1 tn This word is sometimes used of a sacred pillar associated with pagan worship, but here it is associated with the worship of the Lord.
2 tn The masculine noun מִזְבֵּחַ (mizbbeakh, “altar”) in v. 19 is probably the subject of the masculine singular verb הָיָה (hayah) rather than the feminine noun מַצֵּבָה (matsevah, “sacred pillar”), also in v. 19.
3 tn Heb “a sign and a witness to the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts] in the land of Egypt.”
4 tn רָב (rav) is a substantival participle (from רִיב, riv) meaning “one who strives, contends.”
5 tn Heb “Egypt.” For stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy, the present translation uses the pronoun (“they”) here.
6 tn Heb “will know the Lord.”
7 tn Heb “in that day” (so KJV), likewise at the beginning of vv. 23 and 24.
8 tn Heb “he will be entreated.” The Niphal has a tolerative sense here, “he will allow himself to be entreated.”