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Joshua 10:1--12:24

Context
Israel Defeats an Amorite Coalition

10:1 Adoni-Zedek, king of Jerusalem, 1  heard how Joshua captured Ai and annihilated it and its king as he did Jericho 2  and its king. 3  He also heard how 4  the people of Gibeon made peace with Israel and lived among them. 10:2 All Jerusalem was terrified 5  because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities. It was larger than Ai and all its men were warriors. 10:3 So King Adoni-Zedek of Jerusalem sent this message to King Hoham of Hebron, King Piram of Jarmuth, King Japhia of Lachish, and King Debir of Eglon: 10:4 “Come to my aid 6  so we can attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.” 10:5 So the five Amorite kings (the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon) and all their troops gathered together and advanced. They deployed their troops and fought against Gibeon. 7 

10:6 The men of Gibeon sent this message to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal, “Do not abandon 8  your subjects! 9  Rescue us! Help us! For all the Amorite kings living in the hill country are attacking us.” 10  10:7 So Joshua and his whole army, including the bravest warriors, marched up from Gilgal. 11  10:8 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for I am handing them over to you. 12  Not one of them can resist you.” 13  10:9 Joshua attacked them by surprise after marching all night from Gilgal. 14  10:10 The Lord routed 15  them before Israel. Israel 16  thoroughly defeated them 17  at Gibeon. They chased them up the road to the pass 18  of Beth Horon and struck them down all the way to Azekah and Makkedah. 10:11 As they fled from Israel on the slope leading down from 19  Beth Horon, the Lord threw down on them large hailstones from the sky, 20  all the way to Azekah. They died – in fact, more died from the hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword.

10:12 The day the Lord delivered the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua prayed to the Lord before Israel: 21 

“O sun, stand still over Gibeon!

O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon!”

10:13 The sun stood still and the moon stood motionless while the nation took vengeance on its enemies. The event is recorded in the Scroll of the Upright One. 22  The sun stood motionless in the middle of the sky and did not set for about a full day. 23  10:14 There has not been a day like it before or since. The Lord obeyed 24  a man, for the Lord fought for Israel! 10:15 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.

10:16 The five Amorite kings 25  ran away and hid in the cave at Makkedah. 10:17 Joshua was told, “The five kings have been found hiding in the cave at Makkedah.” 10:18 Joshua said, “Roll large stones over the mouth of the cave and post guards in front of it. 26  10:19 But don’t you delay! Chase your enemies and catch them! 27  Don’t allow them to retreat to 28  their cities, for the Lord your God is handing them over to you.” 29  10:20 Joshua and the Israelites almost totally wiped them out, but some survivors did escape to the fortified cities. 30  10:21 Then the whole army safely returned to Joshua at the camp in Makkedah. 31  No one 32  dared threaten the Israelites. 33  10:22 Joshua said, “Open the cave’s mouth and bring the five kings 34  out of the cave to me.” 10:23 They did as ordered; 35  they brought the five kings 36  out of the cave to him – the kings of Jerusalem, 37  Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. 10:24 When they brought the kings out to Joshua, he 38  summoned all the men of Israel and said to the commanders of the troops who accompanied him, “Come here 39  and put your feet on the necks of these kings.” So they came up 40  and put their feet on their necks. 10:25 Then Joshua said to them, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic! 41  Be strong and brave, for the Lord will do the same thing to all your enemies you fight. 10:26 Then Joshua executed them 42  and hung them on five trees. They were left hanging on the trees until evening. 10:27 At sunset Joshua ordered his men to take them down from the trees. 43  They threw them into the cave where they had hidden and piled large stones over the mouth of the cave. (They remain to this very day.) 44 

Joshua Launches a Southern Campaign

10:28 That day Joshua captured Makkedah and put the sword to it and its king. He annihilated everyone who lived in it; he left no survivors. He did to its king what he had done to the king of Jericho. 45 

10:29 Joshua and all Israel marched from Makkedah to Libnah and fought against it. 46  10:30 The Lord handed it and its king over to Israel, and Israel 47  put the sword to all who lived there; they 48  left no survivors. They 49  did to its king what they 50  had done to the king of Jericho. 51 

10:31 Joshua and all Israel marched from Libnah to Lachish. He deployed his troops 52  and fought against it. 10:32 The Lord handed Lachish over to Israel and they 53  captured it on the second day. They put the sword to all who lived there, just as they had done to Libnah. 10:33 Then King Horam of Gezer came up to help Lachish, but Joshua struck down him and his army 54  until no survivors remained.

10:34 Joshua and all Israel marched from Lachish to Eglon. They deployed troops 55  and fought against it. 10:35 That day they captured it and put the sword to all who lived there. That day they 56  annihilated it just as they 57  had done to Lachish.

