NETBible KJV GRK-HEB XRef Arts Hymns
  Discovery Box

Leviticus 11:1--15:33

Context
Clean and Unclean Land Creatures

11:1 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying to them, 11:2 “Tell the Israelites: ‘This is the kind of creature you may eat from among all the animals 1  that are on the land. 11:3 You may eat any among the animals that has a divided hoof (the hooves are completely split in two 2 ) and that also chews the cud. 3  11:4 However, you must not eat these 4  from among those that chew the cud and have divided hooves: The camel is unclean to you 5  because it chews the cud 6  even though its hoof is not divided. 7  11:5 The rock badger 8  is unclean to you because it chews the cud even though its hoof is not divided. 11:6 The hare is unclean to you because it chews the cud even though its hoof is not divided. 11:7 The pig is unclean to you because its hoof is divided (the hoof is completely split in two 9 ), even though it does not chew the cud. 10  11:8 You must not eat from their meat and you must not touch their carcasses; 11  they are unclean to you.

Clean and Unclean Water Creatures

11:9 “‘These you can eat from all creatures that are in the water: Any creatures in the water that have both fins and scales, 12  whether in the seas or in the streams, 13  you may eat. 11:10 But any creatures that do not have both fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the streams, from all the swarming things of the water and from all the living creatures that are in the water, are detestable to you. 11:11 Since they are detestable to you, you must not eat their meat and their carcass you must detest. 11:12 Any creature in the water that does not have both fins and scales is detestable to you.

Clean and Unclean Birds

11:13 “‘These you are to detest from among the birds – they must not be eaten, because they are detestable: 14  the griffon vulture, the bearded vulture, the black vulture, 11:14 the kite, the buzzard of any kind, 15  11:15 every kind of crow, 16  11:16 the eagle owl, 17  the short-eared owl, the long-eared owl, the hawk of any kind, 11:17 the little owl, the cormorant, the screech owl, 11:18 the white owl, the scops owl, the osprey, 11:19 the stork, the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and the bat.

Clean and Unclean Insects

11:20 “‘Every winged swarming thing that walks on all fours 18  is detestable to you. 11:21 However, this you may eat from all the winged swarming things that walk on all fours, which have jointed legs 19  to hop with on the land. 11:22 These you may eat from them: 20  the locust of any kind, the bald locust of any kind, the cricket of any kind, the grasshopper of any kind. 11:23 But any other winged swarming thing that has four legs is detestable to you.

Carcass Uncleanness

11:24 “‘By these 21  you defile yourselves; anyone who touches their carcass will be unclean until the evening, 11:25 and anyone who carries their carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until the evening.

Inedible Land Quadrupeds

11:26 “‘All 22  animals that divide the hoof but it is not completely split in two 23  and do not chew the cud 24  are unclean to you; anyone who touches them becomes unclean. 25  11:27 All that walk on their paws among all the creatures that walk on all fours 26  are unclean to you. Anyone who touches their carcass will be unclean until the evening, 11:28 and the one who carries their carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening; they are unclean to you.

Creatures that Swarm on the Land

11:29 “‘Now this is what is unclean to you among the swarming things that swarm on the land: 27  the rat, the mouse, the large lizard of any kind, 11:30 the Mediterranean gecko, the spotted lizard, the wall gecko, the skink, and the chameleon. 11:31 These are the ones that are unclean to you among all the swarming things. Anyone who touches them when they die will be unclean until evening. 11:32 Also, anything they fall on 28  when they die will become unclean – any wood vessel or garment or article of leather or sackcloth. Any such vessel with which work is done must be immersed in water 29  and will be unclean until the evening. Then it will become clean. 11:33 As for any clay vessel they fall into, 30  everything in it 31  will become unclean and you must break it. 11:34 Any food that may be eaten which becomes soaked with water 32  will become unclean. Anything drinkable 33  in any such vessel will become unclean. 34  11:35 Anything their carcass may fall on will become unclean. An oven or small stove must be smashed to pieces; they are unclean, and they will stay unclean 35  to you. 11:36 However, a spring or a cistern which collects water 36  will be clean, but one who touches their carcass will be unclean. 11:37 Now, if such a carcass falls on any sowing seed which is to be sown, 37  it is clean, 11:38 but if water is put on the seed and such a carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.

Edible Land Quadrupeds

11:39 “‘Now if an animal 38  that you may eat dies, 39  whoever touches its carcass will be unclean until the evening. 11:40 One who eats from its carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening, and whoever carries its carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening. 11:41 Every swarming thing that swarms on the land is detestable; it must not be eaten. 11:42 You must not eat anything that crawls 40  on its belly or anything that walks on all fours or on any number of legs 41  of all the swarming things that swarm on the land, because they are detestable. 11:43 Do not make yourselves detestable by any of the swarming things. 42  You must not defile yourselves by them and become unclean by them, 11:44 for I am the Lord your God and you are to sanctify yourselves and be holy because I am holy. You must not defile yourselves by any of the swarming things that creep on the ground, 11:45 for I am the Lord who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God, 43  and you are to be holy because I am holy. 11:46 This is the law 44  of the land animals, the birds, all the living creatures that move in the water, and all the creatures 45  that swarm on the land, 11:47 to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between the living creatures that may be eaten and the living creatures that must not be eaten.’”

Purification of a Woman after Childbirth

12:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 12:2 “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a woman produces offspring 46  and bears a male child, 47  she will be unclean seven days, as she is unclean during the days of her menstruation. 48  12:3 On 49  the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin 50  must be circumcised. 12:4 Then she will remain 51  thirty-three days in blood purity. 52  She must not touch anything holy and she must not enter the sanctuary until the days of her purification are fulfilled. 53  12:5 If she bears a female child, she will be impure fourteen days as during her menstrual flow, and she will remain sixty-six days in 54  blood purity. 55 

12:6 “‘When 56  the days of her purification are completed for a son or for a daughter, she must bring a one year old lamb 57  for a burnt offering 58  and a young pigeon or turtledove for a sin offering 59  to the entrance of the Meeting Tent, to the priest. 12:7 The priest 60  is to present it before the Lord and make atonement 61  on her behalf, and she will be clean 62  from her flow of blood. 63  This is the law of the one who bears a child, for the male or the female child. 12:8 If she cannot afford a sheep, 64  then she must take two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 65  one for a burnt offering and one for a sin offering, and the priest is to make atonement on her behalf, and she will be clean.’” 66 

Infections on the Skin

13:1 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: 13:2 “When someone has 67  a swelling 68  or a scab 69  or a bright spot 70  on the skin of his body 71  that may become a diseased infection, 72  he must be brought to Aaron the priest or one of his sons, the priests. 73  13:3 The priest must then examine the infection 74  on the skin of the body, and if the hair 75  in the infection has turned white and the infection appears to be deeper than the skin of the body, 76  then it is a diseased infection, 77  so when the priest examines it 78  he must pronounce the person unclean. 79 

A Bright Spot on the Skin

13:4 “If 80  it is a white bright spot on the skin of his body, but it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 81  and the hair has not turned white, then the priest is to quarantine the person with the infection for seven days. 82  13:5 The priest must then examine it on the seventh day, and if, 83  as far as he can see, the infection has stayed the same 84  and has not spread on the skin, 85  then the priest is to quarantine the person for another seven days. 86  13:6 The priest must then examine it again on the seventh day, 87  and if 88  the infection has faded and has not spread on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce the person clean. 89  It is a scab, 90  so he must wash his clothes 91  and be clean. 13:7 If, however, the scab is spreading further 92  on the skin after he has shown himself to the priest for his purification, then he must show himself to the priest a second time. 13:8 The priest must then examine it, 93  and if 94  the scab has spread on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 95  It is a disease.

A Swelling on the Skin

13:9 “When someone has a diseased infection, 96  he must be brought to the priest. 13:10 The priest will then examine it, 97  and if 98  a white swelling is on the skin, it has turned the hair white, and there is raw flesh in the swelling, 99  13:11 it is a chronic 100  disease on the skin of his body, 101  so the priest is to pronounce him unclean. 102  The priest 103  must not merely quarantine him, for he is unclean. 104  13:12 If, however, the disease breaks out 105  on the skin so that the disease covers all the skin of the person with the infection 106  from his head to his feet, as far as the priest can see, 107  13:13 the priest must then examine it, 108  and if 109  the disease covers his whole body, he is to pronounce the person with the infection clean. 110  He has turned all white, so he is clean. 111  13:14 But whenever raw flesh appears in it 112  he will be unclean, 13:15 so the priest is to examine the raw flesh 113  and pronounce him unclean 114  – it is diseased. 13:16 If, however, 115  the raw flesh once again turns white, 116  then he must come to the priest. 13:17 The priest will then examine it, 117  and if 118  the infection has turned white, the priest is to pronounce the person with the infection clean 119  – he is clean.

A Boil on the Skin

13:18 “When someone’s body has a boil on its skin 120  and it heals, 13:19 and in the place of the boil there is a white swelling or a reddish white bright spot, he must show himself to the priest. 121  13:20 The priest will then examine it, 122  and if 123  it appears to be deeper than the skin 124  and its hair has turned white, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 125  It is a diseased infection that has broken out in the boil. 126  13:21 If, however, 127  the priest examines it, and 128  there is no white hair in it, it is not deeper than the skin, and it has faded, then the priest is to quarantine him for seven days. 129  13:22 If 130  it is spreading further 131  on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce him unclean. 132  It is an infection. 13:23 But if the bright spot stays in its place and has not spread, 133  it is the scar of the boil, so the priest is to pronounce him clean. 134 

A Burn on the Skin

13:24 “When a body has a burn on its skin 135  and the raw area of the burn becomes a reddish white or white bright spot, 13:25 the priest must examine it, 136  and if 137  the hair has turned white in the bright spot and it appears to be deeper than the skin, 138  it is a disease that has broken out in the burn. 139  The priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 140  It is a diseased infection. 141  13:26 If, however, 142  the priest examines it and 143  there is no white hair in the bright spot, it is not deeper than the skin, 144  and it has faded, then the priest is to quarantine him for seven days. 145  13:27 The priest must then examine it on the seventh day, and if it is spreading further 146  on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce him unclean. It is a diseased infection. 147  13:28 But if the bright spot stays in its place, has not spread on the skin, 148  and it has faded, then it is the swelling of the burn, so the priest is to pronounce him clean, 149  because it is the scar of the burn.

