55:12 Indeed you will go out with joy;
you will be led along in peace;
the mountains and hills will give a joyful shout before you,
and all the trees in the field will clap their hands.
55:13 Evergreens will grow in place of thorn bushes,
firs will grow in place of nettles;
they will be a monument to the Lord, 1
a permanent reminder that will remain. 2
55:1 “Hey, 3 all who are thirsty, come to the water!
You who have no money, come!
Buy and eat!
Come! Buy wine and milk
without money and without cost! 4
5:1 I 5 will sing to my love –
a song to my lover about his vineyard. 6
My love had a vineyard
on a fertile hill. 7
5:2 He built a hedge around it, 8 removed its stones,
and planted a vine.
He built a tower in the middle of it,
and constructed a winepress.
He waited for it to produce edible grapes,
but it produced sour ones instead. 9
5:3 So now, residents of Jerusalem, 10
people 11 of Judah,
you decide between me and my vineyard!
5:4 What more can I do for my vineyard
beyond what I have already done?
When I waited for it to produce edible grapes,
why did it produce sour ones instead?
5:5 Now I will inform you
what I am about to do to my vineyard:
I will remove its hedge and turn it into pasture, 12
I will break its wall and allow animals to graze there. 13
5:6 I will make it a wasteland;
no one will prune its vines or hoe its ground, 14
and thorns and briers will grow there.
I will order the clouds
not to drop any rain on it.
5:7 Indeed 15 Israel 16 is the vineyard of the Lord who commands armies,
the people 17 of Judah are the cultivated place in which he took delight.
He waited for justice, but look what he got – disobedience! 18
He waited for fairness, but look what he got – cries for help! 19
5:8 Those who accumulate houses are as good as dead, 20
those who also accumulate landed property 21
until there is no land left, 22
and you are the only landowners remaining within the land. 23
5:9 The Lord who commands armies told me this: 24
“Many houses will certainly become desolate,
large, impressive houses will have no one living in them. 25
5:10 Indeed, a large vineyard 26 will produce just a few gallons, 27
and enough seed to yield several bushels 28 will produce less than a bushel.” 29
5:11 Those who get up early to drink beer are as good as dead, 30
those who keep drinking long after dark
until they are intoxicated with wine. 31
5:12 They have stringed instruments, 32 tambourines, flutes,
and wine at their parties.
So they do not recognize what the Lord is doing,
they do not perceive what he is bringing about. 33
5:13 Therefore my 34 people will be deported 35
because of their lack of understanding.
Their 36 leaders will have nothing to eat, 37
their 38 masses will have nothing to drink. 39
5:14 So Death 40 will open up its throat,
and open wide its mouth; 41
Zion’s dignitaries and masses will descend into it,
including those who revel and celebrate within her. 42
5:15 Men will be humiliated,
they will be brought low;
the proud will be brought low. 43
5:16 The Lord who commands armies will be exalted 44 when he punishes, 45
the sovereign God’s authority will be recognized when he judges. 46
5:17 Lambs 47 will graze as if in their pastures,
amid the ruins the rich sojourners will graze. 48
5:18 Those who pull evil along using cords of emptiness are as good as dead, 49
who pull sin as with cart ropes. 50
5:19 They say, “Let him hurry, let him act quickly, 51
so we can see;
let the plan of the Holy One of Israel 52 take shape 53 and come to pass,
then we will know it!”
5:20 Those who call evil good and good evil are as good as dead, 54
who turn darkness into light and light into darkness,
who turn bitter into sweet and sweet into bitter. 55
5:21 Those who think they are wise are as good as dead, 56
those who think they possess understanding. 57
5:22 Those who are champions 58 at drinking wine are as good as dead, 59
who display great courage when mixing strong drinks.
5:23 They pronounce the guilty innocent for a payoff,
they ignore the just cause of the innocent. 60
5:24 Therefore, as flaming fire 61 devours straw,
and dry grass disintegrates in the flames,
so their root will rot,
and their flower will blow away like dust. 62
For they have rejected the law of the Lord who commands armies,
they have spurned the commands 63 of the Holy One of Israel. 64
5:25 So the Lord is furious 65 with his people;
he lifts 66 his hand and strikes them.
