13:10 Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues 1 on the Sabbath, 13:11 and a woman was there 2 who had been disabled by a spirit 3 for eighteen years. She 4 was bent over and could not straighten herself up completely. 5 13:12 When 6 Jesus saw her, he called her to him 7 and said, “Woman, 8 you are freed 9 from your infirmity.” 10 13:13 Then 11 he placed his hands on her, and immediately 12 she straightened up and praised God. 13:14 But the president of the synagogue, indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the crowd, “There are six days on which work 13 should be done! 14 So come 15 and be healed on those days, and not on the Sabbath day.” 13:15 Then the Lord answered him, 16 “You hypocrites! Does not each of you on the Sabbath untie his ox or his donkey from its stall, 17 and lead it to water? 18 13:16 Then 19 shouldn’t 20 this woman, a daughter of Abraham whom Satan 21 bound for eighteen long 22 years, be released from this imprisonment 23 on the Sabbath day?” 13:17 When 24 he said this all his adversaries were humiliated, 25 but 26 the entire crowd was rejoicing at all the wonderful things 27 he was doing. 28
13:18 Thus Jesus 29 asked, 30 “What is the kingdom of God 31 like? 32 To 33 what should I compare it? 13:19 It is like a mustard seed 34 that a man took and sowed 35 in his garden. It 36 grew and became a tree, 37 and the wild birds 38 nested in its branches.” 39
13:22 Then 45 Jesus 46 traveled throughout 47 towns 48 and villages, teaching and making his way toward 49 Jerusalem. 50 13:23 Someone 51 asked 52 him, “Lord, will only a few 53 be saved?” So 54 he said to them, 13:24 “Exert every effort 55 to enter through the narrow door, because many, I tell you, will try to enter and will not be able to. 13:25 Once 56 the head of the house 57 gets up 58 and shuts the door, then you will stand outside and start to knock on the door and beg him, ‘Lord, 59 let us in!’ 60 But he will answer you, 61 ‘I don’t know where you come from.’ 62 13:26 Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.’ 63 13:27 But 64 he will reply, 65 ‘I don’t know where you come from! 66 Go away from me, all you evildoers!’ 67 13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth 68 when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 69 and all the prophets in the kingdom of God 70 but you yourselves thrown out. 71 13:29 Then 72 people 73 will come from east and west, and from north and south, and take their places at the banquet table 74 in the kingdom of God. 75 13:30 But 76 indeed, 77 some are last 78 who will be first, and some are first who will be last.”
13:31 At that time, 79 some Pharisees 80 came up and said to Jesus, 81 “Get away from here, 82 because Herod 83 wants to kill you.” 13:32 But 84 he said to them, “Go 85 and tell that fox, 86 ‘Look, I am casting out demons and performing healings today and tomorrow, and on the third day 87 I will complete my work. 88 13:33 Nevertheless I must 89 go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, because it is impossible 90 that a prophet should be killed 91 outside Jerusalem.’ 92 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 93 you who kill the prophets and stone those who are sent to you! 94 How often I have longed 95 to gather your children together as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but 96 you would have none of it! 97 13:35 Look, your house is forsaken! 98 And I tell you, you will not see me until you say, ‘Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord!’” 99
2 tn Grk “and behold, a woman.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
3 tn Grk “a woman having a spirit of weakness” (or “a spirit of infirmity”).
4 tn Grk “years, and.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
5 tn Or “and could not straighten herself up at all.” If εἰς τὸ παντελές (ei" to pantele") is understood to modify δυναμένη (dunamenh), the meaning is “she was not able at all to straighten herself up”; but the phrase may be taken with ἀνακύψαι (anakuyai) and understood to mean the same as the adverb παντελῶς (pantelws), with the meaning “she was not able to straighten herself up completely.” See BDAG 754 s.v. παντελής 1 for further discussion. The second option is preferred in the translation because of proximity: The phrase in question follows ἀνακύψαι in the Greek text.
6 tn The participle ἰδών (idwn) has been taken temporally. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
7 tn The verb προσεφώνησεν (prosefwnhsen) has been translated as “called (her) to (him),” with the direct object (“her”) and the indirect object (“him”) both understood.
8 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.
