19:13 When Pilate heard these words he brought Jesus outside and sat down on the judgment seat 1 in the place called “The Stone Pavement” 2 (Gabbatha in 3 Aramaic). 4
19:17 and carrying his own cross 5 he went out to the place called “The Place of the Skull” 6 (called in Aramaic 7 Golgotha). 8
19:20 Thus many of the Jewish residents of Jerusalem 9 read this notice, 10 because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and the notice was written in Aramaic, 11 Latin, and Greek.
1 tn Or “the judge’s seat.”
sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a seat. It was used by officials in addressing an assembly or making official pronouncements, often of a judicial nature.
2 sn The precise location of the place called ‘The Stone Pavement’ is still uncertain, although a paved court on the lower level of the Fortress Antonia has been suggested. It is not certain whether it was laid prior to
3 tn Grk “in Hebrew.”
sn The author does not say that Gabbatha is the Aramaic (or Hebrew) translation for the Greek term Λιθόστρωτον (Liqostrwton). He simply points out that in Aramaic (or Hebrew) the place had another name. A number of meanings have been suggested, but the most likely appears to mean “elevated place.” It is possible that this was a term used by the common people for the judgment seat itself, which always stood on a raised platform.
4 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
5 tn Or “carrying the cross by himself.”
sn As was customary practice in a Roman crucifixion, the prisoner was made to carry his own cross. In all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution. According to Matt 27:32 and Mark 15:21, the soldiers forced Simon to take the cross; Luke 23:26 states that the cross was placed on Simon so that it might be carried behind Jesus. A reasonable explanation of all this is that Jesus started out carrying the cross until he was no longer able to do so, at which point Simon was forced to take over.
6 sn Jesus was led out to the place called “The Place of the Skull” where he was to be crucified. It is clear from v. 20 that this was outside the city. The Latin word for the Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria. Thus the English word “Calvary” is a transliteration of the Latin rather than a NT place name (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
7 tn Grk “in Hebrew.”
8 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
10 tn Or “this inscription.”
11 tn Grk “in Hebrew.”