9:1 When the news reached all the kings on the west side of the Jordan 1 – in the hill country, the lowlands, 2 and all along the Mediterranean coast 3 as far as 4 Lebanon (including the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites) – 9:2 they formed an alliance to fight against Joshua and Israel. 5
9:3 When the residents of Gibeon heard what Joshua did to Jericho 6 and Ai, 9:4 they did something clever. They collected some provisions 7 and put worn-out sacks on their donkeys, along with worn-out wineskins that were ripped and patched. 9:5 They had worn-out, patched sandals on their feet and dressed in worn-out clothes. All their bread 8 was dry and hard. 9 9:6 They came to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal and said to him and the men of Israel, “We have come from a distant land. Make a treaty with us.” 9:7 The men of Israel said to the Hivites, “Perhaps you live near us. 10 So how can we make a treaty with you?” 9:8 But they said to Joshua, “We are willing to be your subjects.” 11 So Joshua said to them, “Who are you and where do you come from?” 9:9 They told him, “Your subjects 12 have come from a very distant land because of the reputation 13 of the Lord your God, for we have heard the news about all he did in Egypt 14 9:10 and all he did to the two Amorite kings on the other side of the Jordan – King Sihon of Heshbon and King Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth. 9:11 Our leaders and all who live in our land told us, ‘Take provisions for your journey and go meet them. Tell them, “We are willing to be your subjects. 15 Make a treaty with us.”’ 9:12 This bread of ours was warm when we packed it in our homes the day we started out to meet you, 16 but now it is dry and hard. 17 9:13 These wineskins we filled were brand new, but look how they have ripped. Our clothes and sandals have worn out because it has been a very long journey.” 9:14 The men examined 18 some of their provisions, but they failed to ask the Lord’s advice. 19 9:15 Joshua made a peace treaty with them and agreed to let them live. The leaders of the community 20 sealed it with an oath. 21
9:16 Three days after they made the treaty with them, the Israelites found out they were from the local area and lived nearby. 22 9:17 So the Israelites set out and on the third day arrived at their cities – Gibeon, Kephirah, Beeroth, and Kiriath Jearim. 9:18 The Israelites did not attack them because the leaders of the community had sworn an oath to them in the name of the Lord God of Israel. 23 The whole community criticized 24 the leaders, 9:19 but all the leaders told the whole community, “We swore an oath to them in the name of 25 the Lord God of Israel. So now we can’t hurt 26 them! 9:20 We must let them live so we can escape the curse attached to the oath we swore to them.” 27 9:21 The leaders then added, 28 “Let them live.” So they became 29 woodcutters and water carriers for the whole community, as the leaders had decided. 30
9:22 31 Joshua summoned the Gibeonites 32 and said to them, “Why did you trick 33 us by saying, ‘We live far away from you,’ when you really live nearby? 34 9:23 Now you are condemned to perpetual servitude as woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.” 35 9:24 They said to Joshua, “It was carefully reported to your subjects 36 how the Lord your God commanded Moses his servant to assign you the whole land and to destroy all who live in the land from before you. Because of you we were terrified 37 we would lose our lives, so we did this thing. 9:25 So now we are in your power. 38 Do to us what you think is good and appropriate. 39 9:26 Joshua did as they said; he kept the Israelites from killing them 40 9:27 and that day made them woodcutters and water carriers for the community and for the altar of the Lord at the divinely chosen site. (They continue in that capacity to this very day.) 41
10:1 Adoni-Zedek, king of Jerusalem, 42 heard how Joshua captured Ai and annihilated it and its king as he did Jericho 43 and its king. 44 He also heard how 45 the people of Gibeon made peace with Israel and lived among them. 10:2 All Jerusalem was terrified 46 because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities. It was larger than Ai and all its men were warriors. 10:3 So King Adoni-Zedek of Jerusalem sent this message to King Hoham of Hebron, King Piram of Jarmuth, King Japhia of Lachish, and King Debir of Eglon: 10:4 “Come to my aid 47 so we can attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.” 10:5 So the five Amorite kings (the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon) and all their troops gathered together and advanced. They deployed their troops and fought against Gibeon. 48
10:6 The men of Gibeon sent this message to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal, “Do not abandon 49 your subjects! 50 Rescue us! Help us! For all the Amorite kings living in the hill country are attacking us.” 51 10:7 So Joshua and his whole army, including the bravest warriors, marched up from Gilgal. 52 10:8 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for I am handing them over to you. 53 Not one of them can resist you.” 54 10:9 Joshua attacked them by surprise after marching all night from Gilgal. 55 10:10 The Lord routed 56 them before Israel. Israel 57 thoroughly defeated them 58 at Gibeon. They chased them up the road to the pass 59 of Beth Horon and struck them down all the way to Azekah and Makkedah. 10:11 As they fled from Israel on the slope leading down from 60 Beth Horon, the Lord threw down on them large hailstones from the sky, 61 all the way to Azekah. They died – in fact, more died from the hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword.
