25:1 In the fourth year that Jehoiakim son of Josiah was king of Judah, the Lord spoke to Jeremiah 1 concerning all the people of Judah. (That was the same as the first year that Nebuchadnezzar was king of Babylon.) 2 25:2 So the prophet Jeremiah spoke to all the people of Judah and to all the people who were living in Jerusalem. 3 25:3 “For the last twenty-three years, from the thirteenth year that Josiah son of Amon was ruling in Judah 4 until now, the Lord has been speaking to me. I told you over and over again 5 what he said. 6 But you would not listen. 25:4 Over and over again 7 the Lord has sent 8 his servants the prophets to you. But you have not listened or paid attention. 9 25:5 He said through them, 10 ‘Each of you must turn from your wicked ways and stop doing the evil things you are doing. 11 If you do, I will allow you to continue to live here in the land that I gave to you and your ancestors as a lasting possession. 12 25:6 Do not pay allegiance to 13 other gods and worship and serve them. Do not make me angry by the things that you do. 14 Then I will not cause you any harm.’ 25:7 So, now the Lord says, 15 ‘You have not listened to me. But 16 you have made me angry by the things that you have done. 17 Thus you have brought harm on yourselves.’
25:8 “Therefore, the Lord who rules over all 18 says, ‘You have not listened to what I said. 19 25:9 So I, the Lord, affirm that 20 I will send for all the peoples of the north 21 and my servant, 22 King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. I will bring them against this land and its inhabitants and all the nations that surround it. I will utterly destroy 23 this land, its inhabitants, and all the nations that surround it 24 and make them everlasting ruins. 25 I will make them objects of horror and hissing scorn. 26 25:10 I will put an end to the sounds of joy and gladness, to the glad celebration of brides and grooms in these lands. 27 I will put an end to the sound of people grinding meal. I will put an end to lamps shining in their houses. 28 25:11 This whole area 29 will become a desolate wasteland. These nations will be subject to the king of Babylon for seventy years.’ 30
25:12 “‘But when the seventy years are over, I will punish the king of Babylon and his nation 31 for their sins. I will make the land of Babylon 32 an everlasting ruin. 33 I, the Lord, affirm it! 34 25:13 I will bring on that land everything that I said I would. I will bring on it everything that is written in this book. I will bring on it everything that Jeremiah has prophesied against all the nations. 35 25:14 For many nations and great kings will make slaves of the king of Babylon and his nation 36 too. I will repay them for all they have done!’” 37
27:1 The Lord spoke to Jeremiah 38 early in the reign of Josiah’s son, King Zedekiah of Judah. 39 27:2 The Lord told me, 40 “Make a yoke 41 out of leather straps and wooden crossbars and put it on your neck. 27:3 Use it to send messages to the kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, 42 and Sidon. 43 Send them through 44 the envoys who have come to Jerusalem 45 to King Zedekiah of Judah. 27:4 Charge them to give their masters a message from me. Tell them, ‘The Lord God of Israel who rules over all 46 says to give your masters this message. 47 27:5 “I made the earth and the people and animals on it by my mighty power and great strength, 48 and I give it to whomever I see fit. 49 27:6 I have at this time placed all these nations of yours under the power 50 of my servant, 51 King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. I have even made all the wild animals subject to him. 52 27:7 All nations must serve him and his son and grandson 53 until the time comes for his own nation to fall. 54 Then many nations and great kings will in turn subjugate Babylon. 55 27:8 But suppose a nation or a kingdom will not be subject to King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Suppose it will not submit to the yoke of servitude to 56 him. I, the Lord, affirm that 57 I will punish that nation. I will use the king of Babylon to punish it 58 with war, 59 starvation, and disease until I have destroyed it. 60 27:9 So do not listen to your prophets or to those who claim to predict the future by divination, 61 by dreams, by consulting the dead, 62 or by practicing magic. They keep telling you, ‘You do not need to be 63 subject to the king of Babylon.’ 27:10 Do not listen to them, 64 because their prophecies are lies. 65 Listening to them will only cause you 66 to be taken far away from your native land. I will drive you out of your country and you will die in exile. 67 27:11 Things will go better for the nation that submits to the yoke of servitude to 68 the king of Babylon and is subject to him. I will leave that nation 69 in its native land. Its people can continue to farm it and live in it. I, the Lord, affirm it!”’” 70
