6:1 Now Jericho 1 was shut tightly 2 because of the Israelites. No one was allowed to leave or enter. 3 6:2 The Lord told Joshua, “See, I am about to defeat Jericho for you, 4 along with its king and its warriors. 6:3 Have all the warriors march around the city one time; 5 do this for six days. 6:4 Have seven priests carry seven rams’ horns 6 in front of the ark. On the seventh day march around the city seven times, while the priests blow the horns. 6:5 When you hear the signal from the ram’s horn, 7 have the whole army give a loud battle cry. 8 Then the city wall will collapse 9 and the warriors should charge straight ahead.” 10
6:6 So Joshua son of Nun summoned the priests and instructed them, “Pick up the ark of the covenant, and seven priests must carry seven rams’ horns in front of the ark of the Lord.” 6:7 And he told 11 the army, 12 “Move ahead 13 and march around the city, with armed troops going ahead of the ark of the Lord.”
6:8 When Joshua gave the army its orders, 14 the seven priests carrying the seven rams’ horns before the Lord moved ahead and blew the horns as the ark of the covenant of the Lord followed behind. 6:9 Armed troops marched ahead of the priests blowing the horns, while the rear guard followed along behind the ark blowing rams’ horns. 6:10 Now Joshua had instructed the army, 15 “Do not give a battle cry 16 or raise your voices; say nothing 17 until the day I tell you, ‘Give the battle cry.’ 18 Then give the battle cry!” 19 6:11 So Joshua made sure they marched the ark of the Lord around the city one time. 20 Then they went back to the camp and spent the night there. 21
6:12 Bright and early the next morning Joshua had the priests pick up the ark of the Lord. 22 6:13 The seven priests carrying the seven rams’ horns before the ark of the Lord marched along blowing their horns. Armed troops marched ahead of them, while the rear guard followed along behind the ark of the Lord blowing rams’ horns. 6:14 They marched around the city one time on the second day, then returned to the camp. They did this six days in all.
6:15 On the seventh day they were up at the crack of dawn 23 and marched around the city as before – only this time they marched around it seven times. 24 6:16 The seventh time around, the priests blew the rams’ horns and Joshua told the army, 25 “Give the battle cry, 26 for the Lord is handing the city over to you! 27 6:17 The city and all that is in it must be set apart for the Lord, 28 except for Rahab the prostitute and all who are with her in her house, because she hid the spies 29 we sent. 6:18 But be careful when you are setting apart the riches for the Lord. If you take any of it, you will make the Israelite camp subject to annihilation and cause a disaster. 30 6:19 All the silver and gold, as well as bronze and iron items, belong to the Lord. 31 They must go into the Lord’s treasury.”
6:20 The rams’ horns sounded 32 and when the army 33 heard the signal, 34 they gave a loud battle cry. 35 The wall collapsed 36 and the warriors charged straight ahead into the city and captured it. 37 6:21 They annihilated with the sword everything that breathed in the city, 38 including men and women, young and old, as well as cattle, sheep, and donkeys. 6:22 Joshua told the two men who had spied on the land, “Enter the prostitute’s house 39 and bring out the woman and all who belong to her as you promised her.” 40 6:23 So the young spies went and brought out Rahab, her father, mother, brothers, and all who belonged to her. They brought out her whole family and took them to a place outside 41 the Israelite camp. 6:24 But they burned 42 the city and all that was in it, except for the silver, gold, and bronze and iron items they put in the treasury of the Lord’s house. 43 6:25 Yet Joshua spared 44 Rahab the prostitute, her father’s family, 45 and all who belonged to her. She lives in Israel 46 to this very day because she hid the messengers Joshua sent to spy on Jericho. 47 6:26 At that time Joshua made this solemn declaration: 48 “The man who attempts to rebuild 49 this city of Jericho 50 will stand condemned before the Lord. 51 He will lose his firstborn son when he lays its foundations and his youngest son when he erects its gates!” 52 6:27 The Lord was with Joshua and he became famous throughout the land. 53
7:1 But the Israelites disobeyed the command about the city’s riches. 54 Achan son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, 55 son of Zerah, from the tribe of Judah, stole some of the riches. 56 The Lord was furious with the Israelites. 57
7:2 Joshua sent men from Jericho 58 to Ai (which is located near Beth Aven, east of Bethel 59 ) and instructed them, “Go up and spy on the land.” So the men went up and spied on Ai. 7:3 They returned and reported to Joshua, 60 “Don’t send the whole army. 61 About two or three thousand men are adequate to defeat Ai. 62 Don’t tire out the whole army, for Ai is small.” 63
7:4 So about three thousand men went up, but they fled from the men of Ai. 7:5 The men of Ai killed about thirty-six of them and chased them from in front of the city gate all the way to the fissures 64 and defeated them on the steep slope. 65 The people’s 66 courage melted away like water. 67
7:6 Joshua tore his clothes; 68 he and the leaders 69 of Israel lay face down on the ground before the ark of the Lord until evening 70 and threw dirt on their heads. 71 7:7 Joshua prayed, 72 “O, Master, Lord! Why did you bring these people across the Jordan to hand us over to the Amorites so they could destroy us? 7:8 If only we had been satisfied to live on the other side of the Jordan! O Lord, what can I say now that Israel has retreated 73 before its enemies? 7:9 When the Canaanites and all who live in the land hear about this, they will turn against us and destroy the very memory of us 74 from the earth. What will you do to protect your great reputation?” 75
7:10 The Lord responded 76 to Joshua, “Get up! Why are you lying there face down? 77 7:11 Israel has sinned; they have violated my covenantal commandment! 78 They have taken some of the riches; 79 they have stolen them and deceitfully put them among their own possessions. 80 7:12 The Israelites are unable to stand before their enemies; they retreat because they have become subject to annihilation. 81 I will no longer be with you, 82 unless you destroy what has contaminated you. 83 7:13 Get up! Ritually consecrate the people and tell them this: ‘Ritually consecrate yourselves for tomorrow, because the Lord God of Israel says, “You are contaminated, 84 O Israel! You will not be able to stand before your enemies until you remove what is contaminating you.” 85 7:14 In the morning you must approach in tribal order. 86 The tribe the Lord selects 87 must approach by clans. The clan the Lord selects must approach by families. 88 The family the Lord selects must approach man by man. 89 7:15 The one caught with the riches 90 must be burned up 91 along with all who belong to him, because he violated the Lord’s covenant and did such a disgraceful thing in Israel.’”