Scall on the Head or in the Beard

13:29 “When a man or a woman has an infection on the head or in the beard, 150  13:30 the priest is to examine the infection, 151  and if 152  it appears to be deeper than the skin 153  and the hair in it is reddish yellow and thin, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 154  It is scall, 155  a disease of the head or the beard. 156  13:31 But if the priest examines the scall infection and it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 157  and there is no black hair in it, then the priest is to quarantine the person with the scall infection for seven days. 158  13:32 The priest must then examine the infection on the seventh day, and if 159  the scall has not spread, there is no reddish yellow hair in it, and the scall does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 160  13:33 then the individual is to shave himself, 161  but he must not shave the area affected by the scall, 162  and the priest is to quarantine the person with the scall for another seven days. 163  13:34 The priest must then examine the scall on the seventh day, and if 164  the scall has not spread on the skin and it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 165  then the priest is to pronounce him clean. 166  So he is to wash his clothes and be clean. 13:35 If, however, the scall spreads further 167  on the skin after his purification, 13:36 then the priest is to examine it, and if 168  the scall has spread on the skin the priest is not to search further for reddish yellow hair. 169  The person 170  is unclean. 13:37 If, as far as the priest can see, the scall has stayed the same 171  and black hair has sprouted in it, the scall has been healed; the person is clean. So the priest is to pronounce him clean. 172 

Bright White Spots on the Skin

13:38 “When a man or a woman has bright spots – white bright spots – on the skin of their body, 13:39 the priest is to examine them, 173  and if 174  the bright spots on the skin of their body are faded white, it is a harmless rash that has broken out on the skin. The person is clean. 175 

Baldness on the Head

13:40 “When a man’s head is bare so that he is balding in back, 176  he is clean. 13:41 If his head is bare on the forehead 177  so that he is balding in front, 178  he is clean. 13:42 But if there is a reddish white infection in the back or front bald area, it is a disease breaking out in his back or front bald area. 13:43 The priest is to examine it, 179  and if 180  the swelling of the infection is reddish white in the back or front bald area like the appearance of a disease on the skin of the body, 181  13:44 he is a diseased man. He is unclean. The priest must surely pronounce him unclean because of his infection on his head. 182 

The Life of the Person with Skin Disease

13:45 “As for the diseased person who has the infection, 183  his clothes must be torn, the hair of his head must be unbound, he must cover his mustache, 184  and he must call out ‘Unclean! Unclean!’ 13:46 The whole time he has the infection 185  he will be continually unclean. He must live in isolation, and his place of residence must be outside the camp.

Infections in Garments, Cloth, or Leather

13:47 “When a garment has a diseased infection in it, 186  whether a wool or linen garment, 187  13:48 or in the warp or woof 188  of the linen or the wool, or in leather or anything made of leather, 189  13:49 if the infection 190  in the garment or leather or warp or woof or any article of leather is yellowish green or reddish, it is a diseased infection and it must be shown to the priest. 13:50 The priest is to examine and then quarantine the article with the infection for seven days. 191  13:51 He must then examine the infection on the seventh day. If the infection has spread in the garment, or in the warp, or in the woof, or in the leather – whatever the article into which the leather was made 192  – the infection is a malignant disease. It is unclean. 13:52 He must burn the garment or the warp or the woof, whether wool or linen, or any article of leather which has the infection in it. Because it is a malignant disease it must be burned up in the fire. 13:53 But if the priest examines it and 193  the infection has not spread in the garment or in the warp or in the woof or in any article of leather, 13:54 the priest is to command that they wash whatever has the infection and quarantine it for another seven days. 194  13:55 The priest must then examine it after the infection has been washed out, and if 195  the infection has not changed its appearance 196  even though the infection has not spread, it is unclean. You must burn it up in the fire. It is a fungus, whether on the back side or front side of the article. 197  13:56 But if the priest has examined it and 198  the infection has faded after it has been washed, he is to tear it out of 199  the garment or the leather or the warp or the woof. 13:57 Then if 200  it still appears again in the garment or the warp or the woof, or in any article of leather, it is an outbreak. Whatever has the infection in it you must burn up in the fire. 13:58 But the garment or the warp or the woof or any article of leather which you wash and infection disappears from it 201  is to be washed a second time and it will be clean.”

Summary of Infection Regulations

13:59 This is the law 202  of the diseased infection in the garment of wool or linen, or the warp or woof, or any article of leather, for pronouncing it clean or unclean. 203 

Purification of Diseased Skin Infections

14:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 14:2 “This is the law of the diseased person on the day of his purification, when 204  he is brought to the priest. 205  14:3 The priest is to go outside the camp and examine the infection. 206  If the infection of the diseased person has been healed, 207  14:4 then the priest will command that two live clean birds, a piece of cedar wood, a scrap of crimson fabric, 208  and some twigs of hyssop 209  be taken up 210  for the one being cleansed. 211  14:5 The priest will then command that one bird be slaughtered 212  into a clay vessel over fresh water. 213  14:6 Then 214  he is to take the live bird along with the piece of cedar wood, the scrap of crimson fabric, and the twigs of hyssop, and he is to dip them and the live bird in the blood of the bird slaughtered over the fresh water, 14:7 and sprinkle it seven times on the one being cleansed 215  from the disease, pronounce him clean, 216  and send the live bird away over the open countryside. 217 

The Seven Days of Purification

14:8 “The one being cleansed 218  must then wash his clothes, shave off all his hair, and bathe in water, and so be clean. 219  Then afterward he may enter the camp, but he must live outside his tent seven days. 14:9 When the seventh day comes 220  he must shave all his hair – his head, his beard, his eyebrows, all his hair – and he must wash his clothes, bathe his body in water, and so be clean. 221 

The Eighth Day Atonement Rituals

14:10 “On the eighth day he 222  must take two flawless male lambs, one flawless yearling female lamb, three-tenths of an ephah of choice wheat flour as a grain offering mixed with olive oil, 223  and one log of olive oil, 224  14:11 and the priest who pronounces him clean will have the man who is being cleansed stand along with these offerings 225  before the Lord at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.

14:12 “The priest is to take one male lamb 226  and present it for a guilt offering 227  along with the log of olive oil and present them as a wave offering before the Lord. 228  14:13 He must then slaughter 229  the male lamb in the place where 230  the sin offering 231  and the burnt offering 232  are slaughtered, 233  in the sanctuary, because, like the sin offering, the guilt offering belongs to the priest; 234  it is most holy. 14:14 Then the priest is to take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the right earlobe of the one being cleansed, 235  on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe 236  of his right foot. 14:15 The priest will then take some of the log of olive oil and pour it into his own left hand. 237  14:16 Then the priest is to dip his right forefinger into the olive oil 238  that is in his left hand, and sprinkle some of the olive oil with his finger seven times before the Lord. 14:17 The priest will then put some of the rest of the olive oil that is in his hand 239  on the right earlobe of the one being cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot, on the blood of the guilt offering, 14:18 and the remainder of the olive oil 240  that is in his hand the priest is to put on the head of the one being cleansed. So the priest is to make atonement for him before the Lord.

14:19 “The priest must then perform the sin offering 241  and make atonement for the one being cleansed from his impurity. After that he 242  is to slaughter the burnt offering, 14:20 and the priest is to offer 243  the burnt offering and the grain offering on the altar. So the priest is to make atonement for him and he will be clean.

The Eighth Day Atonement Rituals for the Poor Person

14:21 “If the person is poor and does not have sufficient means, 244  he must take one male lamb as a guilt offering for a wave offering to make atonement for himself, one-tenth of an ephah of choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil for a grain offering, a log of olive oil, 245  14:22 and two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 246  which are within his means. 247  One will be a sin offering and the other a burnt offering. 248 

14:23 “On the eighth day he must bring them for his purification to the priest at the entrance 249  of the Meeting Tent before the Lord, 14:24 and the priest is to take the male lamb of the guilt offering and the log of olive oil and wave them 250  as a wave offering before the Lord. 14:25 Then he is to slaughter the male lamb of the guilt offering, and the priest is to take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the right earlobe of the one being cleansed, 251  on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe 252  of his right foot. 14:26 The priest will then pour some of the olive oil into his own left hand, 253  14:27 and sprinkle some of the olive oil that is in his left hand with his right forefinger 254  seven times before the Lord. 14:28 Then the priest is to put some of the olive oil that is in his hand 255  on the right earlobe of the one being cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot, on the place of the blood of the guilt offering, 14:29 and the remainder of the olive oil that is in the hand 256  of the priest he is to put 257  on the head of the one being cleansed to make atonement for him before the Lord.

14:30 “He will then make one of the turtledoves 258  or young pigeons, which are within his means, 259  14:31 a sin offering and the other a burnt offering along with the grain offering. 260  So the priest is to make atonement for the one being cleansed before the Lord. 14:32 This is the law of the one in whom there is a diseased infection, 261  who does not have sufficient means for his purification.” 262 

Purification of Disease-Infected Houses

14:33 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: 14:34 “When you enter the land of Canaan which I am about to give 263  to you for a possession, and I put 264  a diseased infection in a house in the land you are to possess, 265  14:35 then whoever owns the house 266  must come and declare to the priest, ‘Something like an infection is visible to me in the house.’ 14:36 Then the priest will command that the house be cleared 267  before the priest enters to examine the infection 268  so that everything in the house 269  does not become unclean, 270  and afterward 271  the priest will enter to examine the house. 14:37 He is to examine the infection, and if 272  the infection in the walls of the house consists of yellowish green or reddish eruptions, 273  and it appears to be deeper than the surface of the wall, 274  14:38 then the priest is to go out of the house to the doorway of the house and quarantine the house for seven days. 275  14:39 The priest must return on the seventh day and examine it, and if 276  the infection has spread in the walls of the house, 14:40 then the priest is to command that the stones that had the infection in them be pulled and thrown 277  outside the city 278  into an unclean place. 14:41 Then he is to have the house scraped 279  all around on the inside, 280  and the plaster 281  which is scraped off 282  must be dumped outside the city 283  into an unclean place. 14:42 They are then to take other stones and replace those stones, 284  and he is to take other plaster and replaster the house.

14:43 “If the infection returns and breaks out in the house after he has pulled out the stones, scraped the house, and it is replastered, 285  14:44 the priest is to come and examine it, and if 286  the infection has spread in the house, it is a malignant disease in the house. It is unclean. 14:45 He must tear down the house, 287  its stones, its wood, and all the plaster of the house, and bring all of it 288  outside the city to an unclean place. 14:46 Anyone who enters 289  the house all the days the priest 290  has quarantined it will be unclean until evening. 14:47 Anyone who lies down in the house must wash his clothes. Anyone who eats in the house must wash his clothes.