9 tn Or “released.”
10 tn Or “sickness.”
11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
12 sn The healing took place immediately.
13 sn The irony is that Jesus’ “work” consisted of merely touching the woman. There is no sense of joy that eighteen years of suffering was reversed with his touch.
14 tn Grk “on which it is necessary to work.” This has been simplified in the translation.
15 tn The participle ἐρχόμενοι (ercomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
16 tn Grk “answered him and said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been shortened to “answered him.”
17 tn Grk “from the manger [feeding trough],” but by metonymy of part for whole this can be rendered “stall.”
19 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to show the connection with Jesus’ previous statement.
20 tn Grk “is it not necessary that.” Jesus argues that no other day is more appropriate to heal a descendant of Abraham than the Sabbath, the exact opposite view of the synagogue leader.
23 tn Or “bondage”; Grk “bond.”
24 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
25 tn Or “were put to shame.”
26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
28 tn Grk “that were being done by him.” The passive has been converted to an active construction in the translation.
29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
30 tn Grk “said,” but what follows is a question.
33 tn Grk “And to.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
34 sn The mustard seed was noted for its tiny size.
35 tn Grk “threw.”
36 tn Grk “garden, and it.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
37 sn Calling the mustard plant a tree is rhetorical hyperbole, since technically it is not one. This plant could be one of two types of mustard popular in Palestine and would be either 10 or 25 ft (3 or 7.5 m) tall.
38 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).
39 sn The point of the parable seems to be that while the kingdom of God may appear to have insignificant and unnoticeable beginnings (i.e., in the ministry of Jesus), it will someday (i.e., at the second advent) be great and quite expansive. The kingdom, however, is not to be equated with the church, but rather the church is an expression of the kingdom. Also, there is important OT background in the image of the mustard seed that grew and became a tree: Ezek 17:22-24 pictures the reemergence of the Davidic house where people can find calm and shelter. Like the mustard seed, it would start out small but grow to significant size.
40 tn Grk “And again.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
42 tn Grk “hid in.”
43 sn This measure was a saton, the Greek name for the Hebrew term “seah.” Three of these was a very large quantity of flour, since a saton is a little over 16 lbs (7 kg) of dry measure (or 13.13 liters). So this was over 47 lbs (21 kg) of flour total, enough to feed over a hundred people.
44 tn Grk “it was all leavened.”
sn The parable of the yeast and the dough teaches that the kingdom of God will start small but eventually grow to permeate everything. Jesus’ point was not to be deceived by its seemingly small start, the same point made in the parable of the mustard seed, which preceded this one.
45 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
46 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
47 tn This is a distributive use of κατά (kata); see L&N 83:12.
48 tn Or “cities.”
51 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
52 tn Grk “said to.”
53 sn The warnings earlier in Jesus’ teaching have led to the question whether only a few will be saved.
54 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply was triggered by the preceding question.
55 tn Or “Make every effort” (L&N 68.74; cf. NIV); “Do your best” (TEV); “Work hard” (NLT); Grk “Struggle.” The idea is to exert one’s maximum effort (cf. BDAG 17 s.v. ἀγωνίζομαι 2.b, “strain every nerve to enter”) because of the supreme importance of attaining entry into the kingdom of God.
56 tn The syntactical relationship between vv. 24-25 is disputed. The question turns on whether v. 25 is connected to v. 24 or not. A lack of a clear connective makes an independent idea more likely. However, one must then determine what the beginning of the sentence connects to. Though it makes for slightly awkward English, the translation has opted to connect it to “he will answer” so that this functions, in effect, as an apodosis. One could end the sentence after “us” and begin a new sentence with “He will answer” to make simpler sentences, although the connection between the two sentences is thereby less clear. The point of the passage, however, is clear. Once the door is shut, because one failed to come in through the narrow way, it is closed permanently. The moral: Do not be too late in deciding to respond.
57 tn Or “the master of the household.”
58 tn Or “rises,” or “stands up.”
59 tn Or “Sir.”
60 tn Grk “Open to us.”
61 tn Grk “and answering, he will say to you.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he will answer you.”
63 sn This term refers to wide streets, and thus suggests the major streets of a city.