7:16 Bright and early the next morning Joshua made Israel approach in tribal order 92 and the tribe of Judah was selected. 7:17 He then made the clans of Judah approach and the clan of the Zerahites was selected. He made the clan of the Zerahites approach and Zabdi 93 was selected. 94 7:18 He then made Zabdi’s 95 family approach man by man 96 and Achan son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah, from the tribe of Judah, was selected. 7:19 So Joshua said to Achan, “My son, honor 97 the Lord God of Israel and give him praise! Tell me what you did; don’t hide anything from me!” 7:20 Achan told Joshua, “It is true. I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel in this way: 98 7:21 I saw among the goods we seized a nice robe from Babylon, 99 two hundred silver pieces, 100 and a bar of gold weighing fifty shekels. I wanted them, so I took them. They are hidden in the ground right in the middle of my tent with the silver underneath.”
7:22 Joshua sent messengers who ran to the tent. The things were hidden right in his tent, with the silver underneath. 101 7:23 They took it all from the middle of the tent, brought it to Joshua and all the Israelites, and placed 102 it before the Lord. 7:24 Then Joshua and all Israel took Achan, son of Zerah, along with the silver, the robe, the bar of gold, his sons, daughters, ox, donkey, sheep, tent, and all that belonged to him and brought them up to the Valley of Disaster. 103 7:25 Joshua said, “Why have you brought disaster 104 on us? The Lord will bring disaster on you today!” All Israel stoned him to death. (They also stoned and burned the others.) 105 7:26 Then they erected over him a large pile of stones (it remains to this very day 106 ) and the Lord’s anger subsided. So that place is called the Valley of Disaster to this very day.
8:1 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic! 107 Take the whole army with you and march against Ai! 108 See, I am handing over to you 109 the king of Ai, along with his people, city, and land. 8:2 Do to Ai and its king what you did to Jericho 110 and its king, except you may plunder its goods and cattle. Set an ambush behind the city!”
8:3 Joshua and the whole army marched against Ai. 111 Joshua selected thirty thousand brave warriors and sent them out at night. 8:4 He told 112 them, “Look, set an ambush behind the city. Don’t go very far from the city; all of you be ready! 8:5 I and all the troops 113 who are with me will approach the city. When they come out to fight us like before, we will retreat from them. 8:6 They will attack 114 us until we have lured them from the city, for they will say, ‘They are retreating from us like before.’ We will retreat from them. 8:7 Then you rise up from your hiding place 115 and seize 116 the city. The Lord your God will hand it over to you. 8:8 When you capture the city, set it 117 on fire. Do as the Lord says! See, I have given you orders.” 118 8:9 Joshua sent them away and they went to their hiding place 119 west of Ai, between Bethel 120 and Ai. 121 Joshua spent that night with the army. 122
8:10 Bright and early the next morning Joshua gathered 123 the army, 124 and he and the leaders 125 of Israel marched 126 at the head of it 127 to Ai. 8:11 All the troops that were with him marched up and drew near the city. 128 They camped north of Ai on the other side of the valley. 129 8:12 He took five thousand men and set an ambush west of the city between Bethel 130 and Ai. 8:13 The army was in position – the main army north of the city and the rear guard west of the city. That night Joshua went into 131 the middle of the valley.
8:14 When the king of Ai saw Israel, he and his whole army quickly got up the next day and went out to fight Israel at the meeting place near the Arabah. 132 But he did not realize 133 men were hiding behind the city. 134 8:15 Joshua and all Israel pretended to be defeated by them and they retreated along the way to the desert. 8:16 All the reinforcements 135 in Ai 136 were ordered 137 to chase them; they chased Joshua and were lured away from the city. 8:17 No men were left in Ai or Bethel; 138 they all went out after Israel. 139 They left the city wide open and chased Israel.
8:18 The Lord told Joshua, “Hold out toward Ai the curved sword in your hand, for I am handing the city 140 over to you.” So Joshua held out toward Ai the curved sword in his hand. 8:19 When he held out his hand, the men waiting in ambush rose up quickly from their place and attacked. 141 They entered the city, captured it, and immediately set it on fire. 8:20 When the men of Ai turned around, they saw 142 the smoke from the city ascending into the sky and were so shocked they were unable to flee in any direction. 143 In the meantime the men who were retreating to the desert turned against their pursuers. 8:21 When Joshua and all Israel saw that the men in ambush had captured the city and that the city was going up in smoke, 144 they turned around and struck down the men of Ai. 8:22 At the same time the men who had taken the city came out to fight, and the men of Ai were trapped in the middle. 145 The Israelites struck them down, leaving no survivors or refugees. 8:23 But they captured the king of Ai alive and brought him to Joshua.