14:48 “If, however, the priest enters 291  and examines it, and the 292  infection has not spread in the house after the house has been replastered, then the priest is to pronounce the house clean because the infection has been healed. 14:49 Then he 293  is to take two birds, a piece of cedar wood, a scrap of crimson fabric, and some twigs of hyssop 294  to decontaminate 295  the house, 14:50 and he is to slaughter one bird into a clay vessel over fresh water. 296  14:51 He must then take the piece of cedar wood, the twigs of hyssop, the scrap of crimson fabric, and the live bird, and dip them in the blood of the slaughtered bird and in the fresh water, and sprinkle the house seven times. 14:52 So he is to decontaminate the house with the blood of the bird, the fresh water, the live bird, the piece of cedar wood, the twigs of hyssop, and the scrap of crimson fabric, 14:53 and he is to send the live bird away outside the city 297  into the open countryside. So he is to make atonement for the house and it will be clean.

Summary of Purification Regulations for Infections

14:54 “This is the law for all diseased infections, for scall, 298  14:55 for the diseased garment, 299  for the house, 300  14:56 for the swelling, 301  for the scab, 302  and for the bright spot, 303  14:57 to teach when something is unclean and when it is clean. 304  This is the law for dealing with infectious disease.” 305 

Male Bodily Discharges

15:1 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: 15:2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When any man 306  has a discharge 307  from his body, 308  his discharge is unclean. 15:3 Now this is his uncleanness in regard to his discharge 309  – whether his body secretes his discharge or blocks his discharge, he is unclean. All the days that his body has a discharge or his body blocks his discharge, 310  this is his uncleanness. 311 

15:4 “‘Any bed the man with a discharge lies on will be unclean, 312  and any furniture he sits on will be unclean. 313  15:5 Anyone who touches his bed 314  must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 315  15:6 The one who sits on the furniture the man with a discharge sits on must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:7 The one who touches the body 316  of the man with a discharge must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:8 If the man with a discharge spits on a person who is ceremonially clean, 317  that person must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:9 Any means of riding 318  the man with a discharge rides on will be unclean. 15:10 Anyone who touches anything that was under him 319  will be unclean until evening, and the one who carries those items 320  must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:11 Anyone whom the man with the discharge touches without having rinsed his hands in water 321  must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:12 A clay vessel 322  which the man with the discharge touches must be broken, and any wooden utensil must be rinsed in water.

Purity Regulations for Male Bodily Discharges

15:13 “‘When the man with the discharge becomes clean from his discharge he is to count off for himself seven days for his purification, and he must wash his clothes, bathe in fresh water, 323  and be clean. 15:14 Then on the eighth day he is to take for himself two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 324  and he is to present himself 325  before the Lord at the entrance of the Meeting Tent and give them to the priest, 15:15 and the priest is to make one of them a sin offering 326  and the other a burnt offering. 327  So the priest 328  is to make atonement for him before the Lord for 329  his discharge.

15:16 “‘When a man has a seminal emission, 330  he must bathe his whole body in water 331  and be unclean until evening, 15:17 and he must wash in water any clothing or leather that has semen on it, and it will be unclean until evening. 15:18 When a man has sexual intercourse with a woman and there is a seminal emission, 332  they must bathe in water and be unclean until evening.

Female Bodily Discharges

15:19 “‘When a woman has a discharge 333  and her discharge is blood from her body, 334  she is to be in her menstruation 335  seven days, and anyone who touches her will be unclean until evening. 15:20 Anything she lies on during her menstruation will be unclean, and anything she sits on will be unclean. 15:21 Anyone who touches her bed must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:22 Anyone who touches any furniture she sits on must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 15:23 If there is something on the bed or on the furniture she sits on, 336  when he touches it 337  he will be unclean until evening, 15:24 and if a man actually has sexual intercourse with her so that her menstrual impurity touches him, 338  then he will be unclean seven days and any bed he lies on will be unclean.

15:25 “‘When a woman’s discharge of blood flows 339  many days not at the time of her menstruation, or if it flows beyond the time of her menstruation, 340  all the days of her discharge of impurity will be like the days of her menstruation – she is unclean. 15:26 Any bed she lies on all the days of her discharge will be to her like the bed of her menstruation, any furniture she sits on will be unclean like the impurity of her menstruation, 15:27 and anyone who touches them will be unclean, and he must wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean until evening. 341 

Purity Regulations from Female Bodily Discharges

15:28 “‘If 342  she becomes clean from her discharge, then she is to count off for herself seven days, and afterward she will be clean. 15:29 Then on the eighth day she must take for herself two turtledoves or two young pigeons 343  and she must bring them to the priest at the entrance of the Meeting Tent, 15:30 and the priest is to make one a sin offering and the other a burnt offering. 344  So the priest 345  is to make atonement for her before the Lord from her discharge of impurity.

Summary of Purification Regulations for Bodily Discharges

15:31 “‘Thus you 346  are to set the Israelites apart from their impurity so that they 347  do not die in their impurity by defiling my tabernacle which is in their midst. 15:32 This is the law of the one with a discharge: the one who has a seminal emission 348  and becomes unclean by it, 349  15:33 the one who is sick in her menstruation, the one with a discharge, whether male or female, 350  and a man 351  who has sexual intercourse with an unclean woman.’”

1 tn Heb “the animal,” but as a collective plural, and so throughout this chapter.

2 tn Heb “every divider of hoof and cleaver of the cleft of hooves”; KJV, ASV “parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted.”

3 tn Heb “bringer up of the cud” (a few of the ancient versions include the conjunction “and,” but it does not appear in the MT). The following verses make it clear that both dividing the hoof and chewing the cud were required; one of these conditions would not be enough to make the animal suitable for eating without the other.

4 tn Heb “this,” but as a collective plural (see the following context).

5 sn Regarding “clean” versus “unclean,” see the note on Lev 10:10.

6 tn Heb “because a chewer of the cud it is” (see also vv. 5 and 6).

7 tn Heb “and hoof there is not dividing” (see also vv. 5 and 6).

8 sn A small animal generally understood to be Hyrax syriacus; KJV, ASV, NIV “coney”; NKJV “rock hyrax.”

9 tn See the note on Lev 11:3.

10 tn The meaning and basic rendering of this clause is quite certain, but the verb for “chewing” the cud here is not the same as the preceding verses, where the expression is “to bring up the cud” (see the note on v. 3 above). It appears to be a cognate verb for the noun “cud” (גֵּרָה, gerah) and could mean either “to drag up” (i.e., from the Hebrew Qal of גָרָר [garar] meaning “to drag,” referring to the dragging the cud up and down between the stomach and mouth of the ruminant animal; so J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:647, 653) or “to chew” (i.e., from the Hebrew Niphal [or Qal B] of גָרָר used in a reciprocal sense; so J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 149, and compare BDB 176 s.v. גָרַר, “to chew,” with HALOT 204 s.v. גרר qal.B, “to ruminate”).

11 sn The regulations against touching the carcasses of dead unclean animals (contrast the restriction against eating their flesh) is treated in more detail in Lev 11:24-28 (cf. also vv. 29-40). For the time being, this chapter continues to develop the issue of what can and cannot be eaten.

12 tn Heb “all which have fin and scale” (see also vv. 10 and 12).

13 tn Heb “in the water, in the seas and in the streams” (see also vv. 10 and 12).

14 tn For zoological remarks on the following list of birds see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:662-64; and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 159-60.

15 tn Heb “and the buzzard to its kind” (see also vv. 16 and 19 for the same expression “of any kind”).

16 tn Heb “every crow to its kind.” Many English versions (e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) render this as “raven.”

17 tn Literally, “the daughter of the wasteland.” Various proposals for the species of bird referred to here include “owl” (KJV), “horned owl” (NIV, NCV), and “ostrich” (ASV, NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT).

18 tn Heb “the one walking on four” (cf. vv. 21-23 and 27-28).

19 tn Heb “which to it are lower legs from above to its feet” (reading the Qere “to it” rather than the Kethib “not”).

20 tn For entomological remarks on the following list of insects see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:665-66; and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 160-61.

21 tn Heb “and to these.”

22 tn Heb “to all” (cf. the note on v. 24). This and the following verses develop more fully the categories of uncleanness set forth in principle in vv. 24-25.

23 tn Heb “divides hoof and cleft it does not cleave”; KJV “divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted”; NLT “divided but unsplit hooves.”

24 tn See the note on Lev 11:3.

25 sn Compare the regulations in Lev 11:2-8.

26 tn Heb “the one walking on four.” Compare Lev 11:20-23.

27 tn For zoological analyses of the list of creatures in vv. 29-30, see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:671-72; and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 161-62.

28 tn Heb “And all which it shall fall on it from them.”

29 tn Heb “in water it shall be brought.”

30 tn Heb “And any earthenware vessel which shall fall from them into its midst.”

31 tn Heb “all which is in its midst.”

32 tn Heb “which water comes on it.”

33 tn Heb “any drink which may be drunk”; NASB “any liquid which may be drunk”; NLT “any beverage that is in such an unclean container.”

34 tn This half of the verse assumes that the unclean carcass has fallen into the food or drink (cf. v. 33 and also vv. 35-38).

35 tn Heb “be unclean.”

36 tn Heb “a spring and a cistern collection of water”; NAB, NIV “for collecting water.”

37 tn Heb “And if there falls from their carcass on any seed of sowing which shall be sown.”

38 tn This word for “animal” refers to land animal quadrupeds, not just any beast that dwells on the land (cf. 11:2).

39 tn Heb “which is food for you” or “which is for you to eat.”

40 tn Heb “goes” (KJV, ASV “goeth”); NIV “moves about”; NLT “slither along.” The same Hebrew term is translated “walks” in the following clause.

41 tn Heb “until all multiplying of legs.”

42 tn Heb “by any of the swarming things that swarm.”

43 tn Heb “to be to you for a God.”

44 sn The Hebrew term translated “law” (תוֹרָה, torah) introduces here a summary or colophon for all of Lev 11. Similar summaries are found in Lev 7:37-38; 13:59; 14:54-57; and 15:32-33.

45 tn Heb “for all the creatures.”

46 tn Heb “produces seed” (Hiphil of זָרַע, zara’; used only elsewhere in Gen 1:11-12 for plants “producing” their own “seed”), referring to the process of childbearing as a whole, from conception to the time of birth (H. D. Preuss, TDOT 4:144; cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 164-65; and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:742-43). Smr and LXX have Niphal “be impregnated” (see, e.g., Num 5:28); note KJV “If a woman have conceived seed” (cf. ASV, NAB, NRSV; also NIV, NLT “becomes pregnant”).