27:12 I told King Zedekiah of Judah the same thing. I said, 71 “Submit 72 to the yoke of servitude to 73 the king of Babylon. Be subject to him and his people. Then you will continue to live. 27:13 There is no reason why you and your people should die in war 74 or from starvation or disease! 75 That’s what the Lord says will happen to any nation 76 that will not be subject to the king of Babylon. 27:14 Do not listen to the prophets who are telling you that you do not need to serve 77 the king of Babylon. For they are prophesying lies to you. 27:15 For I, the Lord, affirm 78 that I did not send them. They are prophesying lies to you. If you 79 listen to them, I will drive you and the prophets who are prophesying lies out of the land and you will all die in exile.” 80
27:16 I also told the priests and all the people, “The Lord says, ‘Do not listen to what your prophets are saying. They are prophesying to you that 81 the valuable articles taken from the Lord’s temple will be brought back from Babylon very soon. 82 But they are prophesying a lie to you. 27:17 Do not listen to them. Be subject to the king of Babylon. Then you 83 will continue to live. Why should this city be made a pile of rubble?’” 84 27:18 I also told them, 85 “If they are really prophets and the Lord is speaking to them, 86 let them pray earnestly to the Lord who rules over all. 87 Let them plead with him not to let the valuable articles that are still left in the Lord’s temple, in the royal palace, and in Jerusalem be taken away 88 to Babylon. 27:19 For the Lord who rules over all 89 has already spoken about the two bronze pillars, 90 the large bronze basin called ‘The Sea,’ 91 and the movable bronze stands. 92 He has already spoken about the rest of the valuable articles that are left in this city. 27:20 He has already spoken about these things that King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon did not take away when he carried Jehoiakim’s son King Jeconiah of Judah and the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem away as captives. 93 27:21 Indeed, the Lord God of Israel who rules over all 94 has already spoken 95 about the valuable articles that are left in the Lord’s temple, in the royal palace of Judah, and in Jerusalem. 27:22 He has said, ‘They will be carried off to Babylon. They will remain there until it is time for me to show consideration for them again. 96 Then I will bring them back and restore them to this place.’ I, the Lord, affirm this!” 97
1 tn Heb “The word was to Jeremiah.” It is implicit from the context that it was the
2 sn The year referred to would be 605
6 tn The words “what he said” are not in the text but are implicit. They are supplied in the translation for clarity.
8 tn The vav consecutive with the perfect in a past narrative is a little unusual. Here it is probably indicating repeated action in past time in keeping with the idiom that precedes and follows it. See GKC 332 §112.f for other possible examples.
10 tn Heb “saying.” The infinitive goes back to “he sent”; i.e., “he sent, saying.”
14 tn Heb “make me angry with the work of your hands.” The term “work of your own hands” is often interpreted as a reference to idolatry as is clearly the case in Isa 2:8; 37:19. However, the parallelism in 25:14 and the context in 32:30 show that it is more general and refers to what they have done. That is likely the meaning here as well.
15 tn Heb “Oracle of the
16 tn This is a rather clear case where the Hebrew particle לְמַעַן (lÿma’an) introduces a consequence and not a purpose, contrary to the dictum of BDB 775 s.v. מַעַן note 1. They have not listened to him in order to make him angry but with the result that they have made him angry by going their own way. Jeremiah appears to use this particle for result rather than purpose on several other occasions (see, e.g., 7:18, 19; 27:10, 15; 32:29).
17 tn Heb “make me angry with the work of your hands.” The term “work of your own hands” is often interpreted as a reference to idolatry as is clearly the case in Isa 2:8; 37:19. However, the parallelism in 25:14 and the context in 32:30 show that it is more general and refers to what they have done. That is likely the meaning here as well.
18 tn Heb “Yahweh of armies.”
sn See the study note on 2:19 for an explanation of this title.
19 tn Heb “You have not listened to my words.”
20 tn Heb “Oracle of the
21 sn The many allusions to trouble coming from the north are now clarified: it is the armies of Babylon which included within it contingents from many nations. See 1:14, 15; 4:6; 6:1, 22; 10:22; 13:20 for earlier allusions.