8:24 When Israel had finished killing all the men 146 of Ai who had chased them toward the desert 147 (they all fell by the sword), 148 all Israel returned to Ai and put the sword to it. 8:25 Twelve thousand men and women died 149 that day, including all the men of Ai. 8:26 Joshua kept holding out his curved sword until Israel had annihilated all who lived in Ai. 150 8:27 But Israel did plunder the cattle and the goods of the city, in accordance with the Lord’s orders to Joshua. 151 8:28 Joshua burned Ai and made it a permanently uninhabited mound (it remains that way to this very day). 152 8:29 He hung the king of Ai on a tree, leaving him exposed until evening. 153 At sunset Joshua ordered that his corpse be taken down from the tree. 154 They threw it down at the entrance of the city gate and erected over it a large pile of stones (it remains to this very day). 155
8:30 Then Joshua built an altar for the Lord God of Israel on Mount Ebal, 8:31 just as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded the Israelites. As described in the law scroll of Moses, it was made with uncut stones untouched by an iron tool. 156 They offered burnt sacrifices on it and sacrificed tokens of peace. 157 8:32 There, in the presence of the Israelites, Joshua inscribed on the stones a duplicate of the law written by Moses. 158 8:33 All the people, 159 rulers, 160 leaders, and judges were standing on either side of the ark, in front of the Levitical priests who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord. Both resident foreigners and native Israelites were there. 161 Half the people stood in front of Mount Gerizim and the other half in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses the Lord’s servant had previously instructed to them to do for the formal blessing ceremony. 162 8:34 Then 163 Joshua read aloud all the words of the law, including the blessings and the curses, just as they are written in the law scroll. 8:35 Joshua read aloud every commandment Moses had given 164 before the whole assembly of Israel, including the women, children, and resident foreigners who lived among them. 165
9:1 When the news reached all the kings on the west side of the Jordan 166 – in the hill country, the lowlands, 167 and all along the Mediterranean coast 168 as far as 169 Lebanon (including the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites) – 9:2 they formed an alliance to fight against Joshua and Israel. 170
9:3 When the residents of Gibeon heard what Joshua did to Jericho 171 and Ai, 9:4 they did something clever. They collected some provisions 172 and put worn-out sacks on their donkeys, along with worn-out wineskins that were ripped and patched. 9:5 They had worn-out, patched sandals on their feet and dressed in worn-out clothes. All their bread 173 was dry and hard. 174 9:6 They came to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal and said to him and the men of Israel, “We have come from a distant land. Make a treaty with us.” 9:7 The men of Israel said to the Hivites, “Perhaps you live near us. 175 So how can we make a treaty with you?” 9:8 But they said to Joshua, “We are willing to be your subjects.” 176 So Joshua said to them, “Who are you and where do you come from?” 9:9 They told him, “Your subjects 177 have come from a very distant land because of the reputation 178 of the Lord your God, for we have heard the news about all he did in Egypt 179 9:10 and all he did to the two Amorite kings on the other side of the Jordan – King Sihon of Heshbon and King Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth. 9:11 Our leaders and all who live in our land told us, ‘Take provisions for your journey and go meet them. Tell them, “We are willing to be your subjects. 180 Make a treaty with us.”’ 9:12 This bread of ours was warm when we packed it in our homes the day we started out to meet you, 181 but now it is dry and hard. 182 9:13 These wineskins we filled were brand new, but look how they have ripped. Our clothes and sandals have worn out because it has been a very long journey.” 9:14 The men examined 183 some of their provisions, but they failed to ask the Lord’s advice. 184 9:15 Joshua made a peace treaty with them and agreed to let them live. The leaders of the community 185 sealed it with an oath. 186
9:16 Three days after they made the treaty with them, the Israelites found out they were from the local area and lived nearby. 187 9:17 So the Israelites set out and on the third day arrived at their cities – Gibeon, Kephirah, Beeroth, and Kiriath Jearim. 9:18 The Israelites did not attack them because the leaders of the community had sworn an oath to them in the name of the Lord God of Israel. 188 The whole community criticized 189 the leaders, 9:19 but all the leaders told the whole community, “We swore an oath to them in the name of 190 the Lord God of Israel. So now we can’t hurt 191 them! 9:20 We must let them live so we can escape the curse attached to the oath we swore to them.” 192 9:21 The leaders then added, 193 “Let them live.” So they became 194 woodcutters and water carriers for the whole community, as the leaders had decided. 195
9:22 196 Joshua summoned the Gibeonites 197 and said to them, “Why did you trick 198 us by saying, ‘We live far away from you,’ when you really live nearby? 199 9:23 Now you are condemned to perpetual servitude as woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.” 200 9:24 They said to Joshua, “It was carefully reported to your subjects 201 how the Lord your God commanded Moses his servant to assign you the whole land and to destroy all who live in the land from before you. Because of you we were terrified 202 we would lose our lives, so we did this thing. 9:25 So now we are in your power. 203 Do to us what you think is good and appropriate. 204 9:26 Joshua did as they said; he kept the Israelites from killing them 205 9:27 and that day made them woodcutters and water carriers for the community and for the altar of the Lord at the divinely chosen site. (They continue in that capacity to this very day.) 206
10:1 Adoni-Zedek, king of Jerusalem, 207 heard how Joshua captured Ai and annihilated it and its king as he did Jericho 208 and its king. 209 He also heard how 210 the people of Gibeon made peace with Israel and lived among them. 10:2 All Jerusalem was terrified 211 because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities. It was larger than Ai and all its men were warriors. 10:3 So King Adoni-Zedek of Jerusalem sent this message to King Hoham of Hebron, King Piram of Jarmuth, King Japhia of Lachish, and King Debir of Eglon: 10:4 “Come to my aid 212 so we can attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.” 10:5 So the five Amorite kings (the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon) and all their troops gathered together and advanced. They deployed their troops and fought against Gibeon. 213
10:6 The men of Gibeon sent this message to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal, “Do not abandon 214 your subjects! 215 Rescue us! Help us! For all the Amorite kings living in the hill country are attacking us.” 216 10:7 So Joshua and his whole army, including the bravest warriors, marched up from Gilgal. 217 10:8 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for I am handing them over to you. 218 Not one of them can resist you.” 219 10:9 Joshua attacked them by surprise after marching all night from Gilgal. 220 10:10 The Lord routed 221 them before Israel. Israel 222 thoroughly defeated them 223 at Gibeon. They chased them up the road to the pass 224 of Beth Horon and struck them down all the way to Azekah and Makkedah. 10:11 As they fled from Israel on the slope leading down from 225 Beth Horon, the Lord threw down on them large hailstones from the sky, 226 all the way to Azekah. They died – in fact, more died from the hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword.