The mountains shake,
and corpses lie like manure 67 in the middle of the streets.
Despite all this, his anger does not subside,
and his hand is ready to strike again. 68
5:26 He lifts a signal flag for a distant nation, 69
he whistles for it to come from the far regions of the earth.
Look, they 70 come quickly and swiftly.
5:27 None tire or stumble,
they don’t stop to nap or sleep.
They don’t loosen their belts,
or unstrap their sandals to rest. 71
5:28 Their arrows are sharpened,
and all their bows are prepared. 72
The hooves of their horses are hard as flint, 73
and their chariot wheels are like a windstorm. 74
5:29 Their roar is like a lion’s;
they roar like young lions.
They growl and seize their prey;
they drag it away and no one can come to the rescue.
5:30 At that time 75 they will growl over their prey, 76
it will sound like sea waves crashing against rocks. 77
One will look out over the land and see the darkness of disaster,
clouds will turn the light into darkness. 78
61:1 The spirit of the sovereign Lord is upon me,
because the Lord has chosen 79 me. 80
He has commissioned 81 me to encourage 82 the poor,
to help 83 the brokenhearted,
to decree the release of captives,
and the freeing of prisoners,
61:2 to announce the year when the Lord will show his favor,
the day when our God will seek vengeance, 84
to console all who mourn,
61:3 to strengthen those who mourn in Zion,
by giving them a turban, instead of ashes,
oil symbolizing joy, 85 instead of mourning,
a garment symbolizing praise, 86 instead of discouragement. 87
They will be called oaks of righteousness, 88
trees planted by the Lord to reveal his splendor. 89
61:10 I 90 will greatly rejoice 91 in the Lord;
I will be overjoyed because of my God. 92
For he clothes me in garments of deliverance;
he puts on me a robe symbolizing vindication. 93
I look like a bridegroom when he wears a turban as a priest would;
I look like a bride when she puts on her jewelry. 94
61:11 For just as the ground produces its crops
and a garden yields its produce,
so the sovereign Lord will cause deliverance 95 to grow,
and give his people reason to praise him in the sight of all the nations. 96
3:7 “To 97 the angel of the church in Philadelphia write the following: 98
“This is the solemn pronouncement of 99 the Holy One, the True One, who holds the key of David, who opens doors 100 no one can shut, and shuts doors 101 no one can open: 3:8 ‘I know your deeds. (Look! I have put 102 in front of you an open door that no one can shut.) 103 I know 104 that you have little strength, 105 but 106 you have obeyed 107 my word and have not denied my name. 3:9 Listen! 108 I am going to make those people from the synagogue 109 of Satan – who say they are Jews yet 110 are not, but are lying – Look, I will make 111 them come and bow down 112 at your feet and acknowledge 113 that I have loved you. 3:10 Because you have kept 114 my admonition 115 to endure steadfastly, 116 I will also keep you from the hour of testing that is about to come on the whole world to test those who live on the earth. 3:11 I am coming soon. Hold on to what you have so that no one can take away 117 your crown. 118 3:12 The one who conquers 119 I will make 120 a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will never depart from it. I 121 will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God (the new Jerusalem that comes down out of heaven from my God), 122 and my new name as well. 3:13 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’
84:10 Certainly 123 spending just one day in your temple courts is better
than spending a thousand elsewhere. 124
I would rather stand at the entrance 125 to the temple of my God
than live 126 in the tents of the wicked.
92:12 The godly 127 grow like a palm tree;
they grow high like a cedar in Lebanon. 128
92:13 Planted in the Lord’s house,
they grow in the courts of our God.
92:14 They bear fruit even when they are old;
they are filled with vitality and have many leaves. 129
92:15 So they proclaim that the Lord, my protector,
is just and never unfair. 130
1 tn Heb “to the Lord for a name.” For שֵׁם (shem) used in the sense of “monument,” see also 56:5, where it stands parallel to יָד (yad).
2 tn Or, more literally, “a permanent sign that will not be cut off.”
3 tn The Hebrew term הוֹי (hoy, “woe, ah”) was used in funeral laments and is often prefixed to judgment oracles for rhetorical effect. But here it appears to be a simple interjection, designed to grab the audience’s attention. Perhaps there is a note of sorrow or pity. See BDB 223 s.v.