47 sn The regulations for the “male child” in vv. 2-4 contrast with those for the “female child” in v. 5 (see the note there).

48 tn Heb “as the days of the menstrual flow [nom.] of her menstruating [q. inf.] she shall be unclean” (R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:925-26; the verb appears only in this verse in the OT). Cf. NASB “as in the days of her menstruation”; NLT “during her menstrual period”; NIV “during her monthly period.”

sn See Lev 15:19-24 for the standard purity regulations for a woman’s menstrual period.

49 tn Heb “and in….”

50 tn This rendering, “the flesh of his foreskin,” is literal. Based on Lev 15:2-3, one could argue that the Hebrew word for “flesh” here (בָּשָׂר, basar) is euphemistic for the male genitals and therefore translate “the foreskin of his member” (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:748). A number of English versions omit this reference to the foreskin and mention only circumcision, presumably for euphemistic reasons (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).

51 tn Heb “sit, dwell” (יָשָׁב, yashav) normally means “to sit, to dwell”), but here it means “to remain, to stay” in the same condition for a period of time (cf., e.g., Gen 24:55).

52 tn Heb “in bloods of purification” or “purifying” or “purity”; NASB “in the blood of her purification”; NRSV “her time of blood purification.” See the following note.

53 tn The initial seven days after the birth of a son were days of blood impurity for the woman as if she were having her menstrual period. Her impurity was contagious during this period, so no one should touch her or even furniture on which she has sat or reclined (Lev 15:19-23), lest they too become impure. Even her husband would become impure for seven days if he had sexual intercourse with her during this time (Lev 15:24; cf. 18:19). The next thirty-three days were either “days of purification, purifying” or “days of purity,” depending on how one understands the abstract noun טֹהֳרָה (toharah, “purification, purity”) in this context. During this time the woman could not touch anything holy or enter the sanctuary, but she was no longer contagious like she had been during the first seven days. She could engage in normal everyday life, including sexual intercourse, without fear of contaminating anyone else (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 73-74; cf. J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:749-50). Thus, in a sense, the thirty-three days were a time of blood “purity” (cf. the present translation) as compared to the previous seven days of blood “impurity,” but they were also a time of blood “purification” (or “purifying”) as compared to the time after the thirty-three days, when the blood atonement had been made and she was pronounced “clean” by the priest (see vv. 6-8 below). In other words, the thirty-three day period was a time of “blood” (flow), but this was “pure blood,” as opposed to the blood of the first seven days.

54 tn Heb “on purity blood.” The preposition here is עַל (’al) rather than בְּ (bÿ, as it is in the middle of v. 4), but no doubt the same meaning is intended.

55 tn For clarification of the translation here, see the notes on vv. 2-4 above.

sn The doubling of the time after the birth of a female child is puzzling (see the remarks in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:750-51; and G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 188). Some have argued, for example, that it derives from the relative status of the sexes, or a supposed longer blood flow for the birth of a woman, or even to compensate for the future menstrual periods of the female just born. Perhaps there is a better explanation. First, a male child must be circumcised on the eighth day, so the impurity of the mother could not last beyond the first seven days lest it interfere with the circumcision rite. A female child, of course, was not circumcised, so the impurity of the mother would not interfere and the length of the impure time could be extended further. Second, it would be natural to expect that the increased severity of the blood flow after childbirth, as compared to that of a woman’s menstrual period, would call for a longer period of impurity than the normal seven days of the menstrual period impurity (compare Lev 15:19 with 15:25-30). Third, this suggests that the fourteen day impurity period for the female child would have been more appropriate, and the impurity period for the birth of a male child had to be shortened. Fourth, not only the principle of multiples of seven but also multiples of forty applies to this reckoning. Since the woman’s blood discharge after bearing a child continues for more than seven days, her discharge keeps her from contact with sacred things for a longer period of time in order to avoid contaminating the tabernacle (note Lev 15:31). This ended up totaling forty days for the birth of a male child (seven plus thirty-three) and a corresponding doubling of the second set of days for the woman (fourteen plus sixty-six). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:368-70. The fact that the offerings were the same for either a male or a female infant (vv. 6-8) suggests that the other differences in the regulations are not due to the notion that a male child had greater intrinsic value than a female child (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 169).

56 tn Heb “And when” (so KJV, NASB). Many recent English versions leave the conjunction untranslated.

57 tn Heb “a lamb the son of his year”; KJV “a lamb of the first year” (NRSV “in its first year”); NAB “a yearling lamb.”

58 sn See the note on Lev 1:3 regarding the “burnt offering.”

59 sn See the note on Lev 4:3 regarding the term “sin offering.”

60 tn Heb “and he” (i.e., the priest mentioned at the end of v. 6). The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

61 sn See the note on Lev 1:4 “make atonement.” The purpose of sin offering “atonement,” in particular, was to purge impurities from the tabernacle (see Lev 15:31 and 16:5-19, 29-34), whether they were caused by physical uncleannesses or by sins and iniquities. In this case, the woman has not “sinned” morally by having a child. Even Mary brought such offerings for giving birth to Jesus (Luke 2:22-24), though she certainly did not “sin” in giving birth to him. Note that the result of bringing this “sin offering” was “she will be clean,” not “she will be forgiven” (cf. Lev 4:20, 26, 31, 35; 5:10, 13). The impurity of the blood flow has caused the need for this “sin offering,” not some moral or relational infringement of the law (contrast Lev 4:2, “When a person sins by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the Lord”).

62 tn Or “she will be[come] pure.”

63 tn Heb “from her source [i.e., spring] of blood,” possibly referring to the female genital area, not just the “flow of blood” itself (as suggested by J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:761). Cf. ASV “from the fountain of her blood.”

64 tn Heb “If her hand cannot find the sufficiency of a sheep.” Many English versions render this as “lamb.”

65 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168, with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14; cf. Lev 1:14 and esp. 5:7-10).

66 tn Or “she will be[come] pure.”

67 tn Heb “A man, if [or when] he has….” The term for “a man, human being” (אָדָם, ’adam; see the note on Lev 1:2) in this case refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female, since either could be afflicted with infections on the skin.

68 tn Some of the terms for disease or symptoms of disease in this chapter present difficulties for the translator. Most modern English versions render the Hebrew term שְׂאֵת (sÿet) as “swelling,” which has been retained here (see the explanation in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 189). Some have argued that “deeper (עָמֹק, ’amoq) than the skin of his body” in v. 3 means that “this sore was lower than the surrounding skin” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:773), in which case “swelling” would be an inappropriate translation of שְׂאֵת in v. 2. Similarly, שְׂאֵת also occurs in v. 19, and then v. 20 raises the issue of whether or not it appears to be “lower (שָׁפָל, shafal) than the skin” (cf. also 14:37 for a mark on the wall of a house), which may mean that the sore sinks below the surface of the skin rather than protruding above it as a swelling would (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 76-77). Thus, one could translate here, for example, “discoloration” (so Milgrom and II שְׂאֵת “spot, blemish on the skin” in HALOT 1301 s.v. II שְׂאֵת) or “local inflammation, boil, mole” (so Levine). However, one could interpret “lower” as “deeper,” i.e., visibly extending below the surface of the skin into the deeper layers as suggested by J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 188, 192. “Swelling” often extends deeply below the surface of the skin, it is certainly a common symptom of skin diseases, and the alternation of these two terms (i.e., “deeper” and “lower”) in vv. 25-26 below shows that they both refer to the same phenomenon (see also the note on v. 20 below), so it is retained in the present translation.

69 tn The etymology and meaning of this term is unknown. It could mean “scab” (KJV, ASV, NASB) or possibly “rash” (NIV, NLT), “flaking skin,” or an “eruption” (NRSV) of some sort.

70 tn Heb “shiny spot” or “white spot,” but to render this term “white spot” in this chapter would create redundancy in v. 4 where the regular term for “white” occurs alongside this word for “bright spot.”

71 tn Heb “in the skin of his flesh” as opposed to the head or the beard (v. 29).

72 tn Heb “a mark [or stroke; or plague] of disease.” In some places in this context (vv. 2, 3) it could be translated “a contagious skin disease.” Although the Hebrew term צָרָעַת (tsaraat) rendered here “diseased” is translated in many English versions as “leprosy,” it does not refer to Hanson’s disease, which is the modern technical understanding of the term “leprosy” (HALOT 1057 s.v. צָרְעַת a). There has been much discussion of the proper meaning of the term and the disease(s) to which it may refer (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:774-76, 816-26; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 187-89; and the literature cited by them). The further description of the actual condition in the text suggests that the regulations are concerned with any kind of infectious diseases that are observable on the surface of the skin and, in addition to that, penetrate below the surface of the skin (vv. 3-4) or spread further across the surface of the skin (vv. 5-8). It is true that, in the OT, the term “disease” is often associated specifically with white “scaly” skin diseases that resemble the wasting away of the skin after death (see Milgrom who, in fact, translates “scale disease”; cf., e.g., Exod 4:6-7 and Num 12:9-12, esp. v. 12), but here it appears to be a broader term for any skin disease that penetrates deep or spreads far on the body. Scaly skin diseases would be included in this category, but also other types. Thus, a “swelling,” “scab,” or “bright spot” on the skin might be a symptom of disease, but not necessarily so. In this sense, “diseased” is a technical term. The term “infection” can apply to any “mark” on the skin whether it belongs to the category of “disease” or not (compare and contrast v. 3, where the “infection” is not “diseased,” with v. 4, where the “infection” is found to be “diseased”).

73 tn Or “it shall be reported to Aaron the priest.” This alternative rendering may be better in light of the parallel use of the same expression in Lev 14:2, where the priest had to go outside the camp in order to inspect the person who had been diseased. Since the rendering “he shall be brought to Aaron the priest” might confuse matters there, this expression should be rendered “it shall be reported” both here in 13:2 (cf. also v. 9) and in 14:2. See, however, the further note on 14:2 below, where it is argued that the diseased person would still need to “be brought” to the priest even if this happened outside the camp. Most English versions retain the idea of the afflicted person being “brought” to the priest for inspection.

74 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the infection.”

75 tn There is no “if” expressed, but the contrast between the priestly finding in this verse and the next verse clearly implies it.

76 tn Heb “and the appearance of the infection is deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “deeper than”) the skin of the his flesh.” See the note on v. 20 below.

77 tn For the translation “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above. Cf. TEV “a dreaded skin disease”; NIV “an infectious skin disease”; NLT “a contagious skin disease.”

78 tn The pronoun “it” here refers to the “infection,” not the person who has the infection (cf. the object of “examine” at the beginning of the verse).