10:36 Joshua and all Israel marched up from Eglon to Hebron and fought against it. 10:37 They captured it and put the sword to its king, all its surrounding cities, and all who lived in it; they 58  left no survivors. As they 59  had done at Eglon, they 60  annihilated it and all who lived there.

10:38 Joshua and all Israel turned to Debir and fought against it. 10:39 They 61  captured it, its king, and all its surrounding cities and put the sword to them. They annihilated everyone who lived there; they 62  left no survivors. They 63  did to Debir and its king what they 64  had done to Libnah and its king and to Hebron. 65 

10:40 Joshua defeated the whole land, including the hill country, the Negev, the lowlands, 66  the slopes, and all their kings. He left no survivors. He annihilated everything that breathed, just as the Lord God of Israel had commanded. 10:41 Joshua conquered the area between Kadesh Barnea and Gaza and the whole region of Goshen, all the way to Gibeon. 67  10:42 Joshua captured in one campaign 68  all these kings and their lands, for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel. 10:43 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.

Israel Defeats a Northern Coalition

11:1 When King Jabin of Hazor 69  heard the news, he organized a coalition, including 70  King Jobab of Madon, the king of Shimron, the king of Acshaph, 11:2 and the northern kings who ruled in 71  the hill country, the Arabah south of Kinnereth, 72  the lowlands, and the heights of Dor to the west. 11:3 Canaanites came 73  from the east and west; Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites from the hill country; and Hivites from below Hermon in the area 74  of Mizpah. 11:4 These kings came out with their armies; they were as numerous as the sand on the seashore and had a large number of horses and chariots. 75  11:5 All these kings gathered and joined forces 76  at the Waters of Merom to fight Israel.

11:6 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for about this time tomorrow I will cause all of them to lie dead before Israel. You must hamstring their horses and burn 77  their chariots.” 11:7 Joshua and his whole army caught them by surprise at the Waters of Merom and attacked them. 78  11:8 The Lord handed them over to Israel and they struck them down and chased them all the way to Greater Sidon, 79  Misrephoth Maim, 80  and the Mizpah Valley to the east. They struck them down until no survivors remained. 11:9 Joshua did to them as the Lord had commanded him; he hamstrung their horses and burned 81  their chariots.

11:10 At that time Joshua turned, captured Hazor, 82  and struck down its king with the sword, for Hazor was at that time 83  the leader of all these kingdoms. 11:11 They annihilated everyone who lived there with the sword 84  – no one who breathed remained – and burned 85  Hazor.

11:12 Joshua captured all these royal cities and all their kings and annihilated them with the sword, 86  as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded. 11:13 But Israel did not burn any of the cities located on mounds, 87  except for Hazor; 88  it was the only one Joshua burned. 11:14 The Israelites plundered all the goods of these cities and the cattle, but they totally destroyed all the people 89  and allowed no one who breathed to live. 11:15 Moses the Lord’s servant passed on the Lord’s commands to Joshua, and Joshua did as he was told. He did not ignore any of the commands the Lord had given Moses. 90 

A Summary of Israel’s Victories

11:16 Joshua conquered the whole land, 91  including the hill country, all the Negev, all the land of Goshen, the lowlands, 92  the Arabah, the hill country of Israel and its lowlands, 11:17 from Mount Halak on up to Seir, as far as Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley below Mount Hermon. He captured all their kings and executed them. 93  11:18 Joshua campaigned against 94  these kings for quite some time. 95  11:19 No city made peace with the Israelites (except the Hivites living in Gibeon); 96  they had to conquer all of them, 97  11:20 for the Lord determined to make them obstinate so they would attack Israel. He wanted Israel to annihilate them without mercy, as he had instructed Moses. 98 

11:21 At that time Joshua attacked and eliminated the Anakites from the hill country 99  – from Hebron, Debir, Anab, and all the hill country of Judah and Israel. 100  Joshua annihilated them and their cities. 11:22 No Anakites were left in Israelite territory, though some remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. 11:23 Joshua conquered 101  the whole land, just as the Lord had promised Moses, 102  and he assigned Israel their tribal portions. 103  Then the land was free of war.

12:1 Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land 104  on the east side of the Jordan, 105  from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern Arabah:

12:2 King Sihon of the Amorites who lived 106  in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley) – including the city in the middle of the valley 107  and half of Gilead – all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory. 12:3 His kingdom included 108  the eastern Arabah from the Sea of Kinnereth 109  to the Sea of the Arabah (the Salt Sea), 110  including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.

12:4 The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites, 111  who lived 112  in Ashtaroth and Edrei 12:5 and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all of Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.

12:6 Moses the Lord’s servant and the Israelites defeated them and Moses the Lord’s servant assigned their land 113  to Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh.

