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Isaiah 32:1--35:10

Justice and Wisdom Will Prevail

32:1 Look, a king will promote fairness; 1 

officials will promote justice. 2 

32:2 Each of them 3  will be like a shelter from the wind

and a refuge from a rainstorm;

like streams of water in a dry region

and like the shade of a large cliff in a parched land.

32:3 Eyes 4  will no longer be blind 5 

and ears 6  will be attentive.

32:4 The mind that acts rashly will possess discernment 7 

and the tongue that stutters will speak with ease and clarity.

32:5 A fool will no longer be called honorable;

a deceiver will no longer be called principled.

32:6 For a fool speaks disgraceful things; 8 

his mind plans out sinful deeds. 9 

He commits godless deeds 10 

and says misleading things about the Lord;

he gives the hungry nothing to satisfy their appetite 11 

and gives the thirsty nothing to drink. 12 

32:7 A deceiver’s methods are evil; 13 

he dreams up evil plans 14 

to ruin the poor with lies,

even when the needy are in the right. 15 

32:8 An honorable man makes honorable plans;

his honorable character gives him security. 16 

The Lord Will Give True Security

32:9 You complacent 17  women,

get up and listen to me!

You carefree 18  daughters,

pay attention to what I say!

32:10 In a year’s time 19 

you carefree ones will shake with fear,

for the grape 20  harvest will fail,

and the fruit harvest will not arrive.

32:11 Tremble, you complacent ones!

Shake with fear, you carefree ones!

Strip off your clothes and expose yourselves –

put sackcloth on your waist! 21 

32:12 Mourn over the field, 22 

over the delightful fields

and the fruitful vine!

32:13 Mourn 23  over the land of my people,

which is overgrown with thorns and briers,

and over all the once-happy houses 24 

in the city filled with revelry. 25 

32:14 For the fortress is neglected;

the once-crowded 26  city is abandoned.

Hill 27  and watchtower

are permanently uninhabited. 28 

Wild donkeys love to go there,

and flocks graze there. 29 

32:15 This desolation will continue until new life is poured out on us from heaven. 30 

Then the desert will become an orchard

and the orchard will be considered a forest. 31 

32:16 Justice will settle down in the desert

and fairness will live in the orchard. 32 

32:17 Fairness will produce peace 33 

and result in lasting security. 34 

32:18 My people will live in peaceful settlements,

in secure homes,

and in safe, quiet places. 35 

32:19 Even if the forest is destroyed 36 

and the city is annihilated, 37 

32:20 you will be blessed,

you who plant seed by all the banks of the streams, 38 

you who let your ox and donkey graze. 39 

The Lord Will Restore Zion

33:1 The destroyer is as good as dead, 40 

you who have not been destroyed!

The deceitful one is as good as dead, 41 

the one whom others have not deceived!

When you are through destroying, you will be destroyed;

when you finish 42  deceiving, others will deceive you!

33:2 Lord, be merciful to us! We wait for you.

Give us strength each morning! 43 

Deliver us when distress comes. 44 

33:3 The nations run away when they hear a loud noise; 45 

the nations scatter when you spring into action! 46 

33:4 Your plunder 47  disappears as if locusts were eating it; 48 

they swarm over it like locusts! 49 

33:5 The Lord is exalted, 50 

indeed, 51  he lives in heaven; 52 

he fills Zion with justice and fairness.

33:6 He is your constant source of stability; 53 

he abundantly provides safety and great wisdom; 54 

he gives all this to those who fear him. 55 

33:7 Look, ambassadors 56  cry out in the streets;

messengers sent to make peace 57  weep bitterly.

33:8 Highways are empty, 58 

there are no travelers. 59 

Treaties are broken, 60 

witnesses are despised, 61 

human life is treated with disrespect. 62 

33:9 The land 63  dries up 64  and withers away;

the forest of Lebanon shrivels up 65  and decays.

Sharon 66  is like the desert; 67 

Bashan and Carmel 68  are parched. 69 

33:10 “Now I will rise up,” says the Lord.

“Now I will exalt myself;

now I will magnify myself. 70 

33:11 You conceive straw, 71 

you give birth to chaff;

your breath is a fire that destroys you. 72 

33:12 The nations will be burned to ashes; 73 

like thorn bushes that have been cut down, they will be set on fire.