79 tn Heb “he shall make him unclean.” The verb is the Piel of טָמֵא (tame’) “to be unclean.” Here it is a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare unclean”), but it also implies that the person is put into the category of actually being “unclean” by the pronouncement itself (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 175; cf. the corresponding opposite in v. 6 below).

80 tn Heb “and if.”

81 tn Heb “and deep is not its appearance from the skin”; cf. NAB “does not seem to have penetrated below the skin.”

82 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the infection seven days.”

83 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

84 tn Heb “the infection has stood in his eyes”; ASV “if in his eyes the plague be at a stay.”

85 tn Although there is no expressed “and” at the beginning of this clause, there is in the corresponding clause of v. 6, so it should be assumed here as well.

86 tn Heb “a second seven days.”

87 tn That is, at the end of the second set of seven days referred to at the end of v. 5, a total of fourteen days after the first appearance before the priest.

88 tn Heb “and behold.”

89 tn Heb “he shall make him clean.” The verb is the Piel of טָהֵר (taher, “to be clean”). Here it is a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare clean”), but it also implies that the person is put into the category of being “clean” by the pronouncement itself (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 176; cf. the corresponding opposite in v. 3 above).

90 tn On the term “scab” see the note on v. 2 above. Cf. NAB “it was merely eczema”; NRSV “only an eruption”; NLT “only a temporary rash.”

91 tn Heb “and he shall wash his clothes.”

92 tn Heb “And if spreading [infinitive absolute] it spreads [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.

93 tn The “it” is not expressed but is to be understood. It refers to the “infection” (cf. the note on v. 2 above).

94 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

95 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’, cf. the note on v. 3 above).

96 tn Heb “When there is an infection of disease in a man.” The term for “a man; a human being” (אָדָם, ’adam; see the note on Lev 1:2 and cf. v. 2 above) refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female. For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.

97 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.” The pronoun “it” is unexpressed, but it should be assumed and it refers to the infection (cf. the note on v. 8 above).

98 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

99 tn Heb “and rawness [i.e., something living] of living flesh is in the swelling”; KJV, NASB, NRSV “quick raw flesh.”

100 tn The term rendered here “chronic” is a Niphal participle meaning “grown old” (HALOT 448 s.v. II ישׁן nif.2). The idea is that this is an old enduring skin disease that keeps on developing or recurring.

101 tn Heb “in the skin of his flesh” as opposed to the head or the beard (v. 29; cf. v. 2 above).

102 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’, cf. the note on v. 3 above).

103 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

104 sn Instead of just the normal quarantine isolation, this condition calls for the more drastic and enduring response stated in Lev 13:45-46. Raw flesh, of course, sometimes oozes blood to one degree or another, and blood flows are by nature impure (see, e.g., Lev 12 and 15; cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 191).

105 tn Heb “And if spreading [infinitive absolute] it spreads out [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.

106 tn Heb “all the skin of the infection,” but see v. 4 above.

107 tn Heb “to all the appearance of the eyes of the priest.”

108 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.” The pronoun “it” is unexpressed, but it should be assumed and it refers to the infection (cf. the note on v. 8 above).

109 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

110 tn Heb “he shall pronounce the infection clean,” but see v. 4 above. Also, this is another use of the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher; cf. the note on v. 6 above).

111 tn Heb “all of him has turned white, and he is clean.”

112 tn Heb “and in the day of there appears in it living flesh.” Some English versions render this as “open sores” (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).

113 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the living flesh.”

114 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’; cf. the note on v. 3 above).

115 tn Heb “Or if/when.”

116 tn Heb “the living flesh returns and is turned/changed to white.” The Hebrew verb “returns” is שׁוּב (shuv), which often functions adverbially when combined with a second verb as it is here (cf. “and is turned”) and, in such cases, is usually rendered “again” (see, e.g., GKC 386-87 §120.g). Another suggestion is that here שׁוּב means “to recede” (cf., e.g., 2 Kgs 20:9), so one could translate “the raw flesh recedes and turns white.” This would mean that the new “white” skin “has grown over” the raw flesh (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 79).

117 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it.”

118 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

119 tn Heb “the priest shall pronounce the infection clean,” but see v. 4 above. Also, this is another use of the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).

120 tc Heb (MT) reads, “And flesh if/when there is in it, in its skin, a boil.” Smr has only “in it,” not “in its skin,” and a few medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate have only “in its skin” (cf. v. 24 below), not “in it.” It does not effect the meaning of the verse, but one is tempted to suggest that “in it” (בוֹ, vo) was added in error as a partial dittography from the beginning of “in its skin” (בְעֹרוֹ, vÿoro).

121 tn Some English versions translate “it shall be shown to [or “be seen by”] the priest,” taking the infection to be the subject of the verb (e.g., KJV, NASB, RSV, NRSV). Based on the Hebrew grammar there is no way to be sure which is intended.

122 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.” The pronoun “it” is unexpressed, but it should be assumed and it refers to the infection (cf. the note on v. 8 above).

123 tn Heb “and behold.”

124 tn Heb “and behold its appearance is low (שָׁפָל, shafal) ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “lower than”) the skin.” Compare “deeper” in v. 3 above where, however, a different word is used (עָמֹק, ’amoq), and see the note on “swelling” in v. 1 above (cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 192; note that, contrary to the MT, Tg. Onq. has עָמֹק in this verse as well as v. 4). The alternation of these two terms (i.e., “deeper” and “lower”) in vv. 25-26 below shows that they both refer to the same phenomenon. Some have argued that “this sore was lower than the surrounding skin” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:773, 788), in which case “swelling” would be an inappropriate translation of שְׂאֵת (sÿet) in v. 19. It seems unlikely, however, that the surface of a “boil” would sink below the surface of the surrounding skin. The infectious pus etc. that makes up a boil normally causes swelling.

125 tn The declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’, cf. the note on v. 3 above).

126 tn Heb “It is an infection of disease. In the boil it has broken out.” For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.

127 tn Heb “and if.”

128 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

129 tn Heb “and the priest will shut him up seven days.”

130 tn Heb “and if.”

131 tn Heb “is indeed spreading.”

132 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’, cf. the note on v. 3 above).

133 tn Heb “and if under it the bright spot stands, it has not spread.”

134 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).

135 tn Heb “Or a body, if there is in its skin a burn of fire.”

136 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it.”

137 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

138 tn Heb “and its appearance is deep ‘from’ [comparative מִן (min) meaning ‘deeper than’] the skin.”

139 tn Heb “it is a disease. In the burn it has broken out.”

140 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’; cf. the note on v. 3 above).

141 tn For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.

142 tn Heb “and if.”

143 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “and indeed.”

144 tn Heb “and low it is not ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “lower than”) the skin.” See the note on v. 20 above. Cf. TEV “not deeper than the surrounding skin.”

145 tn Heb “and the priest will shut him up seven days.”

146 tn Heb “is indeed spreading.”

147 tn For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.

148 tn Heb “and if under it the bright spot stands, it has not spread in the skin.”

149 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher; cf. the note on v. 6 above).

150 tn Heb “And a man or a woman if there is in him an infection in head or in beard.”

sn The shift here is from diseases that are on the (relatively) bare skin of the body to the scalp area of the male or female head or the bearded area of the male face.

151 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the infection.”

152 tn Heb “and behold.”

153 tn Heb “its appearance is deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “deeper than”) the skin.”

154 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָמֵא (tame’; cf. the note on v. 3 above).

155 tn The exact identification of this disease is unknown. Cf. KJV “dry scall”; NASB “a scale”; NIV, NCV, NRSV “an itch”; NLT “a contagious skin disease.” For a discussion of “scall” disease in the hair, which is a crusty scabby disease of the skin under the hair that also affects the hair itself, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 192-93, and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:793-94. The Hebrew word rendered “scall” (נֶתֶק, neteq) is related to a verb meaning “to tear; to tear out; to tear apart.” It may derive from the scratching and/or the tearing out of the hair or the scales of the skin in response to the itching sensation caused by the disease.

156 tn Heb “It is scall. It is the disease of the head or the beard.”

157 tn Heb “and behold there is not its appearance deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”

158 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the infection of the scall seven days.”

159 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

160 tn Heb “and the appearance of the scall is not deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”

161 tn The shaving is done by the one who has the infection. Although KJV, ASV have the passive “he shall be shaven” here, most modern English versions have the reflexive “shall shave himself” (so NAB).

162 tn Heb “but the scall shall he not shave” (so KJV, ASV); NIV “except for the diseased area.”

163 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the scall a second seven days.”

164 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

165 tn Heb “and its appearance is not deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”

166 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).

167 tn Heb “And if spreading (infinitive absolute) it spreads further (finite verb).” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.

168 tn Heb “and behold.”

169 tn Heb “the priest shall not search to the reddish yellow hair.”

170 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the affected person) is specified in the translation for clarity (likewise in the following verse).

171 tn Heb “and if in his eyes the infection has stood.”

172 tn This is the declarative Piel of the verb טָהֵר (taher, cf. the note on v. 6 above).

173 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.”

174 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

175 tn Heb “he,” but the regulation applies to a man or a woman (v. 38a). In the translation “the person” is used to specify the referent more clearly.

176 tn Heb “And a man, when his head is rubbed bare, he is bald-headed.” The translation offered here, referring to the back of the head (i.e., the area from the top of the head sloping backwards), is based on the contrast between this condition and that of the following verse. See also B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 82.

177 tn Heb “And if from the front edge of his face, his head is rubbed bare.” See the note on v. 40 above.

178 tn The rendering “balding in front” corresponds to the location of the bareness at the beginning of the verse.

179 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it” (cf. KJV). The MT has “him/it” which some take to refer to the person as a whole (i.e., “him”; see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:770; NIV, NRSV, etc.), while others take it as a reference to the “infection” (נֶגַע, nega’) in v. 42 (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 172, 177). Smr has “her/it,” which would probably refer to “disease” (צָרַעַת, tsaraat) in v. 42. The general pattern in the chapter suggests that “it,” either the infection or the disease, is the object of the examination (see, e.g., v. 3 above and v. 50 below).

180 tn Heb “and behold.”

181 tn Heb “like appearance of disease of skin of flesh.”

182 tn Or perhaps translate, “His infection [is] on his head,” as a separate independent sentence (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV). There is no causal expression in the Hebrew text connecting these two clauses, but the logical relationship between them seems to be causal.

183 tn Heb “And the diseased one who in him is the infection.”

