51:23 I used you to smash shepherds and their flocks.
I used you to smash farmers and their teams of oxen.
I used you to smash governors and leaders.” 1
51:18 They are worthless, objects to be ridiculed.
When the time comes to punish them, they will be destroyed.
51:57 “I will make her officials and wise men drunk,
along with her governors, leaders, 2 and warriors.
They will fall asleep forever and never wake up,” 3
says the King whose name is the Lord who rules over all. 4
1 tn These two words are Akkadian loan words into Hebrew which often occur in this pairing (cf. Ezek 23:6, 12, 23; Jer 51:23, 28, 57). BDB 688 s.v. סָגָן (sagan) gives “prefect, ruler” as the basic definition for the second term but neither works very well in a modern translation because “prefect” would be unknown to most readers and “ruler” would suggest someone along the lines of a king, which these officials were not. The present translation has chosen “leaders” by default, assuming there is no other term that would be any more appropriate in light of the defects noted in “prefect” and “ruler.”