“O sun, stand still over Gibeon!
O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon!”
10:13 The sun stood still and the moon stood motionless while the nation took vengeance on its enemies. The event is recorded in the Scroll of the Upright One. 63 The sun stood motionless in the middle of the sky and did not set for about a full day. 64 10:14 There has not been a day like it before or since. The Lord obeyed 65 a man, for the Lord fought for Israel! 10:15 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.
10:16 The five Amorite kings 66 ran away and hid in the cave at Makkedah. 10:17 Joshua was told, “The five kings have been found hiding in the cave at Makkedah.” 10:18 Joshua said, “Roll large stones over the mouth of the cave and post guards in front of it. 67 10:19 But don’t you delay! Chase your enemies and catch them! 68 Don’t allow them to retreat to 69 their cities, for the Lord your God is handing them over to you.” 70 10:20 Joshua and the Israelites almost totally wiped them out, but some survivors did escape to the fortified cities. 71 10:21 Then the whole army safely returned to Joshua at the camp in Makkedah. 72 No one 73 dared threaten the Israelites. 74 10:22 Joshua said, “Open the cave’s mouth and bring the five kings 75 out of the cave to me.” 10:23 They did as ordered; 76 they brought the five kings 77 out of the cave to him – the kings of Jerusalem, 78 Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. 10:24 When they brought the kings out to Joshua, he 79 summoned all the men of Israel and said to the commanders of the troops who accompanied him, “Come here 80 and put your feet on the necks of these kings.” So they came up 81 and put their feet on their necks. 10:25 Then Joshua said to them, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic! 82 Be strong and brave, for the Lord will do the same thing to all your enemies you fight. 10:26 Then Joshua executed them 83 and hung them on five trees. They were left hanging on the trees until evening. 10:27 At sunset Joshua ordered his men to take them down from the trees. 84 They threw them into the cave where they had hidden and piled large stones over the mouth of the cave. (They remain to this very day.) 85
10:28 That day Joshua captured Makkedah and put the sword to it and its king. He annihilated everyone who lived in it; he left no survivors. He did to its king what he had done to the king of Jericho. 86
10:29 Joshua and all Israel marched from Makkedah to Libnah and fought against it. 87 10:30 The Lord handed it and its king over to Israel, and Israel 88 put the sword to all who lived there; they 89 left no survivors. They 90 did to its king what they 91 had done to the king of Jericho. 92
10:31 Joshua and all Israel marched from Libnah to Lachish. He deployed his troops 93 and fought against it. 10:32 The Lord handed Lachish over to Israel and they 94 captured it on the second day. They put the sword to all who lived there, just as they had done to Libnah. 10:33 Then King Horam of Gezer came up to help Lachish, but Joshua struck down him and his army 95 until no survivors remained.
10:34 Joshua and all Israel marched from Lachish to Eglon. They deployed troops 96 and fought against it. 10:35 That day they captured it and put the sword to all who lived there. That day they 97 annihilated it just as they 98 had done to Lachish.
10:36 Joshua and all Israel marched up from Eglon to Hebron and fought against it. 10:37 They captured it and put the sword to its king, all its surrounding cities, and all who lived in it; they 99 left no survivors. As they 100 had done at Eglon, they 101 annihilated it and all who lived there.