12:7 These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak on up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes, 114  12:8 including the hill country, the lowlands, 115  the Arabah, the slopes, the wilderness, and the Negev – the land of 116  the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:

12:9 the king of Jericho 117  (one),

the king of Ai – located near Bethel – (one),

12:10 the king of Jerusalem 118  (one),

the king of Hebron (one),

12:11 the king of Jarmuth (one),

the king of Lachish (one),

12:12 the king of Eglon (one),

the king of Gezer (one),

12:13 the king of Debir (one),

the king of Geder (one),

12:14 the king of Hormah (one),

the king of Arad (one),

12:15 the king of Libnah (one),

the king of Adullam (one),

12:16 the king of Makkedah (one),

the king of Bethel 119  (one),

12:17 the king of Tappuah (one),

the king of Hepher (one),

12:18 the king of Aphek (one),

the king of Lasharon (one),

12:19 the king of Madon (one),

the king of Hazor 120  (one),

12:20 the king of Shimron Meron (one),

the king of Acshaph (one),

12:21 the king of Taanach (one),

the king of Megiddo 121  (one),

12:22 the king of Kedesh (one),

the king of Jokneam near Carmel (one),

12:23 the king of Dor – near Naphath Dor – (one),

the king of Goyim – near Gilgal – (one),

12:24 the king of Tirzah (one),

a total of thirty-one kings.

1 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

2 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

3 tn Heb “as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he did to Ai and to its king.”

4 tn Heb “and how.”

5 tn This statement is subordinated to v. 1 in the Hebrew text, which reads literally, “When Adoni-Zedek…they feared greatly.” The subject of the plural verb at the beginning of v. 2 is probably the residents of Jerusalem.

6 tn Heb “Come up to me and help me.”

7 tn Heb “and they camped against Gibeon and fought against it.”

8 tn Heb “do not let your hand drop from us.”

9 tn Heb “your servants!”

10 tn Heb “have gathered against us.”

11 tn Heb “And Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the brave warriors.”

12 tn Heb “I have given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.

13 tn Heb “and not a man [or “one”] of them will stand before you.”

14 tn Heb “Joshua came upon them suddenly, all the night he went up from Gilgal.”

15 tn Or “caused to panic.”

16 tn Heb “he.” The referent is probably Israel (mentioned at the end of the previous sentence in the verse; cf. NIV, NRSV), but it is also possible that the Lord should be understood as the referent (cf. NASB “and He slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon”), or even Joshua (cf. NEB “and Joshua defeated them utterly in Gibeon”).

17 tn Heb “struck them down with a great striking down.”

18 tn Or “ascent.”

19 tn Heb “on the descent of.”

20 tn Or “heaven” (also in v. 13). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.

21 tn Heb “Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day the Lord placed the Amorites before the sons of Israel and he said in the eyes of Israel.” It is uncertain whether the phrase “before the sons of Israel” modifies the verb “placed” (as in the present translation, “delivered the Amorites over to the Israelites”) or the verb “spoke” (“Joshua spoke to the Lord before the sons of Israel in the day the Lord delivered over the Amorites”).

22 tn Heb “Is it not written down in the Scroll of the Upright One.” Many modern translations render, “the Scroll [or Book] of Jashar,” leaving the Hebrew name “Jashar” (which means “Upright One”) untranslated.

sn The Scroll of the Upright One was apparently an ancient Israelite collection of songs and prayers (see also 2 Sam 1:18).

23 tn Heb “and did not hurry to set [for] about a full day.”

24 tn Heb “listened to the voice of.”

25 tn Heb “these five kings.”

26 tn Heb “and appoint by it men to guard them.”

27 tn Heb “But [as for] you, don’t stand still, chase after your enemies and attack them from the rear.”

28 tn Or “enter into.”

29 tn Heb “has given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.

30 tn Heb “When Joshua and the sons of Israel finished defeating them with a very great defeat until they were destroyed (now the survivors escaped to the fortified cities).” In the Hebrew text the initial temporal clause (“when Joshua…finished”) is subordinated to v. 21 (“the whole army returned”).

31 tn Heb “all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua [at] Makkedah [in] peace.”

32 tc Heb “No man.” The lamed (ל) prefixed to אִישׁ (’ish, “man”) is probably dittographic (note the immediately preceding יִשְׂרָאֵל [israel] which ends in lamed, ל); cf. the LXX.

33 tn Heb “no man sharpened [or perhaps, “pointed”] his tongue against the sons of Israel.” Cf. NEB “not a man of the Israelites suffered so much as a scratch on his tongue,” which understands “sharpened” as “scratched” (referring to a minor wound). Most modern translations understand the Hebrew expression “sharpened his tongue” figuratively for opposition or threats against the Israelites.