184 tn Heb “and his head shall be unbound, and he shall cover on [his] mustache.” Tearing one’s clothing, allowing the hair to hang loose rather than bound up in a turban, and covering the mustache on the upper lip are all ways of expressing shame, grief, or distress (cf., e.g., Lev 10:6 and Micah 3:7).

185 tn Heb “All the days which the infection is in him.”

186 tn Heb “And the garment, if there is in it a mark of disease.”

187 tn Heb “in a wool garment or in a linen garment.”

188 sn The warp (vertical) and woof (horizontal) thread may be two different sets of thread not yet woven together, or they may refer to two different kinds of thread already woven, in which case one might have the disease in it while the other does not. See the explanation in J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:809-10.

189 tn Heb “in any handiwork of skin” (cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV); most other modern English versions have “leather.”

190 tn Heb “and the infection is.” This clause is conditional in force, and is translated as such by almost all English versions.

191 tn Heb “And the priest shall see the infection and he shall shut up the infection seven days.”

192 tn Heb “to all which the leather was made into a handiwork.”

193 tn Heb “And if the priest sees and behold”; NASB “and indeed.”

194 tn Heb “a second seven days.”

195 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

196 tn Heb “the infection has not changed its eye.” Smr has “its/his eyes,” as in vv. 5 and 37, but here it refers to the appearance of the article of cloth or leather, unlike vv. 5 and 37 where there is a preposition attached and it refers to the eyes of the priest.

197 tn The terms “back side” and “front side” are the same as those used in v. 42 for the “back or front bald area” of a man’s head. The exact meaning of these terms when applied to articles of cloth or leather is uncertain. It could refer, for example, to the inside versus the outside of a garment, or the back versus the front side of an article of cloth or leather. See J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:814, for various possibilities.

198 tn Heb “And if the priest saw and behold….”

199 tn Heb “and he shall tear it from.”

200 tn Heb “And if”; NIV, NCV “But if”; NAB “If, however.”

201 tn Heb “and the infection turns aside from them.”

202 sn The Hebrew term translated “law” (תוֹרָה, torah) introduces here a summary or colophon for all of Lev 13. Similar summaries are found in Lev 7:37-38; 11:46-47; 14:54-57; and 15:32-33.

203 tn These are declarative Piel forms of the verbs טָהֵר (taher) and טָמֵא (tame’) respectively (cf. the notes on vv. 3 and 6 above).

204 tn Heb “and.” Here KJV, ASV use a semicolon; NASB begins a new sentence with “Now.”

205 tn The alternative rendering, “when it is reported to the priest” may be better in light of the fact that the priest had to go outside the camp. Since he or she had been declared “unclean” by a priest (Lev 13:3) and was, therefore, required to remain outside the camp (13:46), the formerly diseased person could not reenter the camp until he or she had been declared “clean” by a priest (cf. Lev 13:6 for “declaring clean.”). See especially J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:831, who supports this rendering both here and in Lev 13:2 and 9. B. A. Levine, however, prefers the rendering in the text (Leviticus [JPSTC], 76 and 85). It is the most natural meaning of the verb (i.e., “to be brought” from בּוֹא [bo’, “to come”] in the Hophal stem, which means “to be brought” in all other occurrences in Leviticus other than 13:2, 9, and 14:2; see only 6:30; 10:18; 11:32; and 16:27), it suits the context well in 13:2, and the rendering “to be brought” is supported by 13:7b, “he shall show himself to the priest a second time.” Although it is true that the priest needed to go outside the camp to examine such a person, the person still needed to “be brought” to the priest there. The translation of vv. 2-3 employed here suggests that v. 2 introduces the proceeding and then v. 3 goes on to describe the specific details of the examination and purification.

206 tn Heb “and he shall be brought to the priest and the priest shall go out to from outside to the camp and the priest shall see [it].” The understood “it” refers to the skin infection itself (see the note on 13:3 above). The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

207 tn Heb “And behold, the diseased infection has been healed from the diseased person.” The expression “diseased infection” has been translated as simply “infection” to avoid redundancy here in terms of English style.

208 tn The term rendered here “crimson fabric” consists of two Hebrew words and means literally, “crimson of worm” (in this order only in Lev 14:4, 6, 49, 51, 52 and Num 19:6; for the more common reverse order, “worm of crimson,” see, e.g., the colored fabrics used in making the tabernacle, Exod 25:4, etc.). This particular “worm” is an insect that lives on the leaves of palm trees, the eggs of which are the source for a “crimson” dye used to color various kinds of cloth (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 86). That a kind of dyed “fabric” is intended, not just the dye substance itself, is made certain by the dipping of it along with the other ritual materials listed here into the blood and water mixture for sprinkling on the person being cleansed (Lev 14:6; cf. also the burning of it in the fire of the red heifer in Num 19:6). Both the reddish color of cedar wood and the crimson colored fabric seem to correspond to the color of blood and may, therefore, symbolize either “life,” which is in the blood, or the use of blood to “make atonement” (see, e.g., Gen 9:4 and Lev 17:11). See further the note on v. 7 below.

209 sn Twigs of hyssop (probably one or several species of marjoram thymus), a spice and herb plant that grows out of walls in Palestine (see 1 Kgs 4:33 [5:13 HT], HALOT 27 s.v. אֵזוֹב, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 195), were particularly leafy and therefore especially useful for sprinkling the purifying liquid (cf. vv. 5-7). Many of the details of the ritual procedure are obscure. It has been proposed, for example, that the “cedar wood” was a stick to which the hyssop was bound with the crimson material to make a sort of sprinkling instrument (Hartley, 195). In light of the burning of these three materials as part of the preparation of the ashes of the red heifer in Num 19:5-6, however, this seems unlikely.

210 tn The MT reads literally, “And the priest shall command and he shall take.” Clearly, the second verb (“and he shall take”) contains the thrust of the priest’s command, which suggests the translation “that he take” (cf. also v. 5a). Since the priest issues the command here, he cannot be the subject of the second verb because he cannot be commanding himself to “take” up these ritual materials. Moreover, since the ritual is being performed “for the one being cleansed,” the antecedent of the pronoun “he” cannot refer to him. The LXX, Smr, and Syriac versions have the third person plural here and in v. 5a, which corresponds to other combinations with the verb וְצִוָּה (vÿtsivvah) “and he (the priest) shall command” in this context (see Lev 13:54; 14:36, 40). This suggests an impersonal (i.e., “someone shall take” and “someone shall slaughter,” respectively) or perhaps even passive rendering of the verbs in 14:4, 5 (i.e., “there shall be taken” and “there shall be slaughtered,” respectively). The latter option has been chosen here.

211 tn Heb “the one cleansing himself” (i.e., Hitpael participle of טָהֵר, taher, “to be clean”).

212 tn Heb “And the priest shall command and he shall slaughter.” See the note on “be taken up” (v. 4).

213 tn Heb “into a vessel of clay over living water.” The expression “living [i.e., ‘fresh’] water” (cf. Lev 14:50; 15:13; Num 19:17) refers to water that flows. It includes such water sources as artesian wells (Gen 26:19; Song of Songs 4:15), springs (Jer 2:13, as opposed to cisterns; cf. 17:13), and flowing streams (Zech 14:8). In other words, this is water that has not stood stagnant as, for example, in a sealed-off cistern.

sn Although there are those who argue that the water and the blood rites are separate (e.g., E. S. Gerstenberger, Leviticus [OTL], 175-76), it is usually agreed that v. 5b refers to the slaughtering of the bird in such a way that its blood runs into the bowl, which contained fresh water (see, e.g., N. H. Snaith, Leviticus and Numbers [NCBC], 74; G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 208; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:836-38; cf. esp. Lev 14:51b, “and dip them in the blood of the slaughtered bird and in the fresh water”). This mixture of blood and water was then to be sprinkled on the person being cleansed from the disease.

214 tc Heb “the live bird he [i.e., the priest] shall take it.” Although the MT has no ו (vav, “and”) at the beginning of this clause, a few medieval Hebrew mss and Smr have one and the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate translate as if it is there. The “but” in the present translation reflects this text critical background, the object-first word order in the clause with the resumptive pronoun at the end, and the obvious contrast between the slaughtered bird in v. 5 and the live bird in v. 6.

215 tn Heb “the one cleansing himself” (i.e., Hitpael participle of טָהֵר [taher, “to be clean”]).

216 tn Heb “and he shall make him clean.” The verb is the Piel of טָהֵר (taher, “to be clean”), here used as a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare clean”; cf. 13:6, etc.).

217 sn The reddish color of cedar wood and the crimson colored fabric called for in v. 4 (see the note there, esp. the association with the color of blood) as well as the priestly commands to bring “two live” birds (v. 4a), to slaughter one of them “over fresh water” (literally “living water,” v. 5b), and the subsequent ritual with the (second) “live” bird (vv. 6-7) combine to communicate the concept of “life” and “being alive” in this passage. This contrasts with the fear of death associated with the serious skin diseases in view here (see, e.g., Aaron’s description of Miriam’s skin disease in Num 12:12, “Do not let her be like the dead one when it goes out from its mother’s womb and its flesh half eaten away”). Since the slaughtered bird here is not sacrificed at the altar and is not designated as an expiatory “sin offering,” this ritual procedure probably symbolizes the renewed life of the diseased person and displays it publicly for all to see. It is preparatory to the expiatory rituals that will follow (vv. 10-20, esp. vv. 18-20), but is not itself expiatory. Thus, although there are important similarities between the bird ritual here, the scapegoat on the Day of Atonement (Lev 16:20-22), and the red heifer for cleansing from corpse contamination (Num 19), this bird ritual is different in that the latter two constitute “sin offerings” (Lev 16:5, 8-10; Num 19:9, 17). Neither of the birds in Lev 14:4-7 is designated or treated as a “sin offering.” Nevertheless, the very nature of the live bird ritual itself and its obvious similarity to the scapegoat ritual suggests that the patient’s disease has been removed far away so that he or she is free from its effects both personally and communally.

218 tn Heb “the one cleansing himself” (i.e., Hitpael participle of טָהֵר [taher, “to be clean”]).

219 tn Heb “and he shall be clean” (so ASV). The end result of the ritual procedures in vv. 4-7 and the washing and shaving in v. 8a is that the formerly diseased person has now officially become clean in the sense that he can reenter the community (see v. 8b; contrast living outside the community as an unclean diseased person, Lev 13:46). There are, however, further cleansing rituals and pronouncements for him to undergo in the tabernacle as outlined in vv. 10-20 (see Qal “be[come] clean” in vv. 9 and 20, Piel “pronounce clean” in v. 11, and Hitpael “the one being cleansed” in vv. 11, 14, 17, 18, and 19). Obviously, in order to enter the tabernacle he must already “be clean” in the sense of having access to the community.