10:38 Joshua and all Israel turned to Debir and fought against it. 10:39 They 102 captured it, its king, and all its surrounding cities and put the sword to them. They annihilated everyone who lived there; they 103 left no survivors. They 104 did to Debir and its king what they 105 had done to Libnah and its king and to Hebron. 106
10:40 Joshua defeated the whole land, including the hill country, the Negev, the lowlands, 107 the slopes, and all their kings. He left no survivors. He annihilated everything that breathed, just as the Lord God of Israel had commanded. 10:41 Joshua conquered the area between Kadesh Barnea and Gaza and the whole region of Goshen, all the way to Gibeon. 108 10:42 Joshua captured in one campaign 109 all these kings and their lands, for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel. 10:43 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.
11:1 When King Jabin of Hazor 110 heard the news, he organized a coalition, including 111 King Jobab of Madon, the king of Shimron, the king of Acshaph, 11:2 and the northern kings who ruled in 112 the hill country, the Arabah south of Kinnereth, 113 the lowlands, and the heights of Dor to the west. 11:3 Canaanites came 114 from the east and west; Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites from the hill country; and Hivites from below Hermon in the area 115 of Mizpah. 11:4 These kings came out with their armies; they were as numerous as the sand on the seashore and had a large number of horses and chariots. 116 11:5 All these kings gathered and joined forces 117 at the Waters of Merom to fight Israel.
11:6 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for about this time tomorrow I will cause all of them to lie dead before Israel. You must hamstring their horses and burn 118 their chariots.” 11:7 Joshua and his whole army caught them by surprise at the Waters of Merom and attacked them. 119 11:8 The Lord handed them over to Israel and they struck them down and chased them all the way to Greater Sidon, 120 Misrephoth Maim, 121 and the Mizpah Valley to the east. They struck them down until no survivors remained. 11:9 Joshua did to them as the Lord had commanded him; he hamstrung their horses and burned 122 their chariots.
11:10 At that time Joshua turned, captured Hazor, 123 and struck down its king with the sword, for Hazor was at that time 124 the leader of all these kingdoms. 11:11 They annihilated everyone who lived there with the sword 125 – no one who breathed remained – and burned 126 Hazor.
11:12 Joshua captured all these royal cities and all their kings and annihilated them with the sword, 127 as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded. 11:13 But Israel did not burn any of the cities located on mounds, 128 except for Hazor; 129 it was the only one Joshua burned. 11:14 The Israelites plundered all the goods of these cities and the cattle, but they totally destroyed all the people 130 and allowed no one who breathed to live. 11:15 Moses the Lord’s servant passed on the Lord’s commands to Joshua, and Joshua did as he was told. He did not ignore any of the commands the Lord had given Moses. 131
11:16 Joshua conquered the whole land, 132 including the hill country, all the Negev, all the land of Goshen, the lowlands, 133 the Arabah, the hill country of Israel and its lowlands, 11:17 from Mount Halak on up to Seir, as far as Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley below Mount Hermon. He captured all their kings and executed them. 134 11:18 Joshua campaigned against 135 these kings for quite some time. 136 11:19 No city made peace with the Israelites (except the Hivites living in Gibeon); 137 they had to conquer all of them, 138 11:20 for the Lord determined to make them obstinate so they would attack Israel. He wanted Israel to annihilate them without mercy, as he had instructed Moses. 139
11:21 At that time Joshua attacked and eliminated the Anakites from the hill country 140 – from Hebron, Debir, Anab, and all the hill country of Judah and Israel. 141 Joshua annihilated them and their cities. 11:22 No Anakites were left in Israelite territory, though some remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. 11:23 Joshua conquered 142 the whole land, just as the Lord had promised Moses, 143 and he assigned Israel their tribal portions. 144 Then the land was free of war.
1 tn Heb “When all the kings who were beyond the Jordan heard.”
2 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
3 tn Heb “all the coast of the Great Sea.” The “Great Sea” was the typical designation for the Mediterranean Sea.