34 tn Heb “these five kings.”

35 tn Heb “they did so.”

36 tn Heb “these five kings.”

37 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

38 tn Heb “Joshua.” The translation has replaced the proper name with the pronoun (“he”) because a repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style.

39 tn Or “Draw near.”

40 tn Or “drew near.”

41 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”

42 tn Heb “struck them down and killed them.”

43 sn For the legal background of the removal of the corpses before sundown, see Deut 21:22-23.

44 tn Heb “to this very day.” The words “They remain” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

45 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

46 tn Heb “Libnah.” Repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style, so the pronoun (“it”) has been employed in the translation.

47 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

48 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

49 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

50 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

51 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

52 tn Heb “encamped against it.”

53 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

54 tn Heb “people.”

55 tn Heb “they encamped against it.”

56 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

57 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

58 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

59 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

60 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

61 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

62 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

63 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

64 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).

65 tn Heb “as he did to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, and as he did to Libnah and its king.” The clauses have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.

66 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”

67 tn Heb “and Joshua struck them down, from Kadesh Barnea even to Gaza, and all the land of Goshen, even to Gibeon.”

68 tn Heb “at one time.”

69 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 D3; Map3 A2; Map4 C1.

70 tn Heb “he sent to.”

71 tn Heb “and to the kings who [are] from the north in.”

72 tn Heb “Chinneroth,” a city and plain located in the territory of Naphtali in Galilee (BDB 490 s.v. כִּנֶּרֶת, כִּנֲרוֹת).

sn Kinnereth was a city in Galilee located near the Sea of Galilee (Deut 3:17). The surrounding region also became known by this name (1 Kgs 15:20; cf. Matt 14:34), and eventually even the lake itself (Josh 12:3; cf. Luke 5:1).

73 tn The verb “came” is supplied in the translation (see v. 4).

74 tn Or “land.”

75 tn Heb “They and all their camps with them came out, a people as numerous as the sand which is on the edge of the sea in multitude, and [with] horses and chariots very numerous.”

76 tn Heb “and came and camped together.”

77 tn Heb “burn with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.

78 tn Heb “Joshua and all the people of war with him came upon them at the Waters of Merom suddenly and fell upon them.”

79 map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

80 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 2:641).

81 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.

82 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 D3; Map3 A2; Map4 C1.

83 tn Or “formerly.”

84 tn Heb “and they struck down all life which was in it with the edge of the sword, annihilating.”

85 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.

86 tn Heb “and he struck them down with the edge of the sword, he annihilated them.”

87 tn Heb “standing on their mounds.”

88 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 D3; Map3 A2; Map4 C1.

89 tn Heb “but all the people they struck down with the edge of the sword until they destroyed them.”

90 tn Heb “As the Lord commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua, and Joshua acted accordingly; he did not turn aside a thing from all which the Lord commanded Moses.”

91 tn Heb “Joshua took all this land.”

92 tn Or “foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”

93 tn Heb “and struck them down and killed them.”

94 tn Heb “made war with.”

95 tn Heb “for many days.”

96 tn The LXX omits this parenthetical note, which may represent a later scribal addition.

97 tn Heb “the whole they took in battle.”

98 tn Heb “for from the Lord it was to harden their heart[s] to meet for the battle with Israel, in order to annihilate them, so that they would receive no mercy, in order annihilate them, as the Lord commanded Moses.”

99 tn Heb “went and cut off the Anakites from the hill country.”

100 tn Heb “and from all the hill country of Israel.”

101 tn Heb “took.”

102 tn Heb “according to all which the Lord said to Moses.” The translation assumes this refers to the promise of the land (see 1:3). Another possibility is that it refers to the Lord’s instructions, in which case the phrase could be translated, “just as the Lord had instructed Moses” (so NLT; cf. also NIV “had directed Moses”).

103 tn Heb “and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their allotted portions by their tribes.”

104 tn Heb “and took possession of their land.”

105 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”

106 tn Or perhaps, “reigned.”

107 tc The MT reads here, “and the middle of the valley,” but the reading “the city in the middle of valley” can be reconstructed on the basis of Josh 13:9, 16.

108 tn The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

109 sn The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.

110 sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.

111 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”

sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.

112 tn Or perhaps “who reigned.”

113 tn Heb “gave it for a possession.”

114 tn Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”

115 tn Or “the foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”

116 tn The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

117 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.

118 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

119 map For location see Map4 G4; Map5 C1; Map6 E3; Map7 D1; Map8 G3.

120 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 D3; Map3 A2; Map4 C1.

121 map For location see Map1 D4; Map2 C1; Map4 C2; Map5 F2; Map7 B1.



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