33:13 You who are far away, listen to what I have done!

You who are close by, recognize my strength!”

33:14 Sinners are afraid in Zion;

panic 74  grips the godless. 75 

They say, 76  ‘Who among us can coexist with destructive fire?

Who among us can coexist with unquenchable 77  fire?’

33:15 The one who lives 78  uprightly 79 

and speaks honestly;

the one who refuses to profit from oppressive measures

and rejects a bribe; 80 

the one who does not plot violent crimes 81 

and does not seek to harm others 82 

33:16 This is the person who will live in a secure place; 83 

he will find safety in the rocky, mountain strongholds; 84 

he will have food

and a constant supply of water.

33:17 You will see a king in his splendor; 85 

you will see a wide land. 86 

33:18 Your mind will recall the terror you experienced, 87 

and you will ask yourselves, 88  “Where is the scribe?

Where is the one who weighs the money?

Where is the one who counts the towers?” 89 

33:19 You will no longer see a defiant 90  people

whose language you do not comprehend, 91 

whose derisive speech you do not understand. 92 

33:20 Look at Zion, the city where we hold religious festivals!

You 93  will see Jerusalem, 94 

a peaceful settlement,

a tent that stays put; 95 

its stakes will never be pulled up;

none of its ropes will snap in two.

33:21 Instead the Lord will rule there as our mighty king. 96 

Rivers and wide streams will flow through it; 97 

no war galley will enter; 98 

no large ships will sail through. 99 

33:22 For the Lord, our ruler,

the Lord, our commander,

the Lord, our king –

he will deliver us.

33:23 Though at this time your ropes are slack, 100 

the mast is not secured, 101 

and the sail 102  is not unfurled,

at that time you will divide up a great quantity of loot; 103 

even the lame will drag off plunder. 104 

33:24 No resident of Zion 105  will say, “I am ill”;

the people who live there will have their sin forgiven.

The Lord Will Judge Edom

34:1 Come near, you nations, and listen!

Pay attention, you people!

The earth and everything it contains must listen,

the world and everything that lives in it. 106 

34:2 For the Lord is angry at all the nations

and furious with all their armies.

He will annihilate them and slaughter them.

34:3 Their slain will be left unburied, 107 

their corpses will stink; 108 

the hills will soak up their blood. 109 

34:4 All the stars in the sky will fade away, 110 

the sky will roll up like a scroll;

all its stars will wither,

like a leaf withers and falls from a vine

or a fig withers and falls from a tree. 111 

34:5 He says, 112  “Indeed, my sword has slaughtered heavenly powers. 113 

Look, it now descends on Edom, 114 

on the people I will annihilate in judgment.”

34:6 The Lord’s sword is dripping with blood,

it is covered 115  with fat;

it drips 116  with the blood of young rams and goats

and is covered 117  with the fat of rams’ kidneys.

For the Lord is holding a sacrifice 118  in Bozrah, 119 

a bloody 120  slaughter in the land of Edom.

34:7 Wild oxen will be slaughtered 121  along with them,

as well as strong bulls. 122 

Their land is drenched with blood,

their soil is covered with fat.

34:8 For the Lord has planned a day of revenge, 123 

a time when he will repay Edom for her hostility toward Zion. 124 

34:9 Edom’s 125  streams will be turned into pitch

and her soil into brimstone;

her land will become burning pitch.

34:10 Night and day it will burn; 126 

its smoke will ascend continually.

Generation after generation it will be a wasteland

and no one will ever pass through it again.

34:11 Owls and wild animals 127  will live there, 128 

all kinds of wild birds 129  will settle in it.

The Lord 130  will stretch out over her

the measuring line of ruin

and the plumb line 131  of destruction. 132 

34:12 Her nobles will have nothing left to call a kingdom

and all her officials will disappear. 133 

34:13 Her fortresses will be overgrown with thorns;

thickets and weeds will grow 134  in her fortified cities.