“O sun, stand still over Gibeon!
O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon!”
10:13 The sun stood still and the moon stood motionless while the nation took vengeance on its enemies. The event is recorded in the Scroll of the Upright One. 228 The sun stood motionless in the middle of the sky and did not set for about a full day. 229 10:14 There has not been a day like it before or since. The Lord obeyed 230 a man, for the Lord fought for Israel! 10:15 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.
10:16 The five Amorite kings 231 ran away and hid in the cave at Makkedah. 10:17 Joshua was told, “The five kings have been found hiding in the cave at Makkedah.” 10:18 Joshua said, “Roll large stones over the mouth of the cave and post guards in front of it. 232 10:19 But don’t you delay! Chase your enemies and catch them! 233 Don’t allow them to retreat to 234 their cities, for the Lord your God is handing them over to you.” 235 10:20 Joshua and the Israelites almost totally wiped them out, but some survivors did escape to the fortified cities. 236 10:21 Then the whole army safely returned to Joshua at the camp in Makkedah. 237 No one 238 dared threaten the Israelites. 239 10:22 Joshua said, “Open the cave’s mouth and bring the five kings 240 out of the cave to me.” 10:23 They did as ordered; 241 they brought the five kings 242 out of the cave to him – the kings of Jerusalem, 243 Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. 10:24 When they brought the kings out to Joshua, he 244 summoned all the men of Israel and said to the commanders of the troops who accompanied him, “Come here 245 and put your feet on the necks of these kings.” So they came up 246 and put their feet on their necks. 10:25 Then Joshua said to them, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic! 247 Be strong and brave, for the Lord will do the same thing to all your enemies you fight. 10:26 Then Joshua executed them 248 and hung them on five trees. They were left hanging on the trees until evening. 10:27 At sunset Joshua ordered his men to take them down from the trees. 249 They threw them into the cave where they had hidden and piled large stones over the mouth of the cave. (They remain to this very day.) 250
10:28 That day Joshua captured Makkedah and put the sword to it and its king. He annihilated everyone who lived in it; he left no survivors. He did to its king what he had done to the king of Jericho. 251
10:29 Joshua and all Israel marched from Makkedah to Libnah and fought against it. 252 10:30 The Lord handed it and its king over to Israel, and Israel 253 put the sword to all who lived there; they 254 left no survivors. They 255 did to its king what they 256 had done to the king of Jericho. 257
10:31 Joshua and all Israel marched from Libnah to Lachish. He deployed his troops 258 and fought against it. 10:32 The Lord handed Lachish over to Israel and they 259 captured it on the second day. They put the sword to all who lived there, just as they had done to Libnah. 10:33 Then King Horam of Gezer came up to help Lachish, but Joshua struck down him and his army 260 until no survivors remained.
10:34 Joshua and all Israel marched from Lachish to Eglon. They deployed troops 261 and fought against it. 10:35 That day they captured it and put the sword to all who lived there. That day they 262 annihilated it just as they 263 had done to Lachish.
10:36 Joshua and all Israel marched up from Eglon to Hebron and fought against it. 10:37 They captured it and put the sword to its king, all its surrounding cities, and all who lived in it; they 264 left no survivors. As they 265 had done at Eglon, they 266 annihilated it and all who lived there.
10:38 Joshua and all Israel turned to Debir and fought against it. 10:39 They 267 captured it, its king, and all its surrounding cities and put the sword to them. They annihilated everyone who lived there; they 268 left no survivors. They 269 did to Debir and its king what they 270 had done to Libnah and its king and to Hebron. 271
10:40 Joshua defeated the whole land, including the hill country, the Negev, the lowlands, 272 the slopes, and all their kings. He left no survivors. He annihilated everything that breathed, just as the Lord God of Israel had commanded. 10:41 Joshua conquered the area between Kadesh Barnea and Gaza and the whole region of Goshen, all the way to Gibeon. 273 10:42 Joshua captured in one campaign 274 all these kings and their lands, for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel. 10:43 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.
11:1 When King Jabin of Hazor 275 heard the news, he organized a coalition, including 276 King Jobab of Madon, the king of Shimron, the king of Acshaph, 11:2 and the northern kings who ruled in 277 the hill country, the Arabah south of Kinnereth, 278 the lowlands, and the heights of Dor to the west. 11:3 Canaanites came 279 from the east and west; Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites from the hill country; and Hivites from below Hermon in the area 280 of Mizpah. 11:4 These kings came out with their armies; they were as numerous as the sand on the seashore and had a large number of horses and chariots. 281 11:5 All these kings gathered and joined forces 282 at the Waters of Merom to fight Israel.
11:6 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for about this time tomorrow I will cause all of them to lie dead before Israel. You must hamstring their horses and burn 283 their chariots.” 11:7 Joshua and his whole army caught them by surprise at the Waters of Merom and attacked them. 284 11:8 The Lord handed them over to Israel and they struck them down and chased them all the way to Greater Sidon, 285 Misrephoth Maim, 286 and the Mizpah Valley to the east. They struck them down until no survivors remained. 11:9 Joshua did to them as the Lord had commanded him; he hamstrung their horses and burned 287 their chariots.
11:10 At that time Joshua turned, captured Hazor, 288 and struck down its king with the sword, for Hazor was at that time 289 the leader of all these kingdoms. 11:11 They annihilated everyone who lived there with the sword 290 – no one who breathed remained – and burned 291 Hazor.