4 sn The statement is an oxymoron. Its ironic quality adds to its rhetorical impact. The statement reminds one of the norm (one must normally buy commodities) as it expresses the astounding offer. One might paraphrase the statement: “Come and take freely what you normally have to pay for.”
5 tn It is uncertain who is speaking here. Possibly the prophet, taking the role of best man, composes a love song for his friend on the occasion of his wedding. If so, יָדִיד (yadid) should be translated “my friend.” The present translation assumes that Israel is singing to the Lord. The word דוֹד (dod, “lover”) used in the second line is frequently used by the woman in the Song of Solomon to describe her lover.
6 sn Israel, viewing herself as the Lord’s lover, refers to herself as his vineyard. The metaphor has sexual connotations, for it pictures her capacity to satisfy his appetite and to produce children. See Song 8:12.
7 tn Heb “on a horn, a son of oil.” Apparently קֶרֶן (qeren, “horn”) here refers to the horn-shaped peak of a hill (BDB 902 s.v.) or to a mountain spur, i.e., a ridge that extends laterally from a mountain (HALOT 1145 s.v. קֶרֶן; H. Wildberger, Isaiah, 1:180). The expression “son of oil” pictures this hill as one capable of producing olive trees. Isaiah’s choice of קֶרֶן, a rare word for hill, may have been driven by paronomastic concerns, i.e., because קֶרֶן sounds like כֶּרֶם (kerem, “vineyard”).
8 tn Or, “dug it up” (so NIV); KJV “fenced it.’ See HALOT 810 s.v. עזק.
9 tn Heb “wild grapes,” i.e., sour ones (also in v. 4).
sn At this point the love song turns sour as the Lord himself breaks in and completes the story (see vv. 3-6). In the final line of v. 2 the love song presented to the Lord becomes a judgment speech by the Lord.
10 map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.
11 tn Heb “men,” but in a generic sense.
12 tn Heb “and it will become [a place for] grazing.” בָּעַר (ba’ar, “grazing”) is a homonym of the more often used verb “to burn.”
13 tn Heb “and it will become a trampled place” (NASB “trampled ground”).
14 tn Heb “it will not be pruned or hoed” (so NASB); ASV and NRSV both similar.
15 tn Or “For” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV).
16 tn Heb “the house of Israel” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).
17 tn Heb “men,” but in a generic sense.
18 tn Heb “but, look, disobedience.” The precise meaning of מִשְׂפָּח (mishpakh), which occurs only here in the OT, is uncertain. Some have suggested a meaning “bloodshed.” The term is obviously chosen for its wordplay value; it sounds very much like מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat, “justice”). The sound play draws attention to the point being made; the people have not met the Lord’s expectations.
19 tn Heb “but, look, a cry for help.” The verb (“he waited”) does double duty in the parallelism. צְעָקָה (tsa’qah) refers to the cries for help made by the oppressed. It sounds very much like צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah, “fairness”). The sound play draws attention to the point being made; the people have not met the Lord’s expectations.
20 tn Heb “Woe [to] those who make a house touch a house.” The exclamation הוֹי (hoy, “woe, ah”) was used in funeral laments (see 1 Kgs 13:30; Jer 22:18; 34:5) and carries the connotation of death.
21 tn Heb “[who] bring a field near a field.”
sn This verse does not condemn real estate endeavors per se, but refers to the way in which the rich bureaucrats of Judah accumulated property by exploiting the poor, in violation of the covenantal principle that the land belonged to God and that every family was to have its own portion of land. See the note at 1:23.
22 tn Heb “until the end of the place”; NASB “until there is no more room.”
23 tn Heb “and you are made to dwell alone in the midst of the land.”
24 tn Heb “in my ears, the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].”
25 tn Heb “great and good [houses], without a resident.”
26 tn Heb “a ten-yoke vineyard.” The Hebrew term צֶמֶד (tsemed, “yoke”) is here a unit of square measure. Apparently a ten-yoke vineyard covered the same amount of land it would take ten teams of oxen to plow in a certain period of time. The exact size is unknown.
27 tn Heb “one bath.” A bath was a liquid measure. Estimates of its modern equivalent range from approximately six to twelve gallons.