Jackals will settle there;

ostriches will live there. 135 

34:14 Wild animals and wild dogs will congregate there; 136 

wild goats will bleat to one another. 137 

Yes, nocturnal animals 138  will rest there

and make for themselves a nest. 139 

34:15 Owls 140  will make nests and lay eggs 141  there;

they will hatch them and protect them. 142 

Yes, hawks 143  will gather there,

each with its mate.

34:16 Carefully read the scroll of the Lord! 144 

Not one of these creatures will be missing, 145 

none will lack a mate. 146 

For the Lord has issued the decree, 147 

and his own spirit gathers them. 148 

34:17 He assigns them their allotment; 149 

he measures out their assigned place. 150 

They will live there 151  permanently;

they will settle in it through successive generations.

The Land and Its People Are Transformed

35:1 Let the desert and dry region be happy; 152 

let the wilderness 153  rejoice and bloom like a lily!

35:2 Let it richly bloom; 154 

let it rejoice and shout with delight! 155 

It is given the grandeur 156  of Lebanon,

the splendor of Carmel and Sharon.

They will see the grandeur of the Lord,

the splendor of our God.

35:3 Strengthen the hands that have gone limp,

steady the knees that shake! 157 

35:4 Tell those who panic, 158 

“Be strong! Do not fear!

Look, your God comes to avenge!

With divine retribution he comes to deliver you.” 159 

35:5 Then blind eyes will open,

deaf ears will hear.

35:6 Then the lame will leap like a deer,

the mute tongue will shout for joy;

for water will flow 160  in the desert,

streams in the wilderness. 161 

35:7 The dry soil will become a pool of water,

the parched ground springs of water.

Where jackals once lived and sprawled out,

grass, reeds, and papyrus will grow.

35:8 A thoroughfare will be there –

it will be called the Way of Holiness. 162 

The unclean will not travel on it;

it is reserved for those authorized to use it 163 

fools 164  will not stray into it.

35:9 No lions will be there,

no ferocious wild animals will be on it 165 

they will not be found there.

Those delivered from bondage will travel on it,

35:10 those whom the Lord has ransomed will return that way. 166 

They will enter Zion with a happy shout.

Unending joy will crown them, 167 

happiness and joy will overwhelm 168  them;

grief and suffering will disappear. 169 

1 tn Heb “will reign according to fairness.”

2 tn Heb “will rule according to justice.”

3 tn Heb “a man,” but אִישׁ (’ish) probably refers here to “each” of the officials mentioned in the previous verse.

4 tn Heb “Eyes that see.”

5 tn The Hebrew text as vocalized reads literally “will not gaze,” but this is contradictory to the context. The verb form should be revocalized as תְּשֹׁעֶינָה (tÿshoenah) from שָׁעַע (shaa’, “be blinded”); see Isa 6:10; 29:9.

6 tn Heb “ears that hear.”

7 tn Heb “the heart of rashness will understand knowledge”; cf. NAB “The flighty will become wise and capable.”

8 tn Or “foolishness,” in a moral-ethical sense. See 9:17.

9 tn Heb “and his heart commits sin”; KJV, ASV “his heart will work iniquity”; NASB “inclines toward wickedness.”

10 tn Heb “in order to do [or “so that he does”] what is godless [or “defiled”].”

11 tn Heb “so that he leaves empty the appetite [or “desire”] of the hungry.”

12 tn Heb “and the drink of the thirsty he causes to fail.”

13 tn Heb “as for a deceiver, his implements [or “weapons”] are evil.”

14 tn Or “he plans evil things”; NIV “he makes up evil schemes.”

15 tn Heb “to ruin the poor with words of falsehood, even when the needy speak what is just.”

16 tn Heb “and he upon honorable things stands.”

17 tn Or “self-assured”; NASB, NRSV “who are at ease.”

18 tn Or “self-confident”; NAB “overconfident.”

19 tn Heb “days upon a year.”

20 tn Or perhaps, “olive.” See 24:13.

