4:14 Therefore since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. 4:15 For we do not have a high priest incapable of sympathizing with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way just as we are, yet without sin. 4:16 Therefore let us confidently approach the throne of grace to receive mercy and find grace whenever we need help. 1
5:1 For every high priest is taken from among the people 2 and appointed 3 to represent them before God, 4 to offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. 5:2 He is able to deal compassionately with those who are ignorant and erring, since he also is subject to weakness, 5:3 and for this reason he is obligated to make sin offerings for himself as well as for the people. 5:4 And no one assumes this honor 5 on his own initiative, 6 but only when called to it by God, 7 as in fact Aaron was. 5:5 So also Christ did not glorify himself in becoming high priest, but the one who glorified him was God, 8 who said to him, “You are my Son! Today I have fathered you,” 9 5:6 as also in another place God 10 says, “You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.” 11 5:7 During his earthly life 12 Christ 13 offered 14 both requests and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able to save him from death and he was heard because of his devotion. 5:8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through the things he suffered. 15 5:9 And by being perfected in this way, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 5:10 and he was designated 16 by God as high priest in the order of Melchizedek. 17
5:11 On this topic we have much to say 18 and it is difficult to explain, since you have become sluggish 19 in hearing. 5:12 For though you should in fact be teachers by this time, 20 you need someone to teach you the beginning elements of God’s utterances. 21 You have gone back to needing 22 milk, not 23 solid food. 5:13 For everyone who lives on milk is inexperienced in the message of righteousness, because he is an infant. 5:14 But solid food is for the mature, whose perceptions are trained by practice to discern both good and evil.
6:1 Therefore we must progress beyond 24 the elementary 25 instructions about Christ 26 and move on 27 to maturity, not laying this foundation again: repentance from dead works and faith in God, 6:2 teaching about baptisms, laying on of hands, resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment. 6:3 And this is what we intend to do, 28 if God permits. 6:4 For it is impossible in the case of those who have once been enlightened, tasted the heavenly gift, become partakers of the Holy Spirit, 6:5 tasted the good word of God and the miracles of the coming age, 6:6 and then have committed apostasy, 29 to renew them again to repentance, since 30 they are crucifying the Son of God for themselves all over again 31 and holding him up to contempt. 6:7 For the ground that has soaked up the rain that frequently falls on 32 it and yields useful vegetation for those who tend it receives a blessing from God. 6:8 But if it produces thorns and thistles, it is useless and about to be cursed; 33 its fate is to be burned. 6:9 But in your case, dear friends, even though we speak like this, we are convinced of better things relating to salvation. 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love you have demonstrated for his name, in having served and continuing to serve the saints. 6:11 But we passionately want each of you to demonstrate the same eagerness for the fulfillment of your hope until the end, 6:12 so that you may not be sluggish, 34 but imitators of those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises.
6:13 Now when God made his promise to Abraham, since he could swear by no one greater, he swore by himself, 6:14 saying, “Surely I will bless you greatly and multiply your descendants abundantly.” 35 6:15 And so by persevering, Abraham 36 inherited the promise. 6:16 For people 37 swear by something greater than themselves, 38 and the oath serves as a confirmation to end all dispute. 39 6:17 In the same way 40 God wanted to demonstrate more clearly to the heirs of the promise that his purpose was unchangeable, 41 and so he intervened with an oath, 6:18 so that we who have found refuge in him 42 may find strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us through two unchangeable things, since it is impossible for God to lie. 6:19 We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, sure and steadfast, which reaches inside behind the curtain, 43 6:20 where Jesus our forerunner entered on our behalf, since he became a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek. 44
7:1 Now this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, met Abraham as he was returning from defeating the kings and blessed him. 45 7:2 To him 46 also Abraham apportioned a tithe 47 of everything. 48 His name first means 49 king of righteousness, then king of Salem, that is, king of peace. 7:3 Without father, without mother, without genealogy, he has neither beginning of days nor end of life but is like the son of God, and he remains a priest for all time. 7:4 But see how great he must be, if 50 Abraham the patriarch gave him a tithe 51 of his plunder. 7:5 And those of the sons of Levi who receive the priestly office 52 have authorization according to the law to collect a tithe from the people, that is, from their fellow countrymen, 53 although they too are descendants of Abraham. 54 7:6 But Melchizedek 55 who does not share their ancestry 56 collected a tithe 57 from Abraham and blessed 58 the one who possessed the promise. 7:7 Now without dispute the inferior is blessed by the superior, 7:8 and in one case tithes are received by mortal men, while in the other by him who is affirmed to be alive. 7:9 And it could be said that Levi himself, who receives tithes, paid a tithe through Abraham. 7:10 For he was still in his ancestor Abraham’s loins 59 when Melchizedek met him.
