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Leviticus 16:1

Context
The Day of Atonement

16:1 The Lord spoke to Moses after the death of Aaron’s two sons when they approached the presence of the Lord 1  and died,

Leviticus 16:34

Context
16:34 This is to be a perpetual statute for you 2  to make atonement for the Israelites for 3  all their sins once a year.” 4  So he did just as the Lord had commanded Moses. 5 

Leviticus 23:26-32

Context
The Day of Atonement

23:26 The Lord spoke to Moses: 23:27 “The 6  tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. 7  It is to be a holy assembly for you, and you must humble yourselves 8  and present a gift to the Lord. 23:28 You must not do any work on this particular day, 9  because it is a day of atonement to make atonement for yourselves 10  before the Lord your God. 23:29 Indeed, 11  any person who does not behave with humility on this particular day will be cut off from his people. 12  23:30 As for any person 13  who does any work on this particular day, I will exterminate 14  that person from the midst of his people! 15  23:31 You must not do any work. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations 16  in all the places where you live. 23:32 It is a Sabbath of complete rest for you, and you must humble yourselves on the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening until evening you must observe your Sabbath.” 17 

1 tn Heb “in their drawing near to the faces of the Lord.” The rendering here relies on the use of this expression for the very “presence” of God in Exod 33:14-15 and in the Lev 9:24-10:2 passage, where the Nadab and Abihu catastrophe referred to here is narrated.

2 tn Heb “And this shall be for you to a statute of eternity” (cf. v. 29a above). cf. NASB “a permanent statute”; NIV “a lasting ordinance.”

3 tn Heb “from”; see note on 4:26.

4 tn Heb “one [feminine] in the year.”

5 tn The MT of Lev 16:34b reads literally, “and he did just as the Lord had commanded Moses.” This has been retained here in spite of the fact that it suggests that Aaron immediately performed the rituals outlined in Lev 16 (see, e.g., J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 224 and 243; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:1059; note that Aaron was the one to whom Moses was to speak the regulations in this chapter, v. 2). The problem is that the chapter presents these procedures as regulations for “the tenth day of the seventh month” and calls for their fulfillment at that time (Lev 16:29; cf. Lev 23:26-32 and the remarks in P. J. Budd, Leviticus [NCBC], 237), not during the current (first) month (Exod 40:2; note also that they left Sinai in the second month, long before the next seventh month, Num 10:11). The LXX translates, “once in the year it shall be done as the Lord commanded Moses,” attaching “once in the year” to this clause rather than the former one, and rendering the verb as passive, “it shall be done” (cf. NAB, NIV, etc.). We have already observed the passive use of active verbs in this context (see the note on v. 32 above). The RSV (cf. also the NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT) translates, “And Moses did as the Lord commanded him,” ignoring the fact that the name Moses in the Hebrew text has the direct object indicator. Passive verbs, however, regularly take subjects with direct object indicators (see, e.g., v. 27 above). The NIV renders it “And it was done, as the Lord commanded Moses,” following the LXX passive translation. The NASB translates, “And just as the Lord had commanded Moses, so he did,” transposing the introductory verb to the end of the sentence and supplying “so” in order to make it fit the context.

6 tn Heb “Surely the tenth day” or perhaps “Precisely the tenth day.” The Hebrew adverbial particle אַךְ (’akh) is left untranslated by most recent English versions; cf. however NASB “On exactly the tenth day.”

7 sn See the description of this day and its regulations in Lev 16 and the notes there.

8 tn Heb “you shall humble your souls.” See the note on Lev 16:29 above.

9 tn Heb “in the bone of this day.”

10 tn Heb “on you [plural]”; cf. NASB, NRSV “on your behalf.”

11 tn The particular כִּי (ki) is taken in an asseverative sense here (“Indeed,” see the NJPS translation).

12 tn Heb “it [i.e., that person; literally “soul,” feminine] shall be cut off from its peoples [plural]”; NLT “from the community.”

13 tn Heb “And any person.”

14 tn See HALOT 3 s.v. I אבד hif. Cf. KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “destroy”; CEV “wipe out.”

15 tn Heb “its people” (“its” is feminine to agree with “person,” literally “soul,” which is feminine in Hebrew; cf. v. 29).

16 tn Heb “for your generations.”

17 tn Heb “you shall rest your Sabbath.”



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