21 tn The imperatival forms in v. 11 are problematic. The first (חִרְדוּ, khirdu, “tremble”) is masculine plural in form, though spoken to a feminine plural addressee (שַׁאֲנַנּוֹת, shaanannot, “complacent ones”). The four imperatival forms that follow (רְגָזָה, rÿgazah, “shake with fear”; פְּשֹׁטָה, pÿshotah, “strip off your clothes”; עֹרָה, ’orah, “expose yourselves”; and חֲגוֹרָה, khagorah, “put on”) all appear to be lengthened (so-called “emphatic”) masculine singular forms, even though they too appear to be spoken to a feminine plural addressee. GKC 131-32 §48.i suggests emending חִרְדוּ (khirdu) to חֲרָדָה (kharadah) and understanding all five imperatives as feminine plural “aramaized” forms.

22 tc The Hebrew text has “over mourning breasts.” The reference to “breasts” would make sense in light of v. 11, which refers to the practice of women baring their breasts as a sign of sorrow (see J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 1:585). However, one expects the preposition עַל (’al) to introduce the source or reason for mourning (see vv. 12b-13a) and the participle סֹפְדִים (sofedim, “mourning”) seems odd modifying “breasts.” The translation above assumes a twofold emendation: (1) שָׁדַיִם (shadayim, “breasts”) is emended to [ם]שָׂדַי (saday[m], “field,” a term that also appears in Isa 56:9). The final mem (ם) would be enclitic in this case, not a plural indicator. (The Hebrew noun שָׂדֶה (sadeh, “field”) forms its plural with an וֹת- [-ot] ending). (2) The plural participle סֹפְדִים is emended to סְפֹדָה (sÿfodah), a lengthened imperatival form, meaning “mourn.” For an overview of various suggestions that have been made for this difficult line, see Oswalt, 586, n. 12).

23 tn “Mourn” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text vv. 12-13 are one long sentence.

24 tn Heb “indeed, over all the houses of joy.” It is not certain if this refers to individual homes or to places where parties and celebrations were held.

25 sn This same phrase is used in 22:2.

26 tn Or “noisy” (NAB, NIV, NCV).

27 tn Hebrew עֹפֶל (’ofel), probably refers here to a specific area within the city of Jerusalem. See HALOT 861 s.v. II עֹפֶל.

28 tn The Hebrew text has בְעַד מְעָרוֹת (vÿad mÿarot). The force of בְעַד, which usually means “behind, through, round about,” or “for the benefit of,” is uncertain here. HALOT 616 s.v. *מְעָרָה takes מְעָרוֹת (mÿarot) as a homonym of “cave” and define it here as “cleared field.” Despite these lexical problems, the general point of the statement seems clear – the city will be uninhabited.

29 tn Heb “the joy of wild donkeys, a pasture for flocks.”

30 tn Heb “until a spirit is emptied out on us from on high.” The words “this desolation will continue” are supplied in the translation for clarification and stylistic purposes. The verb עָרָה (’arah), used here in the Niphal, normally means “lay bare, expose.” The term רוּחַ (ruakh, “spirit”) is often understood here as a reference to the divine spirit (cf. 44:3 and NASB, NIV, CEV, NLT), but it appears here without an article (cf. NRSV “a spirit”), pronominal suffix, or a genitive (such as “of the Lord”). The translation assumes that it carries an impersonal nuance “vivacity, vigor” in this context.

31 sn The same statement appears in 29:17b, where, in conjunction with the preceding line, it appears to picture a reversal. Here it seems to depict supernatural growth. The desert will blossom into an orchard, and the trees of the orchard will multiply and grow tall, becoming a forest.

32 sn This new era of divine blessing will also include a moral/ethical transformation, as justice and fairness fill the land and replace the social injustice so prevalent in Isaiah’s time.

33 tn Heb “and the product of fairness will be peace.”

34 tn Heb “and the work of fairness [will be] calmness and security forever.”

35 tn Or “in safe resting places”; NAB, NRSV “quiet resting places.”

36 tn Heb “and [?] when the forest descends.” The form וּבָרַד (uvarad) is often understood as an otherwise unattested denominative verb meaning “to hail” (HALOT 154 s.v. I ברד). In this case one might translate, “and it hails when the forest is destroyed” (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV). Perhaps the text alludes to a powerful wind and hail storm that knocks down limbs and trees. Some prefer to emend the form to וְיָרַד (vÿyarad), “and it descends,” which provides better, though not perfect, symmetry with the parallel line (cf. NAB). Perhaps וּבָרַד should be dismissed as dittographic. In this case the statement (“when the forest descends”) lacks a finite verb and seems incomplete, but perhaps it is subordinate to v. 20.