4 tn Heb “in front of.”
5 tn Heb “they gathered together to fight against Joshua and Israel [with] one mouth.”
7 tc Heb “and they went and [?].” The root and meaning of the verb form יִצְטַיָּרוּ (yitstayyaru) are uncertain. The form is most likely a corruption of יִצְטַיָּדוּ (yitstayyadu), read by some Hebrew
8 tn Heb “all the bread of their provisions.”
9 tn Or “moldy.”
10 tn Heb “in our midst.”
11 tn Heb “we are your servants.”
12 tn Or “servants.”
13 tn Heb “name.”
14 tn Heb “the report about him, all that he did in Egypt.”
15 tn Heb “your servants.”
16 tn Heb “in the day we went out to come to you.”
17 tn Or “moldy.”
18 tn Heb “took.” This probably means they tasted some of the food to make sure it was stale.
19 tn Heb “but they did not ask the mouth of the
20 tn Or “assembly.”
21 tn Heb “Joshua made peace with them and made a treaty with them to let them live, and the leaders of the community swore an oath to them.”
22 tn Heb “At the end of three days, after they made the treaty with them, they heard that they were neighbors to them and in their midst they were living.”
23 tn Heb “by the
24 tn Or “grumbled against.”
25 tn Heb “to them by….”
26 tn Or “touch.”
27 tn Heb “This is what we will do to them, keeping them alive so there will not be upon us anger concerning the oath which we swore to them.”
28 tc Heb “and the leaders said to them.” The LXX omits the words “and the leaders said to them.”
29 tn The vav (ו) consecutive construction in the Hebrew text suggests that the narrative resumes at this point. The LXX reads here, “and they will be,” understanding what follows to be a continuation of the leaders’ words rather than a comment by the narrator.
30 tn Heb “as the leaders said to them.”
32 tn Heb “them.”
33 tn Or “deceive.”
34 tn Heb “live in our midst?”
35 tn Heb “Now you are cursed and a servant will not be cut off from you, woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.”
36 tn Heb “your servants.”
37 tn Or “we were very afraid.”
38 tn Heb “so now, look, we are in your hand.”
39 tn Heb “according to what is good and according to what is upright in your eyes to do us, do.”
40 tn Heb “And he did to them so and he rescued them from the hand of the sons of Israel and they did not kill them.”
41 tn Heb “and Joshua made them in that day woodcutters and water carriers for the community, and for the altar of the
44 tn Heb “as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he did to Ai and to its king.”
45 tn Heb “and how.”
46 tn This statement is subordinated to v. 1 in the Hebrew text, which reads literally, “When Adoni-Zedek…they feared greatly.” The subject of the plural verb at the beginning of v. 2 is probably the residents of Jerusalem.
47 tn Heb “Come up to me and help me.”
48 tn Heb “and they camped against Gibeon and fought against it.”
49 tn Heb “do not let your hand drop from us.”
50 tn Heb “your servants!”
51 tn Heb “have gathered against us.”
52 tn Heb “And Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the brave warriors.”
53 tn Heb “I have given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
54 tn Heb “and not a man [or “one”] of them will stand before you.”
55 tn Heb “Joshua came upon them suddenly, all the night he went up from Gilgal.”
56 tn Or “caused to panic.”
57 tn Heb “he.” The referent is probably Israel (mentioned at the end of the previous sentence in the verse; cf. NIV, NRSV), but it is also possible that the
58 tn Heb “struck them down with a great striking down.”
59 tn Or “ascent.”
60 tn Heb “on the descent of.”
62 tn Heb “Then Joshua spoke to the
63 tn Heb “Is it not written down in the Scroll of the Upright One.” Many modern translations render, “the Scroll [or Book] of Jashar,” leaving the Hebrew name “Jashar” (which means “Upright One”) untranslated.
sn The Scroll of the Upright One was apparently an ancient Israelite collection of songs and prayers (see also 2 Sam 1:18).
64 tn Heb “and did not hurry to set [for] about a full day.”
65 tn Heb “listened to the voice of.”
66 tn Heb “these five kings.”