7:11 So if perfection had in fact been possible through the Levitical priesthood – for on that basis 60 the people received the law – what further need would there have been for another priest to arise, said to be in the order of Melchizedek and not in Aaron’s order? 7:12 For when the priesthood changes, a change in the law must come 61 as well. 7:13 Yet the one these things are spoken about belongs to 62 a different tribe, and no one from that tribe 63 has ever officiated at the altar. 7:14 For it is clear that our Lord is descended from Judah, yet Moses said nothing about priests in connection with that tribe. 7:15 And this is even clearer if another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, 7:16 who has become a priest not by a legal regulation about physical descent 64 but by the power of an indestructible life. 7:17 For here is the testimony about him: 65 “You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.” 66 7:18 On the one hand a former command is set aside 67 because it is weak and useless, 68 7:19 for the law made nothing perfect. On the other hand a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God. 7:20 And since 69 this was not done without a sworn affirmation – for the others have become priests without a sworn affirmation, 7:21 but Jesus 70 did so 71 with a sworn affirmation by the one who said to him, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind, ‘You are a priest forever’” 72 – 7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee 73 of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others 74 who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them 75 from continuing in office, 76 7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness, 77 but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.
8:1 Now the main point of what we are saying is this: 78 We have such a high priest, one who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, 79 8:2 a minister in the sanctuary and the true tabernacle that the Lord, not man, set up. 8:3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. So this one too had to have something to offer. 8:4 Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest, since there are already priests who offer 80 the gifts prescribed by the law. 8:5 The place where they serve is 81 a sketch 82 and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary, just as Moses was warned by God as he was about to complete the tabernacle. For he says, “See that you make everything according to the design 83 shown to you on the mountain.” 84 8:6 But 85 now Jesus 86 has obtained a superior ministry, since 87 the covenant that he mediates is also better and is enacted 88 on better promises. 89
“Look, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will complete a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah.
8:9 “It will not be like the covenant 95 that I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not continue in my covenant and I had no regard for them, says the Lord.
8:10 “For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord. I will put 96 my laws in their minds 97 and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people. 98
8:11 “And there will be no need at all 99 for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ since they will all know me, from the least to the greatest. 100
9:1 Now the first covenant, 104 in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 105 which contained 106 the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 107 is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 108 were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 109 were the cherubim 110 of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 111 as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 112 and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 113 9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 114 was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 115 and various washings; they are external regulations 116 imposed until the new order came. 117
9:11 But now Christ has come 118 as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 119 eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 120 9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 121 consciences from dead works to worship the living God.
9:15 And so he is the mediator 122 of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 123 since he died 124 to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 125 9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 126 9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 127 9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 128 of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 129 but the heavenly things themselves required 130 better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 131 of the true sanctuary 132 – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 133 himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 134 are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 135 9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 136 to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 137 but to bring salvation. 138
10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 139 10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 140 no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 141 there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 142 10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,
“Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.
10:6 “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.
10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 145 (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 146 He does away with 147 the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 148 we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 149 serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 150 had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 151 of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 152 until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 153 10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 154 10:16 “This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 155 my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 156 10:17 then he says, 157 “Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 158 10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.