11:12 Joshua captured all these royal cities and all their kings and annihilated them with the sword, 292 as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded. 11:13 But Israel did not burn any of the cities located on mounds, 293 except for Hazor; 294 it was the only one Joshua burned. 11:14 The Israelites plundered all the goods of these cities and the cattle, but they totally destroyed all the people 295 and allowed no one who breathed to live. 11:15 Moses the Lord’s servant passed on the Lord’s commands to Joshua, and Joshua did as he was told. He did not ignore any of the commands the Lord had given Moses. 296
11:16 Joshua conquered the whole land, 297 including the hill country, all the Negev, all the land of Goshen, the lowlands, 298 the Arabah, the hill country of Israel and its lowlands, 11:17 from Mount Halak on up to Seir, as far as Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley below Mount Hermon. He captured all their kings and executed them. 299 11:18 Joshua campaigned against 300 these kings for quite some time. 301 11:19 No city made peace with the Israelites (except the Hivites living in Gibeon); 302 they had to conquer all of them, 303 11:20 for the Lord determined to make them obstinate so they would attack Israel. He wanted Israel to annihilate them without mercy, as he had instructed Moses. 304
11:21 At that time Joshua attacked and eliminated the Anakites from the hill country 305 – from Hebron, Debir, Anab, and all the hill country of Judah and Israel. 306 Joshua annihilated them and their cities. 11:22 No Anakites were left in Israelite territory, though some remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. 11:23 Joshua conquered 307 the whole land, just as the Lord had promised Moses, 308 and he assigned Israel their tribal portions. 309 Then the land was free of war.
12:1 Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land 310 on the east side of the Jordan, 311 from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern Arabah:
12:2 King Sihon of the Amorites who lived 312 in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley) – including the city in the middle of the valley 313 and half of Gilead – all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory. 12:3 His kingdom included 314 the eastern Arabah from the Sea of Kinnereth 315 to the Sea of the Arabah (the Salt Sea), 316 including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.
12:4 The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites, 317 who lived 318 in Ashtaroth and Edrei 12:5 and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all of Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.
12:7 These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak on up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes, 320 12:8 including the hill country, the lowlands, 321 the Arabah, the slopes, the wilderness, and the Negev – the land of 322 the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:
the king of Ai – located near Bethel – (one),
the king of Hebron (one),
12:11 the king of Jarmuth (one),
the king of Lachish (one),
12:12 the king of Eglon (one),
the king of Gezer (one),
12:13 the king of Debir (one),
the king of Geder (one),
12:14 the king of Hormah (one),
the king of Arad (one),
12:15 the king of Libnah (one),
the king of Adullam (one),
12:16 the king of Makkedah (one),
the king of Bethel 325 (one),
12:17 the king of Tappuah (one),
the king of Hepher (one),
12:18 the king of Aphek (one),
the king of Lasharon (one),
12:19 the king of Madon (one),
the king of Hazor 326 (one),
12:20 the king of Shimron Meron (one),
the king of Acshaph (one),
12:21 the king of Taanach (one),
the king of Megiddo 327 (one),
12:22 the king of Kedesh (one),
the king of Jokneam near Carmel (one),
12:23 the king of Dor – near Naphath Dor – (one),
the king of Goyim – near Gilgal – (one),
12:24 the king of Tirzah (one),
a total of thirty-one kings.
2 tn Heb “was shutting and shut up.” HALOT 2:743 paraphrases, “blocking [any way of access] and blocked [against any who would leave].”
3 tn Heb “there was no one going out and there was no one coming in.”
4 tn Heb “I have given into your hand Jericho.” The Hebrew verb נָתַתִּי (natatti, “I have given”) is probably best understood as a perfect of certitude, indicating the certainty of the action. The Hebrew pronominal suffix “your” is singular, being addressed to Joshua as the leader and representative of the nation. To convey to the modern reader what is about to happen and who is doing it, the translation “I am about to defeat Jericho for you” has been used.
5 tn Heb “and go around the city, all [you] men of war, encircling the city one time.” The Hebrew verb וְסַבֹּתֶם (vÿsabbotem, “and go around”) is plural, being addressed to the whole army.
6 tn Heb “rams’ horns, trumpets.”
7 tn Heb “and it will be at the sounding of the horn, the ram’s horn, when you hear the sound of the ram’s horn.” The text of Josh 6:5 seems to be unduly repetitive, so for the sake of English style and readability, it is best to streamline the text here. The reading in the Hebrew looks like a conflation of variant readings, with the second (“when you hear the sound of the ram’s horn”) being an interpolation that assimilates the text to verse 20 (“when the army heard the sound of the horn”). Note that the words “when you hear the sound of the ram's horn” do not appear in the LXX of verse 5.
8 tn Heb “all the people will shout with a loud shout.”
9 tn Heb “fall in its place.”
10 tn Heb “and the people will go up, each man straight ahead.”
11 tn An alternative reading is “and they said.” In this case the subject is indefinite and the verb should be translated as passive, “[the army] was told.”
12 tn Heb “the people.”
13 tn Heb “pass by.”
14 tn Heb “when Joshua spoke to the people.”
15 tn Heb “the people.”
16 tn Or “the shout.”
17 tn Heb “do not let a word come out of your mouths.”
18 tn Or “the shout.”
19 tn Or “the shout.”
20 tn Heb “and he made the ark of the
21 tn Heb “and they entered the camp and spent the night in the camp.”
22 tn Heb “Joshua rose early in the morning and the priests picked up the ark of the
23 tn Heb “On the seventh day they rose early, when the dawn ascended.”
24 tn Heb “and they went around the city according to this manner seven times, only on that day they went around the city seven times.”
25 tn Heb “the people.”
26 tn Or “the shout.”
27 tn Heb “for the
28 tn Or “dedicated to the
sn To make the city set apart for the
29 tn Heb “messengers.”
30 tn Heb “Only you keep [away] from what is set apart [to the
31 tn Heb “it is holy to the
32 tc Heb “and the people shouted and they blew the rams’ horns.” The initial statement (“and the people shouted”) seems premature, since the verse goes on to explain that the battle cry followed the blowing of the horns. The statement has probably been accidentally duplicated from what follows. It is omitted in the LXX.