64 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
65 tc Most
tn Grk “he will say, saying to you.” The participle λέγων (legwn) and its indirect object ὑμῖν (Jumin) are redundant in contemporary English and have not been translated.
66 sn The issue is not familiarity (with Jesus’ teaching) or even shared activity (eating and drinking with him), but knowing Jesus. Those who do not know him, he will not know where they come from (i.e., will not acknowledge) at the judgment.
68 sn Weeping and gnashing of teeth is a figure for remorse and trauma, which occurs here because of exclusion from God’s promise.
69 tn Grk “and Isaac and Jacob,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
71 tn Or “being thrown out.” The present accusative participle, ἐκβαλλομένους (ekballomenous), related to the object ὑμᾶς (Jumas), seems to suggest that these evildoers will witness their own expulsion from the kingdom.
72 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the discourse.
73 tn Grk “they”; the referent (people who will come to participate in the kingdom) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
74 tn Grk “and recline at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. The word “banquet” has been supplied to clarify for the modern reader the festive nature of the imagery The banquet imagery is a way to describe the fellowship and celebration of accompanying those who are included as the people of God at the end.
76 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
77 tn Grk “behold.”
78 sn Some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last. Jesus’ answer is that some who are expected to be there (many from Israel) will not be there, while others not expected to be present (from other nations) will be present. The question is not, “Will the saved be few?” (see v. 23), but “Will it be you?”
79 tn Grk “At that very hour.”
81 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
82 tn Grk “Go away and leave from here,” which is redundant in English and has been shortened to “Get away from here.”
84 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
85 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.
86 sn That fox. This is not fundamentally a figure for cleverness as in modern western culture, but could indicate (1) an insignificant person (Neh 4:3; 2 Esd 13:35 LXX); (2) a deceiver (Song Rabbah 2.15.1 on 2:15); or someone destructive, a destroyer (Ezek 13:4; Lam 5:18; 1 En. 89:10, 42-49, 55). Luke’s emphasis seems to be on destructiveness, since Herod killed John the Baptist, whom Luke calls “the greatest born of women” (Luke 7:28) and later stands opposed to Jesus (Acts 4:26-28). In addition, “a person who is designated a fox is an insignificant or base person. He lacks real power and dignity, using cunning deceit to achieve his aims” (H. W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas [SNTSMS], 347).
87 sn The third day is a figurative reference to being further on in time, not a reference to three days from now. Jesus is not even in Jerusalem yet, and the events of the last days in Jerusalem take a good week.
88 tn Or “I reach my goal.” The verb τελειόω (teleiow) is a key NT term for the completion of God’s plan: See Luke 12:50; 22:37; John 19:30; and (where it has the additional component of meaning “to perfect”) Heb 2:10; 5:8-9; 7:28.
89 tn This is the frequent expression δεῖ (dei, “it is necessary”) that notes something that is a part of God’s plan.
90 tn Or “unthinkable.” See L&N 71.4 for both possible meanings.
91 tn Or “should perish away from.”
92 sn Death in Jerusalem is another key theme in Luke’s material: 7:16, 34; 24:19; Acts 3:22-23. Notice that Jesus sees himself in the role of a prophet here. Jesus’ statement, it is impossible that a prophet should be killed outside Jerusalem, is filled with irony; Jesus, traveling about in Galilee (most likely), has nothing to fear from Herod; it is his own people living in the very center of Jewish religion and worship who present the greatest danger to his life. The underlying idea is that Jerusalem, though she stands at the very heart of the worship of God, often kills the prophets God sends to her (v. 34). In the end, Herod will be much less a threat than Jerusalem.
93 sn The double use of the city’s name betrays intense emotion.
94 tn Although the opening address (“Jerusalem, Jerusalem”) is direct (second person), the remainder of this sentence in the Greek text is third person (“who kills the prophets and stones those sent to her”). The following sentences then revert to second person (“your… you”), so to keep all this consistent in English, the third person pronouns in the present verse were translated as second person (“you who kill… sent to you”).
95 sn How often I have longed to gather your children. Jesus, like a lamenting prophet, speaks for God here, who longed to care tenderly for Israel and protect her.
96 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
97 tn Grk “you were not willing.”