220 tn Heb “And it shall be on the seventh day.”

221 tn Heb “and he shall be clean” (see the note on v. 8).

222 tn The subject “he” probably refers to the formerly diseased person in this case (see the notes on Lev 1:5a, 6a, and 9a).

223 tn This term is often rendered “fine flour,” but it refers specifically to wheat as opposed to barley (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 10) and, although the translation “flour” is used here, it may indicate “grits” rather than finely ground flour (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:179; see the note on Lev 2:1). The unit of measure is most certainly an “ephah” even though it is not stated explicitly (see, e.g., Num 28:5; cf. 15:4, 6, 8), and three-tenths of an ephah would amount to about a gallon, or perhaps one-third of a bushel (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 196; Milgrom, 845). Since the normal amount of flour for a lamb is one-tenth of an ephah (Num 28:4-5; cf. 15:4), three-tenths is about right for the three lambs offered in Lev 14:10-20.

224 tn A “log” (לֹג, log) of oil is about one-sixth of a liter, or one-third of a pint, or two-thirds of a cup.

225 tn The MT here is awkward to translate into English. It reads literally, “and the priest who pronounces clean (Piel participle of טָהֵר, taher) shall cause to stand (Hiphil of עָמַד, ’amad) the man who is cleansing himself (Hitpael participle of טָהֵר) and them” (i.e., the offerings listed in v. 10; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity). Alternatively, the Piel of טָהֵר could be rendered “who performs the cleansing/purification” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:827), perhaps even as a technical term for one who holds the office of “purification priest” (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 87). It is probably better, however, to retain the same meaning here as in v. 7 above (see the note there regarding the declarative Piel use of this verb).

226 tn Heb “And the priest shall take the one lamb.”

227 tn See the note on Lev 5:15 above. The primary purpose of the “guilt offering” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) was to “atone” (כִּפֶּר, kipper, “to make atonement,” see v. 18 below and the note on Lev 1:4) for “trespassing” on the Lord’s “holy things,” whether sacred objects or sacred people. It is, therefore, closely associated with the reconsecration of the Lord’s holy people as, for example, here and in the case of the corpse contaminated Nazirite (Num 6:11b-12). Since the nation of Israel was “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” to the Lord (Exod 19:6; cf. the blood splashed on all the people in Exod 24:8), the skin diseased person was essentially a member of the “holy nation” who had been expelled from the community. Therefore, he or she had been desecrated and the guilt offering was essential to restoring him or her to the community. In fact, the manipulation of blood and oil in the guilt offering ritual procedure for the healed person (see vv. 14-18 below) is reminiscent of that employed for the ordination offering in the consecration of the holy Aaronic priests of the nation (Exod 29:19-21; Lev 8:22-30).

228 tn Heb “wave them [as] a wave offering before the Lord” (NAB similar). See the note on Lev 7:30 and the literature cited there. Other possible translations include “elevate them [as] an elevation offering before the Lord” (cf. NRSV) or “present them [as] a presentation offering before the Lord.” To be sure, the actual physical “waving” of a male lamb seems unlikely, but some waving gesture may have been performed in the presentation of the offering (cf. also the “waving” of the Levites as a “wave offering” in Num 8:11, etc.).

229 tn Heb “And he shall slaughter.”

230 tn Heb “in the place which.”

231 sn See the note on Lev 4:3 regarding the term “sin offering.”

232 sn See the note on Lev 1:3 regarding the “burnt offering.”

233 tn Since the priest himself presents this offering as a wave offering (v. 12), it would seem that the offering is already in his hands and he would, therefore, be the one who slaughtered the male lamb in this instance rather than the offerer. Smr and LXX make the second verb “to slaughter” plural rather than singular, which suggests that it is to be taken as an impersonal passive (see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:852).

234 tn Heb “the guilt offering, it [is] to the Lord.” Regarding the “guilt offering,” see the note on Lev 5:15.

235 tn Heb “and the priest shall put [literally ‘give’] on the lobe of the ear of the one being cleansed, the right one.”

236 tn The term for “big toe” (בֹּהֶן, bohen) is the same as that for “thumb.” It refers to the larger appendage on either the hand or the foot.

237 tn Heb “And the priest…shall pour on the left hand of the priest.” As the Rabbis observe, the repetition of “priest” as the expressed subject of both verbs in this verse may suggest that two priests were involved in this ritual (see m. Nega’im 14:8, referred to by J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:852), but the seemingly unnecessary repetition of “priest” in several verses throughout the chapter argues against this (see esp. vv. 3, 14, 18, 20, 24, and 26). Moreover, in this case, “priest” may be repeated to avoid confusing the priest’s hand with that of the one being cleansed (cf. v. 14).

238 tn Heb “his right finger from the oil.”

239 tn Heb “on his hand.”

240 tn Heb “and the remainder in the oil.”

241 tn Heb “do [or “make”] the sin offering.”

242 tn Heb “And after[ward] he [i.e., the offerer] shall slaughter.” The LXX adds “the priest” as the subject of the verb (as do several English versions, e.g., NAB, NIV, NCV, NLT), but the offerer is normally the one who does the actually slaughtering of the sacrificial animal (cf. the notes on Lev 1:5a, 6a, and 9a).

243 tn Heb “cause to go up.”

244 tn Heb “and his hand does not reach”; NAB, NRSV “and cannot afford so much (afford these NIV).”

245 tn See the notes on v. 10 above.

246 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168 with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14; cf. Lev 1:14 and esp. 5:7-10).

247 tn Heb “which his hand reaches”; NRSV “such as (which NIV) he can afford.”

248 tn Heb “and one shall be a sin offering and the one a burnt offering.” The versions struggle with whether or not “one” should or should not have the definite article in its two occurrences in this verse (KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB all have the English definite article with both). The MT has the first without and the second with the article.

249 tn Heb “to the doorway of”; KJV, ASV “unto the door of.”

250 tn Heb “and the priest shall wave them.” In the present translation “priest” is not repeated a second time in the verse for stylistic reasons. With regard to the “waving” of the “wave offering,” see the note on v. 12 above.

251 tn Heb “and the priest shall put [literally ‘give’] on the lobe of the ear of the one being cleansed, the right one.”

252 tn The term for “big toe” (בֹּהֶן, bohen) is the same as that for “thumb.” It refers to the larger appendage on either the hand or the foot.

253 tn Heb “And from the oil the priest shall pour out on the left hand of the priest.” Regarding the repetition of “priest” in this verse see the note on v. 15 above.

254 tn Heb “and the priest shall sprinkle with his right finger from the oil which is on his left hand.”

255 tn Heb “on his hand.”

256 tn Heb “on the hand.”

257 tn Heb “give.”

258 tn Heb “the one from the turtledoves.”

259 tc Heb “from which his hand reaches.” The repetition of virtually the same expression at the beginning of v. 31 in the MT is probably due to dittography (cf. the LXX and Syriac). However, the MT may be retained if it is understood as “one of the turtledoves or young pigeons that are within his means – whichever he can afford” (see J. Milgrom’s translation in Leviticus [AB], 1:828, contra his commentary, 862; cf. REB).

260 tn Heb “and the one a burnt offering on the grain offering.”

261 tn Heb “This is the law of who in him [is] a diseased infection.”

262 tn Heb “who his hand does not reach in his purification”; NASB “whose means are limited for his cleansing”; NIV “who cannot afford the regular offerings for his cleansing.”

263 tn Heb “which I am giving” (so NAB, NIV).

264 tn Heb “give.”

265 tn Heb “in the house of the land of your possession” (KJV and ASV both similar).

266 tn Heb “who to him the house.”

267 tn Heb “And the priest shall command and they shall clear the house.” The second verb (“and they shall clear”) states the thrust of the priest’s command, which suggests the translation “that they clear” (cf. also vv. 4a and 5a above), and for the impersonal passive rendering of the active verb (“that the house be cleared”) see the note on v. 4 above.

268 tn Heb “to see the infection”; KJV “to see the plague”; NASB “to look at the mark (mildew NCV).”

269 tn Heb “all which [is] in the house.”

270 sn Once the priest pronounced the house “unclean” everything in it was also officially unclean. Therefore, if they emptied the house of its furniture, etc. before the official pronouncement by the priest those possessions would thereby remain officially “clean” and avoid destruction or purification procedures.

271 tn Heb “and after thus.”

272 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).

273 tn For “yellowish green and reddish” see Lev 13:49. The Hebrew term translated “eruptions” occurs only here and its meaning is uncertain. For a detailed summary of the issues and views see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:870. The suggestions include, among others: (1) “depressions” from Hebrew שׁקע (“sink”) or קער as the root of the Hebrew term for “bowl” (LXX, Targums, NAB, NASB, NIV; see also B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 90), (2) “streaks” (ASV, NJPS), (3) and “eruptions” as a loan-word from Egyptian sqr r rwtj (“eruption; rash”); cf. Milgrom, 870; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 198-99. The latter view is taken here.

274 tn The Hebrew term קִיר (qir,“wall”) refers to the surface of the wall in this case, which normally consisted of a coating of plaster made of limestone and sand (see HALOT 1099 s.v. קִיר 1.a; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:871; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 199).

275 tn Heb “and he shall shut up the house seven days.”

276 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “If the mark has indeed spread.”

277 tn Heb “and the priest shall command and they shall pull out the stones which in them is the infection, and they shall cast them.” The second and third verbs (“they shall pull out” and “they shall throw”) state the thrust of the priest’s command, which suggests the translation “that they pull out…and throw” (cf. also vv. 4a, 5a, and 36a above), and for the impersonal passive rendering of the active verb (“be pulled and thrown”) see the note on v. 4 above.

278 tn Heb “into from outside to the city.”

279 tn Or, according to the plurality of the verb in Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Targums, “Then the house shall be scraped” (cf. NAB, NLT, and the note on v. 40).

280 tn Heb “from house all around.”

281 tn Heb “dust” (so KJV) or “rubble”; NIV “the material”; NLT “the scrapings.”

282 tn Heb “which they have scraped off.” The MT term קִיר (qir, “wall” from קָצָה, qatsah, “to cut off”; BDB 892), the original Greek does not have this clause, Smr has הקיצו (with uncertain meaning), and the BHS editors and HALOT 1123-24 s.v. I קצע hif.a suggest emending the verb to הִקְצִעוּ (hiqtsiu, see the same verb at the beginning of this verse; cf. some Greek mss, Syriac, and the Targums). The emendation seems reasonable and is accepted by many commentators, but the root קָצָה (qatsah, “to cut off”) does occur in the Bible (2 Kgs 10:32; Hab 2:10) and in postbiblical Hebrew (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 179, notes 41c and 43d; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:873; cf. also קָצַץ, qatsats, “to cut off”).

