13 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

14 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.

15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

17 tn Grk “reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

18 tn Grk “the apostles with him.”

19 tn This phrase parallels a Hebrew infinitive absolute and serves to underline Jesus’ enthusiasm for holding this meal (BDF §198.6).

20 tn Although the word “again” is not in the Greek text, it is supplied to indicate that Jesus did indeed partake of this Passover meal, as statements in v. 18 suggest (“from now on”). For more complete discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1720.

21 sn Jesus looked to a celebration in the kingdom to come when the Passover is fulfilled. This reference could well suggest that some type of commemorative sacrifice and meal will be celebrated then, as the antecedent is the Passover sacrifice. The reference is not to the Lord’s supper as some argue, but the Passover.

22 sn The kingdom of God here refers to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.

23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

24 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).

25 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

26 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.

27 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

28 tc Some important Western mss (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. The inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25, and it has much better ms support. It is thus easier to explain the shorter reading as a scribal accident or misunderstanding. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.

29 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.

30 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.

31 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnhsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipnew) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”

32 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.



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