33 tn Heb “the people.”
34 tn Heb “the sound of the horn.”
35 tn Heb “they shouted with a loud shout.”
36 tn Heb “fell in its place.”
37 tn Heb “and the people went up into the city, each one straight ahead, and they captured the city.”
38 tn Heb “all which was in the city.”
39 tn Heb “the house of the woman, the prostitute.”
40 tn Heb “and bring out from there the woman and all who belong to her as you swore on oath to her.”
41 tn Or “placed them outside.”
42 tn The Hebrew text adds “with fire.”
43 tn Heb “the treasury of the house of the
44 tn Heb “kept alive.”
45 tn Heb the house of her father.”
46 tn Or “among the Israelites”; Heb “in the midst of Israel.”
48 tn Normally the Hiphil of שָׁבַע (shava’) has a causative sense (“make [someone] take an oath”; see Josh 2:17, 20), but here (see also Josh 23:7) no object is stated or implied. If Joshua is calling divine judgment down upon the one who attempts to rebuild Jericho, then “make a solemn appeal [to God as judge]” or “pronounce a curse” would be an appropriate translation. However, the tone seems stronger. Joshua appears to be announcing the certain punishment of the violator. 1 Kgs 16:34, which records the fulfillment of Joshua’s prediction, supports this. Casting Joshua in a prophetic role, it refers to Joshua’s statement as the “word of the
49 tn Heb “rises up and builds.”
50 tc The LXX omits “Jericho.” It is probably a scribal addition.
52 tn Heb “With his firstborn he will lay its foundations and with his youngest he will erect its gates.” The Hebrew verb יַצִּיב (yatsiv, “he will erect”) is imperfect, not jussive, suggesting Joshua’s statement is a prediction, not an imprecation.
53 tn Heb “and the report about him was in all the land.” The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (’erets, “land”) may also be translated “earth.”
54 tn Heb “But the sons of Israel were unfaithful with unfaithfulness concerning what was set apart [to the
56 tn Heb “took from what was set apart [to the
57 tn Heb “the anger of the
sn This incident illustrates well the principle of corporate solidarity and corporate guilt. The sin of one man brought the
60 tn Heb “and they returned to Joshua and said to him.”
61 tn Heb “Don’t let all the people go up.”
62 tn Heb “Let about two thousand men or about three thousand men go up to defeat Ai.”
63 tn Heb “all the people for they are small.”
64 tn The meaning and correct translation of the Hebrew word שְׁבָרִים (shÿvarim) is uncertain. The translation “fissures” is based on usage of the plural form of the noun in Ps 60:4 HT (60:2 ET), where it appears to refer to cracks in the earth caused by an earthquake. Perhaps deep ravines or gorges are in view, or the word is a proper noun (“all the way to Shebarim”).
65 sn The precise geographical location of the Israelite defeat at this “steep slope” is uncertain.
66 tn Or “army’s.”
67 tn Heb “and the heart of the people melted and became water.”
69 tn Or “elders.”
70 tn Heb “and fell on his face to the ground before the ark of the
72 tn Heb “said.”
73 tn Heb “turned [the] back.”
74 tn Heb “and cut off our name.”
75 tn Heb “What will you do for your great name?”
76 tn Heb “said.”
77 tn Heb “Why are you falling on your face?”
78 tn Heb “They have violated my covenant which I commanded them.”
79 tn Heb “what was set apart [to the
80 tn Heb “and also they have stolen, and also they have lied, and also they have placed [them] among their items.”
81 tn Heb “they turn [the] back before their enemies because they are set apart [to destruction by the
82 tn The second person pronoun is plural in Hebrew, indicating these words are addressed to the entire nation.
83 tn Heb “what is set apart [to destruction by the
84 tn Heb “what is set apart [to destruction by the
85 tn Heb “remove what is set apart [i.e., to destruction by the
86 tn Heb “by your tribes.”
87 tn Heb “takes forcefully, seizes.”
88 tn Heb “houses.”
89 tn Heb “by men.”
90 tn Heb “with what was set apart [to the
91 tn Heb “burned with fire.”
92 tn Heb “by tribes.”
94 tn Heb “and he selected Zabdi.” The
95 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Zabdi) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
96 tn Heb “by men.”
97 tn Heb “give glory to.”
98 tn Heb “like this and like this I did.”
99 tn Heb “Shinar,” a reference to Babylon (cf. Gen 10:10; 11:2; 14:1). Many modern translations retain the Hebrew name “Shinar” (cf. NEB, NRSV) but some use the more familiar “Babylon” (cf. NIV, NLT).
100 tn Heb “shekels.”
101 tn Heb “Look, [it was] hidden in his tent, and the silver was beneath it.”
102 tn Heb “poured out,” probably referring to the way the silver pieces poured out of their container.
104 tn Or “trouble.” The word is “achor” in Hebrew (also in the following clause).
105 tc Heb “and they burned them with fire and they stoned them with stones.” These words are somewhat parenthetical in nature and are omitted in the LXX; they may represent a later scribal addition.
106 tc Heb “to this day.” The phrase “to this day” is omitted in the LXX and may represent a later scribal addition.
107 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”
108 tn Heb “Take with you all the people of war and arise, go up against Ai!”
109 tn Heb “I have given into our hand.” The verbal form, a perfect, is probably best understood as a perfect of certitude, indicating the certainty of the action.
111 tn “And Joshua and all the people of war arose to go up [against] Ai.”
112 tn Or “commanded, ordered.”
113 tn Heb “the people.”
114 tn Heb “come out after.”
115 tn Heb “from the ambush.”
116 tn Heb “take possession of.”
117 tn Heb “the city.”
118 tn Heb “I have commanded you.”
119 tn Or “the place of ambush.”
121 tn Heb “and they stayed between Bethel and Ai, west of Ai.”