22 sn Nebuchadnezzar is called the
23 tn The word used here was used in the early years of Israel’s conquest for the action of killing all the men, women, and children in the cities of Canaan, destroying all their livestock, and burning their cities down. This policy was intended to prevent Israel from being corrupted by paganism (Deut 7:2; 20:17-18; Josh 6:18, 21). It was to be extended to any city that led Israel away from worshiping God (Deut 13:15) and any Israelite who brought an idol into his house (Deut 7:26). Here the policy is being directed against Judah as well as against her neighbors because of her persistent failure to heed God’s warnings through the prophets. For further usage of this term in application to foreign nations in the book of Jeremiah see 50:21, 26; 51:3.
24 tn Heb “will utterly destroy them.” The referent (this land, its inhabitants, and the nations surrounding it) has been specified in the translation for clarity, since the previous “them” referred to Nebuchadnezzar and his armies.
sn This is essentially the introduction to the “judgment on the nations” in vv. 15-29 which begins with Jerusalem and Judah (v. 18) and ultimately ends with Babylon itself (“Sheshach” in v. 26; see note there for explanation of the term).
25 sn The Hebrew word translated “everlasting” is the word often translated “eternal.” However, it sometimes has a more limited time reference. For example it refers to the lifetime of a person who became a “lasting slave” to another person (see Exod 21:6; Deut 15:17). It is also used to refer to the long life wished for a king (1 Kgs 1:31; Neh 2:3). The time frame here is to be qualified at least with reference to Judah and Jerusalem as seventy years (see 29:10-14 and compare v. 12).
26 tn Heb “I will make them an object of horror and a hissing and everlasting ruins.” The sentence has been broken up to separate the last object from the first two which are of slightly different connotation, i.e., they denote the reaction to the latter.
28 sn The sound of people grinding meal and the presence of lamps shining in their houses were signs of everyday life. The
29 tn Heb “All this land.”
30 sn It should be noted that the text says that the nations will be subject to the king of Babylon for seventy years, not that they will lie desolate for seventy years. Though several proposals have been made for dating this period, many ignore this fact. This most likely refers to the period beginning with Nebuchadnezzar’s defeat of Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish in 605
31 tn Heb “that nation.”
33 tn Heb “I will visit upon the king of Babylon and upon that nation, oracle of the
34 tn Heb “Oracle of the
35 tn Or “I will bring upon it everything that is to be written in this book. I will bring upon it everything that Jeremiah is going to prophesy concerning all the nations.” The reference to “this book” and “what Jeremiah has prophesied against the nations” raises issues about the editorial process underlying the current form of the book of Jeremiah. As the book now stands there is no earlier reference to any judgments against Babylon or any book (really “scroll”; books were a development of the first or second century
36 tn Heb “make slaves of them.” The verb form here indicates that the action is as good as done (the Hebrew prophetic perfect). For the use of the verb rendered “makes slaves” see parallel usage in Lev 25:39, 46 (cf. BDB 713 s.v. עָבַד 3).
37 tn Heb “according to their deeds and according to the work of their hands.” The two phrases are synonymous; it would be hard to represent them both in translation without being redundant. The translation attempts to represent them by the qualifier “all” before the first phrase.
38 sn The names of Jeremiah and of Nebuchadnezzar are spelled differently in the Hebrew of chapter 27-29. That and other literary features show that these three chapters are all closely related. The events of these three chapters all take place within the space of one year (cf. 28:1; 29:17).
39 tc The reading here is based on a few Hebrew
sn If the text of 28:1 is correct, the date here would be sometime in the fourth year of Zedekiah which would be 594/3
40 tn There is some disjunction in the narrative of this chapter. The introduction in v. 1 presents this as a third person narrative. But the rest of the passage reports the narrative in first person. Thus the text reads here “Thus the
41 sn The yoke is a common biblical symbol of political servitude (see, e.g., Deut 28:48; 1 Kgs 12:4, 9, 10). From the context of 1 Kgs 12 it is clear that it applied to taxation and the provision of conscript labor. In international political contexts it involved the payment of heavy tribute which was often conscripted from the citizens (see, e.g., 2 Kgs 15:19-20; 23:34-35) and the furnishing of military contingents for the sovereign’s armies (see, e.g., 2 Kgs 24:2). Jeremiah’s message here combines both a symbolic action (the wearing of a yoke) and words of explanation as in Jer 19:1-13. (See Isa 20:1-6 for an example outside of Jeremiah.) The casting off of the yoke has been used earlier in Jer 2:20, 5:5 to refer to Israel’s failure to remain spiritually “subject” or faithful to God.