28 tn Heb “a homer.” A homer was a dry measure, the exact size of which is debated. Cf. NCV “ten bushels”; CEV “five bushels.”
29 tn Heb “an ephah.” An ephah was a dry measure; there were ten ephahs in a homer. So this verse envisions major crop failure, where only one-tenth of the anticipated harvest is realized.
30 tn Heb “Woe [to] those who arise early in the morning, [who] chase beer.”
31 tn Heb “[who] delay until dark, [until] wine enflames them.”
sn This verse does not condemn drinking per se, but refers to the carousing lifestyle of the rich bureaucrats, made possible by wealth taken from the poor. Their carousing is not the fundamental problem, but a disgusting symptom of the real disease – their social injustice.
32 tn Two types of stringed instruments are specifically mentioned in the Hebrew text, the כִּנּוֹר (kinnor, “zither”) and נֶבֶל (nevel, “harp”).
33 tn Heb “the work of the Lord they do not look at, and the work of his hands they do not see.” God’s “work” can sometimes be his creative deeds, but in this context it is the judgment that he is planning to bring upon his people (cf. vv. 19, 26; 10:12; 28:21).
34 sn It is not certain if the prophet or the Lord is speaking at this point.
35 tn The suffixed (perfect) form of the verb is used; in this way the coming event is described for rhetorical effect as occurring or as already completed.
36 tn The third masculine singular suffix refers back to “my people.”
37 tn Heb “Their glory will be men of hunger.” כָּבוֹד (kavod, “glory”) is in opposition to הָמוֹן (hamon, “masses”) and refers here to the rich and prominent members of the nation. Some prefer to repoint מְתֵי (mÿtey, “men of”) as מִתֵי (mitey, “dead ones of”).
38 tn The third masculine singular suffix refers back to “my people.”
39 tn Heb “and their masses will be parched [by] thirst.”
40 tn Heb “Sheol” (so ASV, NASB, NRSV); the underworld, the land of the dead, according to the OT world view. Cf. NAB “the nether world”; TEV, CEV “the world of the dead”; NLT “the grave.”
41 tn Heb “so Sheol will make wide its throat, and open its mouth without limit.”
sn Death is portrayed in both the OT (Prov 1:12; Hab 2:5) and Canaanite myth as voraciously swallowing up its prey. In the myths Death is portrayed as having “a lip to the earth, a lip to the heavens … and a tongue to the stars.” (G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 69, text 5 ii 2-3.) Death describes his own appetite as follows: “But my appetite is the appetite of lions in the waste…If it is in very truth my desire to consume ‘clay’ [a reference to his human victims], then in truth by the handfuls I must eat it, whether my seven portions [indicating fullness and completeness] are already in the bowl or whether Nahar [the god of the river responsible for ferrying victims from the land of the living to the land of the dead] has to mix the cup.” (Driver, 68-69, text 5 i 14-22).
42 tn Heb “and her splendor and her masses will go down, and her tumult and the one who exults in her.” The antecedent of the four feminine singular pronominal suffixes used in v. 14b is unclear. The likely referent is personified Zion/Jerusalem (see 3:25-26; 4:4-5).
43 tn Heb “men are brought down, men are brought low, the eyes of pride are brought low.”
44 tn Or “elevated”; TEV “the Lord Almighty shows his greatness.”
45 tn Heb “by judgment/justice.” When God justly punishes the evildoers denounced in the preceding verses, he will be recognized as a mighty warrior.
46 tn Heb “The holy God will be set apart by fairness.” In this context God’s holiness is his sovereign royal authority, which implies a commitment to justice (see the note on the phrase “the sovereign king of Israel” in 1:4). When God judges evildoers as they deserve, his sovereignty will be acknowledged.
sn The appearance of מִשְׁפָט (mishpat, “justice”) and צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah, “fairness”) here is rhetorically significant, when one recalls v. 7. There God denounces his people for failing to produce a society where “justice” and “fairness” are valued and maintained. God will judge his people for their failure, taking “justice” and “fairness” into his own hands.
47 tn Or “young rams”; NIV, NCV “sheep”; NLT “flocks.”