122 tn Heb “in the midst of the people.”
123 tn Or “summoned, mustered.”
124 tn Heb “the people.”
125 tn Or “elders.”
126 tn Heb “went up.”
127 tn Heb “them” (referring to “the people” in the previous clause, which requires a plural pronoun). Since the translation used “army” in the previous clause, a singular pronoun (“it”) is required in English.
128 tn Heb “All the people of war who were with him went up and approached and came opposite the city.”
129 tn Heb “and the valley [was] between them and Ai.”
131 tn Some Hebrew
132 tn Heb “When the king of Ai saw, the men of Ai hurried and rose early and went out to meet Israel for battle, he and all his people at the meeting place before the Arabah.”
133 tn Or “know.”
134 tn Heb “that (there was) an ambush for him behind the city.”
135 tn Heb “All the people.”
136 tc Some textual witnesses read “the city.”
137 tn Or “were summoned”; or “were mustered.”
138 tc The LXX omits the words “or Bethel.”
139 tn Heb “who did not go out after Israel.”
140 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the city of Ai) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
141 tn Heb “and ran.”
142 tn Heb “and they saw, and look.” The Hebrew term הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”) draws attention to the scene and invites the audience to view the events from the perspective of the men of Ai.
143 tn Heb “and there was not in them hands to flee here or there.” The Hebrew term יָדַיִם (yadayim, “hands”) is idiomatic for “strength.”
144 tn Heb “and that the smoke of the city ascended.”
145 tn Heb “and these went out from the city to meet them and they were for Israel in the middle, some on this side, and others on the other side.”
146 tn Heb “residents.”
147 tn Heb “in the field, in the desert in which they chased them.”
148 tc Heb “and all of them fell by the edge of the sword until they were destroyed.” The LXX omits the words, “and all of them fell by the edge of the sword.” They may represent a later scribal addition.
149 tn Heb “fell.”
150 tn Heb “Joshua did not draw back his hand which held out the curved sword until he had annihilated all the residents of Ai.”
151 tn Heb “according to the word of the
152 tn Heb “and made it a permanent mound, a desolation, to this day.”
153 tn Heb “on a tree until evening.” The words “leaving him exposed” are supplied in the translation for clarity.
155 tn Heb “to this day.”
156 tn Heb “as it is written in the scroll of the law of Moses, an altar of whole stones on which no one had wielded iron.” The expression “whole stones” refers to stones in their natural condition, i.e., not carved or shaped artificially with tools (“wielded iron”).
157 tn Or “peace offerings.”
158 tn Heb “and he wrote there on the stones a duplicate of the law of Moses which he wrote before the sons of Israel.”
159 tn Heb “All Israel.”
160 tn Or “elders.”
161 tn Heb “like the resident alien, like the citizen.” The language is idiomatic, meaning that both groups were treated the same, at least in this instance.
162 tn Heb “as Moses, the
sn Moses’ earlier instructions are found in Deut 11:29.
163 tn Or “afterward.”
164 tn Heb “There was not a word from all which Moses commanded that Joshua did not read aloud.”
165 tn Heb “walked in their midst.”
166 tn Heb “When all the kings who were beyond the Jordan heard.”
167 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
168 tn Heb “all the coast of the Great Sea.” The “Great Sea” was the typical designation for the Mediterranean Sea.
169 tn Heb “in front of.”
170 tn Heb “they gathered together to fight against Joshua and Israel [with] one mouth.”
172 tc Heb “and they went and [?].” The root and meaning of the verb form יִצְטַיָּרוּ (yitstayyaru) are uncertain. The form is most likely a corruption of יִצְטַיָּדוּ (yitstayyadu), read by some Hebrew
173 tn Heb “all the bread of their provisions.”
174 tn Or “moldy.”
175 tn Heb “in our midst.”
176 tn Heb “we are your servants.”
177 tn Or “servants.”
178 tn Heb “name.”
179 tn Heb “the report about him, all that he did in Egypt.”
180 tn Heb “your servants.”
181 tn Heb “in the day we went out to come to you.”
182 tn Or “moldy.”
183 tn Heb “took.” This probably means they tasted some of the food to make sure it was stale.
184 tn Heb “but they did not ask the mouth of the
185 tn Or “assembly.”
186 tn Heb “Joshua made peace with them and made a treaty with them to let them live, and the leaders of the community swore an oath to them.”
187 tn Heb “At the end of three days, after they made the treaty with them, they heard that they were neighbors to them and in their midst they were living.”
188 tn Heb “by the
189 tn Or “grumbled against.”
190 tn Heb “to them by….”
191 tn Or “touch.”
192 tn Heb “This is what we will do to them, keeping them alive so there will not be upon us anger concerning the oath which we swore to them.”
193 tc Heb “and the leaders said to them.” The LXX omits the words “and the leaders said to them.”
194 tn The vav (ו) consecutive construction in the Hebrew text suggests that the narrative resumes at this point. The LXX reads here, “and they will be,” understanding what follows to be a continuation of the leaders’ words rather than a comment by the narrator.
195 tn Heb “as the leaders said to them.”
197 tn Heb “them.”
198 tn Or “deceive.”
199 tn Heb “live in our midst?”
200 tn Heb “Now you are cursed and a servant will not be cut off from you, woodcutters and water carriers for the house of my God.”
201 tn Heb “your servants.”
202 tn Or “we were very afraid.”
203 tn Heb “so now, look, we are in your hand.”
204 tn Heb “according to what is good and according to what is upright in your eyes to do us, do.”
205 tn Heb “And he did to them so and he rescued them from the hand of the sons of Israel and they did not kill them.”
206 tn Heb “and Joshua made them in that day woodcutters and water carriers for the community, and for the altar of the
209 tn Heb “as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he did to Ai and to its king.”
210 tn Heb “and how.”