67 tn Heb “and appoint by it men to guard them.”
68 tn Heb “But [as for] you, don’t stand still, chase after your enemies and attack them from the rear.”
69 tn Or “enter into.”
70 tn Heb “has given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
71 tn Heb “When Joshua and the sons of Israel finished defeating them with a very great defeat until they were destroyed (now the survivors escaped to the fortified cities).” In the Hebrew text the initial temporal clause (“when Joshua…finished”) is subordinated to v. 21 (“the whole army returned”).
72 tn Heb “all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua [at] Makkedah [in] peace.”
73 tc Heb “No man.” The lamed (ל) prefixed to אִישׁ (’ish, “man”) is probably dittographic (note the immediately preceding יִשְׂרָאֵל [isra’el] which ends in lamed, ל); cf. the LXX.
74 tn Heb “no man sharpened [or perhaps, “pointed”] his tongue against the sons of Israel.” Cf. NEB “not a man of the Israelites suffered so much as a scratch on his tongue,” which understands “sharpened” as “scratched” (referring to a minor wound). Most modern translations understand the Hebrew expression “sharpened his tongue” figuratively for opposition or threats against the Israelites.
75 tn Heb “these five kings.”
76 tn Heb “they did so.”
77 tn Heb “these five kings.”
79 tn Heb “Joshua.” The translation has replaced the proper name with the pronoun (“he”) because a repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style.
80 tn Or “Draw near.”
81 tn Or “drew near.”
82 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”
83 tn Heb “struck them down and killed them.”
85 tn Heb “to this very day.” The words “They remain” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
87 tn Heb “Libnah.” Repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style, so the pronoun (“it”) has been employed in the translation.
88 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
89 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
90 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
91 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
93 tn Heb “encamped against it.”
94 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
95 tn Heb “people.”
96 tn Heb “they encamped against it.”
97 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
98 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
99 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
100 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
101 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
102 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
103 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
104 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
105 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
106 tn Heb “as he did to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, and as he did to Libnah and its king.” The clauses have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
107 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
108 tn Heb “and Joshua struck them down, from Kadesh Barnea even to Gaza, and all the land of Goshen, even to Gibeon.”
109 tn Heb “at one time.”
111 tn Heb “he sent to.”
112 tn Heb “and to the kings who [are] from the north in.”
113 tn Heb “Chinneroth,” a city and plain located in the territory of Naphtali in Galilee (BDB 490 s.v. כִּנֶּרֶת, כִּנֲרוֹת).
sn Kinnereth was a city in Galilee located near the Sea of Galilee (Deut 3:17). The surrounding region also became known by this name (1 Kgs 15:20; cf. Matt 14:34), and eventually even the lake itself (Josh 12:3; cf. Luke 5:1).
115 tn Or “land.”
116 tn Heb “They and all their camps with them came out, a people as numerous as the sand which is on the edge of the sea in multitude, and [with] horses and chariots very numerous.”
117 tn Heb “and came and camped together.”
118 tn Heb “burn with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
119 tn Heb “Joshua and all the people of war with him came upon them at the Waters of Merom suddenly and fell upon them.”
121 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 2:641).
122 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
124 tn Or “formerly.”
125 tn Heb “and they struck down all life which was in it with the edge of the sword, annihilating.”
126 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
127 tn Heb “and he struck them down with the edge of the sword, he annihilated them.”
128 tn Heb “standing on their mounds.”
130 tn Heb “but all the people they struck down with the edge of the sword until they destroyed them.”
131 tn Heb “As the
132 tn Heb “Joshua took all this land.”
133 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
134 tn Heb “and struck them down and killed them.”
135 tn Heb “made war with.”
136 tn Heb “for many days.”
137 tn The LXX omits this parenthetical note, which may represent a later scribal addition.
138 tn Heb “the whole they took in battle.”
139 tn Heb “for from the
140 tn Heb “went and cut off the Anakites from the hill country.”
141 tn Heb “and from all the hill country of Israel.”
142 tn Heb “took.”
143 tn Heb “according to all which the
144 tn Heb “and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their allotted portions by their tribes.”