48 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and ruins, fatlings, resident aliens, will eat.” This part of the verse has occasioned various suggestions of emendation. The parallelism is tighter if the second line refers to animals grazing. The translation, “amid the ruins the fatlings and young sheep graze,” assumes an emendation of “resident aliens” (גָּרִים, garim) to “young goats/sheep” (גְּדַיִם, gÿdayim) – confusion of dalet and resh is quite common – and understands “fatlings” and “young sheep” taken as a compound subject or as in apposition as the subject of the verb. However, no emendations are necessary if the above translation is correct. The meaning of מֵחִים (mekhim) has a significant impact on one’s textual decision and translation. The noun can refer to a sacrificial (“fat”) animal as it does in its only other occurrence (Ps 66:15). However, it could signify the rich of the earth (“the fat ones of the earth”; Ps 22:29 [MT 30]) using a different word for “fatness” (דָּשֶׁן, dashen). If so, it serves a figurative reference to the rich. Consequently, the above translation coheres with the first half of the verse. Just as the sheep are out of place grazing in these places (“as in their pasture”), the sojourners would not have expected to have the chance to eat in these locations. Both animals and itinerant foreigners would eat in places not normal for them.
sn The image completes the picture begun in v. 14 and adds to the irony. When judgment comes, Sheol will eat up the sinners who frequent the feasts; then the banqueting halls will lie in ruins and only sheep will eat there.
49 sn See the note at v. 8.
50 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “Woe to those who pull evil with the ropes of emptiness, and, as [with] ropes of a cart, sin.” Though several textual details are unclear, the basic idea is apparent. The sinners are so attached to their sinful ways (compared here to a heavy load) that they strain to drag them along behind them. If שָׁוְא (shavÿ’, “emptiness”) is retained, it makes a further comment on their lifestyle, denouncing it as one that is devoid of what is right and destined to lead to nothing but destruction. Because “emptiness” does not form a very tight parallel with “cart” in the next line, some emend שָׁוְא to שֶׂה (she, “sheep”) and עֲגָלָה (’agalah, “cart”) to עֵגֶל (’egel, “calf”): “Those who pull evil along with a sheep halter are as good as dead who pull sin with a calf rope” (following the lead of the LXX and improving the internal parallelism of the verse). In this case, the verse pictures the sinners pulling sin along behind them as one pulls an animal with a halter. For a discussion of this view, see J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:163, n. 1. Nevertheless, this emendation is unnecessary. The above translation emphasizes the folly of the Israelites who hold on to their sin (and its punishment) even while they hope for divine intervention.
51 tn Heb “let his work hurry, let it hasten.” The pronoun “his” refers to God, as the parallel line makes clear. The reference to his “work” alludes back to v. 12, which refers to his ‘work” of judgment. With these words the people challenged the prophet’s warning of approaching judgment. They were in essence saying that they saw no evidence that God was about to work in such a way.
52 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.
53 tn Heb “draw near” (so NASB); NRSV “hasten to fulfillment.”
54 tn Heb “Woe [to] those who call.” See the note at v. 8.
55 sn In this verse the prophet denounces the perversion of moral standards. Darkness and bitterness are metaphors for evil; light and sweetness symbolize uprightness.
56 tn Heb “Woe [to] the wise in their own eyes.” See the note at v. 8.
57 tn Heb “[who] before their faces are understanding.”
sn Verses 18-21 contain three “woe-sayings” that are purely accusatory and have no formal announcement of judgment attached (as in the “woe-sayings” recorded in vv. 8-17). While this lack of symmetry is odd, it has a clear rhetorical purpose. Having established a pattern in vv. 8-17, the prophet deviates from it in vv. 18-21 to grab his audience’s attention. By placing the “woes” in rapid succession and heaping up the accusatory elements, he highlights the people’s guilt and introduces an element of tension and anticipation. One is reasonably certain that judgment will come, and when it does, it will be devastating. This anticipated devastation is described in frightening detail after the sixth and final woe (see vv. 22-30).
58 tn The language used here is quite sarcastic and paves the way for the shocking description of the enemy army in vv. 25-30. The rich leaders of Judah are nothing but “party animals” who are totally incapable of withstanding real warriors.
59 tn Heb “Woe [to]….” See the note at v. 8.