283 tn Heb “into from outside to the city.”

284 tn Heb “and bring into under the stones.”

285 tn Heb “after he has pulled out the stones, and after scraping (variant form of the Hiphil infinitive construct, GKC 531) the house, and after being replastered (Niphal infinitive construct).”

286 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “If he sees that the mark has indeed spread.”

287 tn Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Tg. Ps.-J. have the plural verb, perhaps suggesting a passive translation, “The house…shall be torn down” (cf. NAB, NIV, TEV, NLT, and see the note on v. 4b above).

288 tn Once again, Smr, LXX, and Syriac have the plural verb, perhaps to be rendered passive, “shall be brought.”

289 tn Heb “the one who comes into.”

290 tn Heb “he,” referring to the priest (see v. 38). The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

291 tn Heb “And if the priest entering [infinitive absolute] enters [finite verb]” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.

292 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “and the mark has not indeed spread.”

293 tn The pronoun “he” refers to the priest mentioned in the previous verse.

294 tn Regarding these ritual materials, see the note on v. 4 above.

295 tn Regarding the Piel of חָטָא (khata’, cf. v. 52) meaning to “decontaminate” or “perform a decontamination,” see the notes on Lev 8:15 and 9:15.

sn In Lev 8:15, for example, the “sin offering” is used to “decontaminate” the burnt offering altar. As argued above (see the note on v. 7 above), these ritual materials and the procedures performed with them do not constitute a “sin offering” (contrast vv. 19 and 31 above). In fact, no sin offering was required for the purification of a house.

296 tn See the note on v. 5 above.

297 tn Heb “to from outside to the city.”

298 tn Heb “and for the scall”; NASB “a scale”; NIV “any infectious skin disease.” Cf. Lev 13:29-37.

299 sn Cf. Lev 13:47-59.

300 sn Cf. Lev 14:33-53.

301 sn Cf. Lev 13:9-28, 43.

302 sn Cf. Lev 13:2.

303 sn Cf. Lev 13:4, 18-28, 38-39. For explanations of all these terms for disease in Lev 14:56 see 13:2.

304 tn Heb “to teach in the day of the unclean and in the day of the clean.”

305 tn Heb “This is the law of the disease.” Some English versions specify this as “skin disease” (e.g., NIV, NLT), but then have to add “and (+ infectious NLT) mildew” (so NIV) because a house would not be infected with a skin disease.

sn For an explanation of the term “disease” see Lev 13:2.

306 tn Heb “Man man.” The reduplication is a way of saying “any man” (cf. Lev 17:3; 22:18, etc.; see the distributive repetition of the noun in GKC 395-96 §123.c).

307 tn The term “discharge” actually means “to flow,” whether referring to a full flow as at a spring of water (Ps 78:20 and parallels) or in reference to the promised land as “a land flowing with milk and honey” (Exod 3:8 and parallels).

308 tn Heb “man, man when there is a discharge from his flesh.” The repetition of the word “man” is distributive, meaning “any [or “every”] man” (GKC 395-96 §123.c). It is well-recognized that the term “flesh” (i.e., “body”) in this chapter refers regularly and euphemistically to the male and female genital members or areas of the body (HALOT 164 s.v. בָּשָׂר 5.b; see also, e.g., B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 93). The euphemism has been retained in this translation since it is, in fact, intended in the Hebrew text. Some English versions partially remove the euphemism (e.g., NAB “from his private parts”; NRSV “from his member”) while some remove it completely (e.g., NLT “a genital discharge”; TEV “from his penis”; CEV “with an infected penis”).

309 tn The LXX has “this the law of his uncleanness…” (cf. v. 32 and compare, e.g., 13:59; 14:2, 56).

310 tc Smr, LXX, and the Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus Scroll from Qumran (11QpaleoLev; Fragment G contains Lev 14:52-15:5 and 16:2-4, and agrees with the LXX of Lev 15:3b) are in essential (although not complete) agreement against the MT in Lev 15:3b and are to be preferred in this case. The shorter MT text has probably arisen due to a lengthy haplography. See K. A. Mathews, “The Leviticus Scroll (11QpaleoLev) and the Text of the Hebrew Bible,” CBQ 48 (1986): 177-78, 198; D. N. Freedman, “Variant Readings in the Leviticus Scroll from Qumran Cave 11,” CBQ 36 (1974): 528-29; D. N. Freedman and K. A. Mathews, The Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus Scroll, 32. The MT of Lev 15:3 reads: “Now this is his uncleanness in [regard to] his discharge – whether his body secretes his discharge or blocks his discharge, this is his uncleanness.” Smr adds after MT’s “blocks his discharge” the following: “he is unclean; all the days that his body has a discharge or his body blocks his discharge, this is his uncleanness.” Thus, the MT appears to skip from Smr טמא הוא “he is unclean” in the middle of the verse to יא/טמאתו הו “this is his uncleanness” at the end of the verse, leaving out “he is unclean; all the days that his body has a discharge or his body blocks his discharge” (cf. the BHS footnote). 11Q1 (paleoLeva frag. G) is indeed fragmentary, but it does have ימי ז בו כל “…in him, all the days of the fl[ow],” supporting Smr and LXX tradition. The LXX adds after MT “blocks his discharge” the following: “all the days of the flow of his body, by which his body is affected by the flow,” followed by “it is his uncleanness” (i.e., the last two words of the MT).

sn The contrast between the dripping or flowing from the male sexual member as opposed to there being a blockage is important. One might not understand that even though a blockage actually causes a lack of discharge, it is still unclean.

311 tn Heb “it is his uncleanness,” but the last clause recapitulates the effect of the first clause in this verse, both of which introduce the regulations for such uncleanness in the following verses. In other words, whether his discharge flows from his penis or is blocked in it, he is still unclean and must proceed according to the following regulations (vv. 4ff).

312 tn Heb “All the bed which the man with a discharge sits on it shall be unclean”; cf. NLT “Any bedding.”

313 tn Heb “and all the vessel which he sits on it shall be unclean”; NASB “everything on which he sits.”

314 tn Heb “And a man who touches in his bed”; NLT “touch the man’s bedding.”

315 tn Heb “he shall wash his clothes and bathe in water and be unclean until the evening” (cf. also vv. 6-8, 10-11, etc.).

316 tn Heb “And the one who touches in the flesh.” In this instance, “flesh” (or “body”) probably refers literally to any part of the body, not the genitals specifically (see the discussion in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:914).

317 tn Heb “And if the man with a discharge spits in the clean one.”

318 tn The Hebrew term for “means of riding” is a cognate noun from the verb “ride” later in this verse. It refers to anything on which one may ride without the feet touching the ground including, for example, a saddle, a (saddle) blanket, or a seat on a chariot (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:916).

319 tn Heb “which shall be under him.” The verb is perhaps a future perfect, “which shall have been.”

320 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the previously mentioned items which were under the unclean person) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

321 tn Heb “And all who the man with the discharge touches in him and his hands he has not rinsed in water.”

322 tn The Hebrew term כְּלִי (kÿli) can mean “vessel” (v. 12a) or “utensil, implement, article” (v. 12b). An article of clay would refer to a vessel or container of some sort, while one made of wood would refer to some kind of tool or instrument.

323 tn For the expression “fresh water” see the note on Lev 14:5 above.

324 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168 with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14; cf. Lev 1:14 and esp. 5:7-10).

325 tc The MT has the Qal form of the verb בּוֹא (bo’) “to come” here, but the LXX (followed generally by the Syriac and Tg. Ps.-J.) reflects the Hiphil form of the same verb, “to bring” as in v. 29 below. In v. 29, however, there is no additional clause “and give them to the priest,” so the Hiphil is necessary in that context while it is not necessary here in v. 14.

326 sn See the note on Lev 4:3 regarding the term “sin offering.”

327 tn Heb “and the priest shall make them one a sin offering and the one a burnt offering.” See the note on Lev 1:3 regarding the “burnt offering.”

328 tn Heb “And the priest.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here.

329 tn Heb “from”; see the note on 4:26.

330 tn Heb “And a man when a lying of seed goes out from him”; KJV, ASV “any man’s seed of copulation”; NIV, NRSV, TEV, NLT “an emission of semen.”

331 tn Heb “and he shall bathe all his flesh in water.”

332 tn Heb “And a woman who a man lies with her a lying of seed.”

333 tn See the note on Lev 15:2 above.

334 tn Heb “blood shall be her discharge in her flesh.” The term “flesh” here refers euphemistically to the female sexual area (cf. the note on v. 2 above).

335 tn See the note on Lev 12:2 and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:925-27.

336 tn Heb “and if on the bed it (הוּא, hu’) is or on the vessel which she sits on it, when he touches it….” The translation and meaning of this verse is a subject of much debate in the commentaries (see the summary in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:938-40). It is difficult to determine what הוּא refers to, whether it means “he” referring to the one who does the touching, “it” for the furniture or the seat in v. 22, “she” referring to the woman herself (see Smr היא rather than הוא), or perhaps anything that was lying on the furniture or the bed of vv. 21-22. The latter view is taken here (cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 202).

337 tn The MT accent suggest that “when he touches it” goes with the preceding line, but it seems to be better to take it as an introduction to what follows (see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 202).

338 tn Heb “and if a man indeed lies with her and her menstrual impurity is on him.”

339 tn Heb “And a woman when the flow of her blood flows.”

340 tn Heb “in not the time of her menstruation or when it flows on her menstruation.”

341 tn See the note on v. 5 above.

342 tn Heb “And if…” Although this clause is parallel to v. 13 above, it begins with וְאִם (vÿim, “and if”) here rather than וְכִי (vÿkhi, “and when/if”) there.

343 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168 with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14; cf. Lev 1:14 and esp. 5:7-10).

344 tn Heb “And the priest shall make the one a sin offering and the one a burnt offering.”

345 tn Heb “And the priest.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here.

346 tn Heb “And you shall.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NCV, NRSV).

347 tn Heb “and they.” Here the Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) indicates a negative purpose (“lest,” so NAB, NASB).

348 tn Heb “and who a lying of seed goes out from him.”

349 tn Heb “to become unclean in it.”

350 tn Heb “and the one with a discharge, his discharge to the male and the female.”

351 tn Heb “and for a man.”



TIP #01: Welcome to the NEXT Bible Web Interface and Study System!! [ALL]
created in 0.21 seconds
powered by bible.org