43 sn The nations of Edom, Moab, and Ammon were east of Judah. They were sometimes allies and sometimes enemies. The nations of Tyre and Sidon were on the sea coast north and west of Judah. They are best known for their maritime trade during the reign of Solomon. They were more commonly allies of Israel and Judah than enemies.
44 tn Heb “send by means of them” [i.e., the straps and crossbars made into a yoke] to…through.” The text is broken up in conformity with contemporary English style. Many English versions ignore the suffix on the end of “send” and find some support for this on the basis of its absence in the Lucianic Greek text. However, it is probably functioning metonymically here for the message which they see symbolized before them and is now explained clearly to them.
46 tn Heb “Yahweh of armies, the God of Israel.”
sn See study notes on 2:19 and 7:3 for the significance of this title.
47 tn Heb “Give them a charge to their masters saying, ‘Thus says Yahweh of armies, the God of Israel, “Thus you shall say unto your masters…”’” The sentence is broken up in conformity with contemporary English style.
50 tn Heb “have given…into the hand of.”
52 tn Heb “I have given…to him to serve him.” The verb “give” in this syntactical situation is functioning like the Hiphil stem, i.e., as a causative. See Dan 1:9 for parallel usage. For the usage of “serve” meaning “be subject to” compare 2 Sam 22:44 and BDB 713 s.v. עָבַד 3.
sn This statement is rhetorical, emphasizing the totality of Nebuchadnezzar’s dominion. Neither here nor in Dan 2:38 is it to be understood literally.
53 sn This is a figure that emphasizes that they will serve for a long time but not for an unlimited duration. The kingdom of Babylon lasted a relatively short time by ancient standards. It lasted from 605
54 tn Heb “until the time of his land, even his, comes.” The independent pronoun is placed here for emphasis on the possessive pronoun. The word “time” is used by substitution for the things that are done in it (compare in the NT John 2:4; 7:30; 8:20 “his hour had not yet come”).
sn See Jer 25:12-14, 16.
55 tn Heb “him.” This is a good example of the figure of substitution where the person is put for his descendants or the nation or subject he rules. (See Gen 28:13-14 for another good example and Acts 22:7 in the NT.)
57 tn Heb “oracle of the
58 tn Heb “The nation and/or the kingdom which will not serve him, Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, and which will not put its neck in the yoke of the king of Babylon, by sword, starvation, and disease I will punish [or more literally, “visit upon”] that nation, oracle of the
59 tn Heb “with/by the sword.”
60 tc The verb translated “destroy” (תָּמַם, tamam) is usually intransitive in the stem of the verb used here. It is found in a transitive sense elsewhere only in Ps 64:7. BDB 1070 s.v. תָּמַם 7 emends both texts. In this case they recommend תִּתִּי (titi): “until I give them into his hand.” That reading is suggested by the texts of the Syriac and Targumic translations (see BHS fn c). The Greek translation supports reading the verb “destroy” but treats it as though it were intransitive “until they are destroyed by his hand” (reading תֻּמָּם [tummam]). The MT here is accepted as the more difficult reading and support is seen in the transitive use of the verb in Ps 64:7.
tn Heb “I will punish that nation until I have destroyed them [i.e., its people] by his hand.” “Hand” here refers to agency. Hence, “I will use him.”
61 sn Various means of divination are alluded to in the OT. For example, Ezek 21:26-27 alludes to throwing down arrows to see which way they fall and consulting the shape of the liver of slaughtered animals. Gen 44:5 alludes to reading the future through pouring liquid in a cup. The means alluded to in this verse were all classified as pagan and prohibited as illegitimate in Deut 18:10-14. The
64 tn The words “Don’t listen to them” have been repeated from v. 9a to pick up the causal connection between v. 9a and v. 10 that is formally introduced by a causal particle in v. 10 in the original text.
65 tn Heb “they are prophesying a lie.”
66 tn Heb “lies will result in your being taken far…” (לְמַעַן [lÿma’an] + infinitive). This is a rather clear case of the particle לְמַעַן introducing result (contra BDB 775 s.v. מַעַן note 1. There is no irony in this statement; it is a bold prediction).
