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Luke 22:17-20

Context
22:17 Then 1  he took a cup, 2  and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit 3  of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 4  22:19 Then 5  he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body 6  which is given for you. 7  Do this in remembrance of me.” 22:20 And in the same way he took 8  the cup after they had eaten, 9  saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant 10  in my blood.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

2 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).

3 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

4 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

6 tc Some important Western mss (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. The inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25, and it has much better ms support. It is thus easier to explain the shorter reading as a scribal accident or misunderstanding. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.

7 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.

8 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.

9 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnhsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipnew) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”

10 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.



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