211 tn This statement is subordinated to v. 1 in the Hebrew text, which reads literally, “When Adoni-Zedek…they feared greatly.” The subject of the plural verb at the beginning of v. 2 is probably the residents of Jerusalem.
212 tn Heb “Come up to me and help me.”
213 tn Heb “and they camped against Gibeon and fought against it.”
214 tn Heb “do not let your hand drop from us.”
215 tn Heb “your servants!”
216 tn Heb “have gathered against us.”
217 tn Heb “And Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the brave warriors.”
218 tn Heb “I have given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
219 tn Heb “and not a man [or “one”] of them will stand before you.”
220 tn Heb “Joshua came upon them suddenly, all the night he went up from Gilgal.”
221 tn Or “caused to panic.”
222 tn Heb “he.” The referent is probably Israel (mentioned at the end of the previous sentence in the verse; cf. NIV, NRSV), but it is also possible that the
223 tn Heb “struck them down with a great striking down.”
224 tn Or “ascent.”
225 tn Heb “on the descent of.”
227 tn Heb “Then Joshua spoke to the
228 tn Heb “Is it not written down in the Scroll of the Upright One.” Many modern translations render, “the Scroll [or Book] of Jashar,” leaving the Hebrew name “Jashar” (which means “Upright One”) untranslated.
sn The Scroll of the Upright One was apparently an ancient Israelite collection of songs and prayers (see also 2 Sam 1:18).
229 tn Heb “and did not hurry to set [for] about a full day.”
230 tn Heb “listened to the voice of.”
231 tn Heb “these five kings.”
232 tn Heb “and appoint by it men to guard them.”
233 tn Heb “But [as for] you, don’t stand still, chase after your enemies and attack them from the rear.”
234 tn Or “enter into.”
235 tn Heb “has given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
236 tn Heb “When Joshua and the sons of Israel finished defeating them with a very great defeat until they were destroyed (now the survivors escaped to the fortified cities).” In the Hebrew text the initial temporal clause (“when Joshua…finished”) is subordinated to v. 21 (“the whole army returned”).
237 tn Heb “all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua [at] Makkedah [in] peace.”
238 tc Heb “No man.” The lamed (ל) prefixed to אִישׁ (’ish, “man”) is probably dittographic (note the immediately preceding יִשְׂרָאֵל [isra’el] which ends in lamed, ל); cf. the LXX.
239 tn Heb “no man sharpened [or perhaps, “pointed”] his tongue against the sons of Israel.” Cf. NEB “not a man of the Israelites suffered so much as a scratch on his tongue,” which understands “sharpened” as “scratched” (referring to a minor wound). Most modern translations understand the Hebrew expression “sharpened his tongue” figuratively for opposition or threats against the Israelites.
240 tn Heb “these five kings.”
241 tn Heb “they did so.”
242 tn Heb “these five kings.”
244 tn Heb “Joshua.” The translation has replaced the proper name with the pronoun (“he”) because a repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style.
245 tn Or “Draw near.”
246 tn Or “drew near.”
247 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”
248 tn Heb “struck them down and killed them.”
250 tn Heb “to this very day.” The words “They remain” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
252 tn Heb “Libnah.” Repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style, so the pronoun (“it”) has been employed in the translation.
253 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
254 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
255 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
256 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
258 tn Heb “encamped against it.”
259 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
260 tn Heb “people.”
261 tn Heb “they encamped against it.”
262 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
263 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
264 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
265 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
266 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
267 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
268 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
269 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
270 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
271 tn Heb “as he did to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, and as he did to Libnah and its king.” The clauses have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
272 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
273 tn Heb “and Joshua struck them down, from Kadesh Barnea even to Gaza, and all the land of Goshen, even to Gibeon.”
274 tn Heb “at one time.”
276 tn Heb “he sent to.”
277 tn Heb “and to the kings who [are] from the north in.”
278 tn Heb “Chinneroth,” a city and plain located in the territory of Naphtali in Galilee (BDB 490 s.v. כִּנֶּרֶת, כִּנֲרוֹת).
sn Kinnereth was a city in Galilee located near the Sea of Galilee (Deut 3:17). The surrounding region also became known by this name (1 Kgs 15:20; cf. Matt 14:34), and eventually even the lake itself (Josh 12:3; cf. Luke 5:1).
280 tn Or “land.”
281 tn Heb “They and all their camps with them came out, a people as numerous as the sand which is on the edge of the sea in multitude, and [with] horses and chariots very numerous.”
282 tn Heb “and came and camped together.”
283 tn Heb “burn with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
284 tn Heb “Joshua and all the people of war with him came upon them at the Waters of Merom suddenly and fell upon them.”
286 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 2:641).
287 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
289 tn Or “formerly.”
290 tn Heb “and they struck down all life which was in it with the edge of the sword, annihilating.”
291 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
292 tn Heb “and he struck them down with the edge of the sword, he annihilated them.”
293 tn Heb “standing on their mounds.”
295 tn Heb “but all the people they struck down with the edge of the sword until they destroyed them.”
296 tn Heb “As the
297 tn Heb “Joshua took all this land.”
298 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
299 tn Heb “and struck them down and killed them.”
300 tn Heb “made war with.”
301 tn Heb “for many days.”
302 tn The LXX omits this parenthetical note, which may represent a later scribal addition.
303 tn Heb “the whole they took in battle.”
304 tn Heb “for from the
305 tn Heb “went and cut off the Anakites from the hill country.”
306 tn Heb “and from all the hill country of Israel.”
307 tn Heb “took.”
308 tn Heb “according to all which the
309 tn Heb “and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their allotted portions by their tribes.”
310 tn Heb “and took possession of their land.”
311 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”
312 tn Or perhaps, “reigned.”
314 tn The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
316 sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.
317 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”
sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
318 tn Or perhaps “who reigned.”
319 tn Heb “gave it for a possession.”
320 tn Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”
321 tn Or “the foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
322 tn The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.