37 tn Heb “and in humiliation the city is laid low.”

38 tn Heb “by all the waters.”

39 tn Heb “who set free the foot of the ox and donkey”; NIV “letting your cattle and donkeys range free.”

sn This verse seems to anticipate a time when fertile land is available to cultivate and crops are so abundant that the farm animals can be allowed to graze freely.

40 tn Heb “Woe [to] the destroyer.”

sn In this context “the destroyer” appears to refer collectively to the hostile nations (vv. 3-4). Assyria would probably have been primary in the minds of the prophet and his audience.

41 tn Heb “and the deceitful one”; NAB, NIV “O traitor”; NRSV “you treacherous one.” In the parallel structure הוֹי (hoy, “woe [to]”) does double duty.

42 tc The form in the Hebrew text appears to derive from an otherwise unattested verb נָלָה (nalah). The translation follows the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa in reading ככלתך, a Piel infinitival form from the verbal root כָּלָה (kalah), meaning “finish.”

43 tn Heb “Be their arm each morning.” “Arm” is a symbol for strength. The mem suffixed to the noun has been traditionally understood as a third person suffix, but this is contrary to the context, where the people speak of themselves in the first person. The mem (מ) is probably enclitic with ellipsis of the pronoun, which can be supplied from the context. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:589, n. 1.

44 tn Heb “[Be] also our deliverance in the time of distress.”

45 tn Heb “at the sound of tumult the nations run away.”

46 tn Heb “because of your exaltation the nations scatter.”

47 tn The pronoun is plural; the statement is addressed to the nations who have stockpiled plunder from their conquests of others.

48 tn Heb “and your plunder is gathered, the gathering of the locust.”

49 tn Heb “like a swarm of locusts swarming on it.”

50 tn Or “elevated”; NCV, NLT “is very great.”

51 tn Or “for” (KJV, NASB, NIV).

52 tn Heb “on high” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); CEV “in the heavens.”

53 tn Heb “and he is the stability of your times.”

54 tn Heb “a rich store of deliverance, wisdom, and knowledge.”

55 tn Heb “the fear of the Lord, it is his treasure.”

56 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word is unknown. Proposals include “heroes” (cf. KJV, ASV “valiant ones”; NASB, NIV “brave men”); “priests,” “residents [of Jerusalem].” The present translation assumes that the term is synonymous with “messengers of peace,” with which it corresponds in the parallel structure of the verse.

57 tn Heb “messengers of peace,” apparently those responsible for negotiating the agreements that have been broken (see v. 8).

58 tn Or “desolate” (NAB, NASB); NIV, NRSV, NLT “deserted.”

59 tn Heb “the one passing by on the road ceases.”

60 tn Heb “one breaks a treaty”; NAB “Covenants are broken.”

61 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “he despises cities.” The term עָרִים (’arim, “cities”) is probably a corruption of an original עֵדִים (’edim, “[legal] witnesses”), a reading that is preserved in the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa. Confusion of dalet (ד) and resh (ר) is a well-attested scribal error.

62 tn Heb “he does not regard human beings.”

63 tn Or “earth” (KJV); NAB “the country.”

64 tn Or “mourns” (BDB 5 s.v. I אָבַל). HALOT 6-7 lists homonyms I אבל (“mourn”) and II אבל (“dry up”). They propose the second here on the basis of parallelism. See 24:4.

65 tn Heb “Lebanon is ashamed.” The Hiphil is exhibitive, expressing the idea, “exhibits shame.” In this context the statement alludes to the withering of vegetation.

66 sn Sharon was a fertile plain along the Mediterranean coast. See 35:2.

67 tn Or “the Arabah” (NIV). See 35:1.

68 sn Both of these areas were known for their trees and vegetation. See 2:13; 35:2.

69 tn Heb “shake off [their leaves]” (so ASV, NRSV); NAB “are stripped bare.”

70 tn Or “lift myself up” (KJV); NLT “show my power and might.”

71 tn The second person verb and pronominal forms in this verse are plural. The hostile nations are the addressed, as the next verse makes clear.