67 tn The words “out of your country” are not in the text but are implicit in the meaning of the verb. The words “in exile” are also not in the text but are implicit in the context. These words have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
69 tn The words “Things will go better for” are not in the text. They are supplied contextually as a means of breaking up the awkward syntax of the original which reads “The nation which brings its neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon and subjects itself to him, I will leave it…”
70 tn Heb “oracle of the
71 tn Heb “I spoke to Zedekiah…according to all these words, saying.”
74 tn Heb “with/by the sword.”
75 tn Heb “Why should you and your people die…?” The rhetorical question expects the answer made explicit in the translation, “There is no reason!”
76 tn Heb “…disease according to what the
78 tn Heb “oracle of the
79 sn The verbs are again plural referring to the king and his royal advisers.
80 tn Heb “…drive you out and you will perish, you and the prophets who are prophesying lies.”
81 tn Heb “don’t listen to the words of the prophets who are prophesying to you….” The sentence has been broken up for the sake of English style and one level of embedded quotes has been eliminated to ease complexity.
82 sn This refers to the valuable articles of the temple treasury which were carried off by Nebuchadnezzar four years earlier when he carried off Jeconiah, his family, some of his nobles, and some of the cream of Judean society (2 Kgs 24:10-16, especially v. 13 and see also vv. 19-20 in the verses following).
83 tn The imperative with vav (ו) here and in v. 12 after another imperative are a good example of the use of the imperative to introduce a consequence. (See GKC 324-25 §110.f and see Gen 42:18. This is a common verb in this idiom.)
84 tn According to E. W. Bullinger (Figures of Speech, 954) both this question and the one in v. 13 are examples of rhetorical questions of prohibition / “don’t let this city be made a pile of rubble.”
85 tn The words “I also told them” are not in the text, but it is obvious from the fact that the
86 tn Heb “the word of the
87 tn Heb “Yahweh of armies.”
sn For the significance of this title see the study note on 2:19.
88 tn Heb “…speaking to them, let them entreat the
90 tn The words “two bronze” are not in the text. They have been supplied in the translation to help identify the referent.
sn The two bronze pillars are the two free-standing pillars at the entrance of the temple (Jakin and Boaz) described in 1 Kgs 7:15-22.
91 tn The words “the large bronze basin called” are not in the text. They have been supplied in the translation to help identify the referent.
sn “The Sea” refers to the large basin that was mounted on twelve bronze bulls. It stood in front of the temple and contained water for the priests to bathe themselves (2 Chr 4:6; cf. Exod 30:17-21). It is described in 1 Kgs 7:23-26.
92 tn The words “movable bronze” are not in the text. They have been supplied in the translation to help identify the referent. See the study note for further reference.
sn The bronze stands are the movable bronze stands described in 1 Kgs 7:27-37. They were the stands for the bronze basins described in 1 Kgs 7:38-39. According to 2 Chr 4:6 the latter were used to wash the burnt offerings. The priests would have been very concerned especially about the big bronze basin and the movable stands and their basins because they involved their ritual purification apart from which they would have had no sanctity. These articles (or furnishings in this case) were broken up and the bronze carried away to Babylon along with all the other bronze, silver, and gold furnishings when the temple and the city were destroyed in 587
93 tn 27:19-20 are all one long sentence in Hebrew. It has been broken up for the sake of English style. Some of the sentences still violate contemporary English style (e.g., v. 20) but breaking them down any further would lose the focus. For further discussion see the study note on v. 21.
95 sn Some of the flavor of the repetitive nature of Hebrew narrative is apparent in vv. 19-21. In the Hebrew original vv. 19-20 are all one long sentence with complex coordination and subordinations. I.e., all the objects in v. 19 are all objects of the one verb “has spoken about” and the description in v. 20 is one long relative or descriptive clause. The introductory “For the
96 tn This verb is a little difficult to render here. The word is used in the sense of taking note of something and acting according to what is noticed. It is the word that has been translated several times throughout Jeremiah as “punish [someone].” It is also used in the opposite of sense of taking note and “show consideration for” (or “care for;” see, e.g., Ruth 1:6). Here the nuance is positive and is further clarified by the actions that follow, bringing them back and restoring them.
97 tn Heb “oracle of the