60 tn Heb “and the just cause of the innocent ones they turn aside from him.”
sn In vv. 22-23 the prophet returns to themes with which he opened his speech. The accusatory elements of vv. 8, 11-12, 18-23 are arranged in a chiastic manner: (A) social injustice (8), (B) carousing (11-12a), (C) spiritual insensitivity (12b) // (C') spiritual insensitivity (18-21), (B') carousing (22), (A') social injustice (23).
61 tn Heb “a tongue of fire” (so NASB), referring to a tongue-shaped flame.
62 sn They are compared to a flowering plant that withers quickly in a hot, arid climate.
63 tn Heb “the word.”
64 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.
65 tn Heb “the anger of the Lord rages.”
66 tn Or “extends”; KJV, ASV “he hath stretched forth.”
67 tn Or “garbage” (NCV, CEV, NLT); NAB, NASB, NIV “refuse.”
68 tn Heb “in all this his anger is not turned, and still his hand is outstretched.”
69 tc The Hebrew text has literally, “for nations from a distance.” The following verses use singular forms to describe this nation, so the final mem (ם) on לְגּוֹיִם (lÿgoyim) may be enclitic or dittographic. In the latter case one could read לְגוֹי מֵרָחוֹק (lÿgoy merakhoq, “for a nation from a distance”; see Deut 28:49; Joel 3:8). Another possibility is to emend the text from לַגּוֹיִם מֵרָחוֹק (laggoyim merakhoq) to לְגוֹי מִמֶּרְחָק (lÿgoy mimmerkhaq, “for a nation from a distant place”) a phrase which occurs in Jer 5:15. In this case an error of misdivision has occurred in MT, the mem of the prefixed preposition being accidentally taken as a plural ending on the preceding word.
70 tn Heb “he.” Singular forms are used throughout vv. 26-30 to describe this nation, but for stylistic reasons the translation uses the plural for these collective singulars.
71 tn Heb “and the belt on his waist is not opened, and the thong of his sandals is not torn in two.”
72 tn Heb “bent” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV); NIV “are strung.”
73 tn Heb “regarded like flint.”
74 sn They are like a windstorm in their swift movement and in the way they kick up dust.
75 tn Or “in that day” (KJV).
76 tn Heb “over it”; the referent (the prey) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
77 tn Heb “like the growling of the sea.”
78 tn Heb “and one will gaze toward the land, and look, darkness of distress, and light will grow dark by its [the land’s?] clouds.”
sn The motif of light turning to darkness is ironic when compared to v. 20. There the sinners turn light (= moral/ethical good) to darkness (= moral/ethical evil). Now ironically the Lord will turn light (= the sinners’ sphere of existence and life) into darkness (= the judgment and death).
79 tn Heb “anointed,” i.e., designated to carry out an assigned task.
80 sn The speaker is not identified, but he is distinct from the Lord and from Zion’s suffering people. He possesses the divine spirit, is God’s spokesman, and is sent to release prisoners from bondage. The evidence suggests he is the Lord’s special servant, described earlier in the servant songs (see 42:1-4, 7; 49:2, 9; 50:4; see also 51:16).
81 tn Or “sent” (NAB); NCV “has appointed me.”
82 tn Or “proclaim good news to.”
83 tn Heb “to bind up [the wounds of].”
84 tn Heb “to announce the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of our God’s vengeance.
85 tn Heb “oil of joy” (KJV, ASV); NASB, NIV, NRSV “the oil of gladness.”
86 tn Heb “garment of praise.”
87 tn Heb “a faint spirit” (so NRSV); KJV, ASV “the spirit of heaviness”; NASB “a spirit of fainting.”
88 tn Rather than referring to the character of the people, צֶדֶק (tsedeq) may carry the nuance “vindication” here, suggesting that God’s restored people are a testimony to his justice. See v. 2, which alludes to the fact that God will take vengeance against the enemies of his people. Cf. NAB “oaks of justice.”
89 tn Heb “a planting of the Lord to reveal splendor.”
90 sn The speaker in vv. 10-11 is not identified, but it is likely that the personified nation (or perhaps Zion) responds here to the Lord’s promise of restoration.
91 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.
92 tn Heb “my being is happy in my God”; NAB “in my God is the joy of my soul.”
93 tn Heb “robe of vindication”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “robe of righteousness.”