72 sn The hostile nations’ plans to destroy God’s people will come to nothing; their hostility will end up being self-destructive.

73 tn Heb “will be a burning to lime.” See Amos 2:1.

74 tn Or “trembling” (ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “shake with fear.”

75 tn Or “the defiled”; TEV “The sinful people of Zion”; NLT “The sinners in Jerusalem.”

76 tn The words “they say” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

77 tn Or “perpetual”; or “everlasting” (KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).

78 tn Heb “walks” (so NASB, NIV).

79 tn Or, possibly, “justly”; NAB “who practices virtue.”

80 tn Heb “[who] shakes off his hands from grabbing hold of a bribe.”

81 tn Heb “[who] shuts his ear from listening to bloodshed.”

82 tn Heb “[who] closes his eyes from seeing evil.”

83 tn Heb “he [in the] exalted places will live.”

84 tn Heb “mountain strongholds, cliffs [will be] his elevated place.”

85 tn Heb “your eyes will see a king in his beauty”; NIV, NRSV “the king.”

86 tn Heb “a land of distances,” i.e., an extensive land.

87 tn Heb “your heart will meditate on terror.”

88 tn The words “and you will ask yourselves” are supplied in the translation for clarification and stylistic reasons.

89 sn The people refer to various Assyrian officials who were responsible for determining the amount of taxation or tribute Judah must pay to the Assyrian king.

90 tn The Hebrew form נוֹעָז (noaz) is a Niphal participle derived from יָעַז (yaaz, an otherwise unattested verb) or from עָזָז (’azaz, “be strong,” unattested elsewhere in the Niphal). Some prefer to emend the form to לוֹעֵז (loez) which occurs in Ps 114:1 with the meaning “speak a foreign language.” See HALOT 809 s.v. עזז, 533 s.v. לעז. In this case, one might translate “people who speak a foreign language.”

91 tn Heb “a people too deep of lip to hear.” The phrase “deep of lip” must be an idiom meaning “lips that speak words that are unfathomable [i.e., incomprehensible].”

92 tn Heb “derision of tongue there is no understanding.” The Niphal of לָעַג (laag) occurs only here. In the Qal and Hiphil the verb means “to deride, mock.” A related noun is used in 28:11.

93 tn Heb “your eyes” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

94 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

95 tn Or “that does not travel”; NASB “which shall not be folded.”

96 tn Heb “But there [as] a mighty one [will be] the Lord for us.”

97 tn Heb “a place of rivers, streams wide of hands [i.e., on both sides].”

98 tn Heb “a ship of rowing will not go into it.”

99 tn Heb “and a mighty ship will not pass through it.”

100 tn The words “though at this time” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The first half of the verse is addressed to Judah and contrasts the nation’s present weakness with its future prosperity. Judah is compared to a ship that is incapable of sailing.

101 tn Heb “they do not fasten the base of their mast.” On כֵּן (ken, “base”) see BDB 487 s.v. III כֵּן and HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן.

102 tn Or perhaps, “flag.”

103 tn Heb “then there will be divided up loot of plunder [in] abundance.”

104 sn Judah’s victory over its enemies will be so thorough there will be more than enough plunder for everyone, even slow-moving lame men who would normally get left out in the rush to gather the loot.

105 tn The words “of Zion” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

106 tn Heb “the world and its offspring”; NASB “the world and all that springs from it.”

107 tn Heb “will be cast aside”; NASB, NIV “thrown out.”

108 tn Heb “[as for] their corpses, their stench will arise.”

109 tn Heb “hills will dissolve from their blood.”

110 tc Heb “and all the host of heaven will rot.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa inserts “and the valleys will be split open,” but this reading may be influenced by Mic 1:4. On the other hand, the statement, if original, could have been omitted by homoioarcton, a scribe’s eye jumping from the conjunction prefixed to “the valleys” to the conjunction prefixed to the verb “rot.”

111 tn Heb “like the withering of a leaf from a vine, and like the withering from a fig tree.”

112 tn The words “he says” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The Lord speaks at this point.

113 tn Heb “indeed [or “for”] my sword is drenched in the heavens.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has תראה (“[my sword] appeared [in the heavens]”), but this is apparently an attempt to make sense out of a difficult metaphor. Cf. NIV “My sword has drunk its fill in the heavens.”

sn In v. 4 the “host of the heaven” refers to the heavenly luminaries (stars and planets, see, among others, Deut 4:19; 17:3; 2 Kgs 17:16; 21:3, 5; 23:4-5; 2 Chr 33:3, 5) that populate the divine/heavenly assembly in mythological and prescientific Israelite thought (see Job 38:7; Isa 14:13). As in 24:21, they are viewed here as opposing God and being defeated in battle.

114 sn Edom is mentioned here as epitomizing the hostile nations that oppose God.

115 tn The verb is a rare Hotpaal passive form. See GKC 150 §54.h.

116 tn The words “it drips” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

117 tn The words “and is covered” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

118 tn Heb “for there is a sacrifice to the Lord.”

119 sn The Lord’s judgment of Edom is compared to a bloody sacrificial scene.

120 tn Heb “great” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

121 tn Heb “will go down”; NAB “shall be struck down.”

122 tn Heb “and bulls along with strong ones.” Perhaps this refers to the leaders.

123 tn Heb “for a day of vengeance [is] for the Lord.”

124 tn Heb “a year of repayment for the strife of Zion.” The translation assumes that רִיב (riv) refers to Edom’s hostility toward Zion. Another option is to understand רִיב (riv) as referring to the Lord’s taking up Zion’s cause. In this case one might translate, “a time when he will repay Edom and vindicate Zion.”

125 tn Heb “her”; the referent (Edom) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

126 tn Heb “it will not be extinguished.”

127 tn קָאַת (qaat) refers to some type of bird (cf. Lev 11:18; Deut 14:17) that was typically found near ruins (see Zeph 2:14). קִפּוֹד (qippod) may also refer to a type of bird (NAB “hoot owl”; NIV “screech owl”; TEV “ravens”), but some have suggested a rodent may be in view (cf. NCV “small animals”; ASV “porcupine”; NASB, NRSV “hedgehog”).

128 tn Heb “will possess it” (so NIV).

129 tn The Hebrew text has יַנְשׁוֹף וְעֹרֵב (yanshof vÿorev). Both the יַנְשׁוֹף (“owl”; see Lev 11:17; Deut 14:16) and עֹרֵב (“raven”; Lev 11:15; Deut 14:14) were types of wild birds.

130 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

131 tn Heb “stones,” i.e., the stones used in a plumb bob.

132 sn The metaphor in v. 11b emphasizes that God has carefully planned Edom’s demise.

133 tn Heb “will be nothing”; NCV, TEV, NLT “will all be gone.”

134 tn The words “will grow” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

135 tc Heb “and she will be a settlement for wild dogs, a dwelling place for ostriches.” The translation assumes an emendation of חָצִיר (khatsir, “grass”) to חָצֵר (khatser, “settlement”). One of the Qumran scrolls of Isaiah (1QIsaa) supports this emendation (cf. HALOT 344 s.v. II חָצִיר)

136 tn Heb “will meet” (so NIV); NLT “will mingle there.”

137 tn Heb “and a goat will call to its neighbor.”

138 tn The precise meaning of לִּילִית (lilit) is unclear, though in this context the word certainly refers to some type of wild animal or bird. The word appears to be related to לַיְלָה (laylah, “night”). Some interpret it as the name of a female night demon, on the basis of an apparent Akkadian cognate used as the name of a demon. Later Jewish legends also identified Lilith as a demon. Cf. NRSV “Lilith.”

139 tn Heb “and will find for themselves a resting place.”

140 tn Hebrew קִפּוֹז (qippoz) occurs only here; the precise meaning of the word is uncertain.

141 tn For this proposed meaning for Hebrew מָלַט (malat), see HALOT 589 s.v. I מלט.

142 tn Heb “and brood [over them] in her shadow.”

143 tn The precise meaning of דַּיָּה (dayyah) is uncertain, though the term appears to refer to some type of bird of prey, perhaps a vulture.

144 tn Heb “Seek from upon the scroll of the Lord and read.”

sn It is uncertain what particular scroll is referred to here. Perhaps the phrase simply refers to this prophecy and is an admonition to pay close attention to the details of the message.