94 tn Heb “like a bridegroom [who] acts like a priest [by wearing] a turban, and like a bride [who] wears her jewelry.” The words “I look” are supplied for stylistic reasons and clarification.
95 tn Or perhaps, “righteousness,” but the context seems to emphasize deliverance and restoration (see v. 10 and 62:1).
96 tn Heb “and praise before all the nations.”
97 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.
98 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.
99 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.
sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.
100 tn The word “door” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied in the translation. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context. Since the following verse does contain the word “door” (θύραν, quran), that word has been supplied as the direct object here.
101 tn See the note on the word “door” earlier in this verse.
102 tn Grk “I have given.”
103 tn Grk “to shut it,” but English would leave the direct object understood in this case.
sn The entire statement is parenthetical, interrupting the construction found in other letters to the churches in 3:1 and 3:15, “I know your deeds, that…” where an enumeration of the deeds follows.
104 tn This translation is based on connecting the ὅτι (Joti) clause with the οἶδα (oida) at the beginning of the verse, giving the content of what is known (see also 3:1, 3:15 for parallels). Because of the intervening clause that is virtually parenthetical (see the note on the word “shut” earlier in this verse), the words “I know that” from the beginning of the verse had to be repeated to make this connection clear for the English reader. However, the ὅτι could be understood as introducing a causal subordinate clause instead and thus translated, “because you have.”
105 tn Or “little power.”
106 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
107 tn Grk “and having kept.” The participle ἐτήρησας (ethrhsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. For the translation of τηρέω (threw) as “obey” see L&N 36.19. This is the same word that is used in 3:10 (there translated “kept”) where there is a play on words.
108 tn Grk “behold” (L&N 91.13).
109 sn See the note on synagogue in 2:9.
110 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast between what these people claimed and what they were.
111 tn The verb here is ποιέω (poiew), but in this context it has virtually the same meaning as δίδωμι (didwmi) used at the beginning of the verse. Stylistic variation like this is typical of Johannine literature.
112 tn The verb here is προσκυνήσουσιν (proskunhsousin), normally used to refer to worship.
113 tn Or “and know,” “and recognize.”
114 tn Or “obey.” For the translation of τηρέω (threw) as “obey” see L&N 36.19. In the Greek there is a wordplay: “because you have kept my word…I will keep you,” though the meaning of τηρέω is different each time.
115 tn The Greek term λόγον (logon) is understood here in the sense of admonition or encouragement.
116 tn Or “to persevere.” Here ὑπομονῆς (Jupomonhs) has been translated as a genitive of reference/respect related to τὸν λόγον (ton logon).
117 tn On the verb λάβῃ (labh) here BDAG 583 s.v. λαμβάνω 2 states, “to take away, remove…with or without the use of force τὰ ἀργύρια take away the silver coins (fr. the temple) Mt 27:6. τὰς ἀσθενείας diseases 8:17. τὸν στέφανον Rv 3:11.”
118 sn Your crown refers to a wreath consisting either of foliage or of precious metals formed to resemble foliage and worn as a symbol of honor, victory, or as a badge of high office – ‘wreath, crown’ (L&N 6.192).
119 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.”
120 tn Grk “I will make him,” but the pronoun (αὐτόν, auton, “him”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.
121 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
122 sn This description of the city of my God is parenthetical, explaining further the previous phrase and interrupting the list of “new names” given here.
123 tn Or “for.”
124 tn Heb “better is a day in your courts than a thousand [spent elsewhere].”
125 tn Heb “I choose being at the entrance of the house of my God over living in the tents of the wicked.” The verb סָפַף (safaf) appears only here in the OT; it is derived from the noun סַף (saf, “threshold”). Traditionally some have interpreted this as a reference to being a doorkeeper at the temple, though some understand it to mean “lie as a beggar at the entrance to the temple” (see HALOT 765 s.v. ספף).
126 tn The verb דּוּר (dur, “to live”) occurs only here in the OT.
127 tn The singular is used in a representative sense, with the typical godly person being in view.
128 sn The cedars of the Lebanon forest were well-known in ancient Israel for their immense size.
129 tn Heb “they are juicy and fresh.”
130 tn Heb “so that [they] proclaim that upright [is] the