145 tn Heb “one from these will not be missing.” הֵנָּה (hennah, “these”) is feminine plural in the Hebrew text. It may refer only to the birds mentioned in v. 15b or may include all of the creatures listed in vv. 14b-15 (all of which are identified with feminine nouns).

146 tn Heb “each its mate they will not lack.”

147 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “for a mouth, it has commanded.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and a few medieval mss have פִּיהוּ (pihu, “his mouth [has commanded]”), while a few other medieval mss read פִּי יְהוָה (pi yÿhvah, “the mouth of the Lord [has commanded]”).

148 tn Heb “and his spirit, he gathers them.” The pronominal suffix (“them”) is feminine plural, referring to the birds mentioned in v. 15b or to all of the creatures listed in vv. 14b-15 (all of which are identified with feminine nouns).

149 tn Heb “and he causes the lot to fall for them.” Once again the pronominal suffix (“them”) is feminine plural, referring to the birds mentioned in v. 15b or to all of the creatures listed in vv. 14b-15 (all of which are identified with feminine nouns).

150 tn Heb “and his hand divides for them with a measuring line.” The pronominal suffix (“them”) now switches to masculine plural, referring to all the animals and birds mentioned in vv. 11-15, some of which were identified with masculine nouns. This signals closure for this portion of the speech, which began in v. 11. The following couplet (v. 17b) forms an inclusio with v. 11a through verbal repetition.

151 tn Heb “will possess it” (so NIV); NCV “they will own that land forever.”

152 tn The final mem (ם) on the verb יְשֻׂשׂוּם (yÿsusum) is dittographic (note the initial mem on the following noun מִדְבָּר [midbar]). The ambiguous verbal form is translated as a jussive because it is parallel to the jussive form תָגֵל (tagel). The jussive is used rhetorically here, not as a literal command or prayer.

153 tn Or “Arabah” (NASB); NAB, NIV, TEV “desert.”

154 tn The ambiguous verb form תִּפְרַח (tifrakh) is translated as a jussive because it is parallel to the jussive form תָגֵל (tagel).

155 tn Heb “and let it rejoice, yes [with] rejoicing and shouting.” גִּילַת (gilat) may be an archaic feminine nominal form (see GKC 421 §130.b).

156 tn Or “glory” (KJV, NIV, NRSV); also a second time later in this verse.

157 tn Heb “staggering knees”; KJV, ASV, NRSV “feeble knees”; NIV “knees that give way.”

158 tn Heb “Say to the hasty of heart,” i.e., those whose hearts beat quickly from fear.

159 tn The jussive form וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶם (vÿyoshaakhem), which is subordinated to the preceding imperfect with vav conjunctive, indicates purpose.

160 tn Heb “burst forth” (so NAB); KJV “break out.”

161 tn Or “Arabah” (NASB); KJV, NIV, NRSV, NLT “desert.”

162 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and there will be there a road and a way, and the Way of Holiness it will be called.” וְדֶרֶךְ (vÿderekh, “and a/the way”) is accidentally duplicated; the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa does not reflect the repetition of the phrase.

163 tn The precise meaning of this line is uncertain. The text reads literally “and it is for them, the one who walks [on the] way.” In this context those authorized to use the Way of Holiness would be morally upright people who are the recipients of God’s deliverance, in contrast to the morally impure and foolish who are excluded from the new covenant community.

164 tn In this context “fools” are those who are morally corrupt, not those with limited intellectual capacity.

165 tn Heb “will go up on it”; TEV “will pass that way.”

166 tn Heb “and the redeemed will walk, the ransomed of the Lord will return.”

167 tn Heb “[will be] on their head[s].” “Joy” may be likened here to a crown (cf. 2 Sam 1:10). The statement may also be an ironic twist on the idiom “earth/dust on the head” (cf. 2 Sam 1:2; 13:19; 15:32; Job 2:12), referring to a mourning practice.

168 tn Heb “will overtake” (NIV); NLT “they will be overcome with.”

169 tn Heb “grief and groaning will flee”; KJV “sorrow and sighing shall flee away.”

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