1 tn Grk “for timely help.”
2 tn Grk “from among men,” but since the point in context is shared humanity (rather than shared maleness), the plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) has been translated “people.”
3 tn Grk “who is taken from among people is appointed.”
4 tn Grk “appointed on behalf of people in reference to things relating to God.”
5 sn Honor refers here to the honor of the high priesthood.
6 tn Grk “by himself, on his own.”
7 tn Grk “being called by God.”
8 tn Grk “the one”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.
10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
12 tn Grk “in the days of his flesh.”
13 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
15 sn There is a wordplay in the Greek text between the verbs “learned” (ἔμαθεν, emaqen) and “suffered” (ἔπαθεν, epaqen).
18 tn Grk “concerning which the message for us is great.”
19 tn Or “dull.”
20 tn Grk “because of the time.”
21 tn Grk “the elements of the beginning of the oracles of God.”
22 tn Grk “you have come to have a need for.”
23 tc ‡ Most texts, including some early and important ones (א2 A B* D Ψ 0122 0278 1881 Ï sy Cl), have καί (kai, “and”) immediately preceding οὐ (ou, “not”), but other equally significant witnesses (Ì46 א* B2 C 33 81 1739 lat Or Did) lack the conjunction. As it was a natural tendency for scribes to add a coordinating conjunction, the καί appears to be a motivated reading. On balance, it is probably best to regard the shorter reading as authentic. NA27 has καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
24 tn Grk “Therefore leaving behind.” The implication is not of abandoning this elementary information, but of building on it.
25 tn Or “basic.”
26 tn Grk “the message of the beginning of Christ.”
27 tn Grk “leaving behind…let us move on.”
28 tn Grk “and we will do this.”
29 tn Or “have fallen away.”
30 tn Or “while”; Grk “crucifying…and holding.” The Greek participles here (“crucifying…and holding”) can be understood as either causal (“since”) or temporal (“while”).
31 tn Grk “recrucifying the son of God for themselves.”
32 tn Grk “comes upon.”
33 tn Grk “near to a curse.”
34 tn Or “dull.”
35 tn Grk “in blessing I will bless you and in multiplying I will multiply you,” the Greek form of a Hebrew idiom showing intensity.
sn A quotation from Gen 22:17.
36 tn Grk “he”; in the translation the referent (Abraham) has been specified for clarity.
37 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποι (anqrwpoi) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, and is thus translated “people.”
38 tn Grk “by something greater”; the rest of the comparison (“than themselves”) is implied.
39 tn Grk “the oath for confirmation is an end of all dispute.”
40 tn Grk “in which.”
42 tn Grk “have taken refuge”; the basis of that refuge is implied in the preceding verse.
43 sn The curtain refers to the veil or drape in the temple that separated the holy place from the holy of holies.
46 tn Grk “to whom,” continuing the description of Melchizedek. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
47 tn Or “a tenth part.”
49 tn Grk “first being interpreted,” describing Melchizedek.
50 tn Grk “to whom.”
51 tn Or “a tenth part.”
52 tn Or “the priesthood.”
53 tn Grk “from their brothers.” See BDAG 18-19 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.b.
54 tn Grk “have come from the loins of Abraham.”
55 tn Grk “the one”; in the translation the referent (Melchizedek) has been specified for clarity.
56 tn Grk “is not descended from them.”
57 tn Or “a tenth part.”
58 sn The verbs “collected…and blessed” emphasize the continuing effect of the past actions, i.e., Melchizedek’s importance.
59 tn Grk “in the loins of his father” (a reference to Abraham). The name “Abraham” has been repeated in the translation at this point (cf. v. 9) in order to clarify the referent (i.e., what ancestor was in view).
sn The point of the phrase still in his ancestor’s loins is that Levi was as yet unborn, still in his ancestor Abraham’s body. Thus Levi participated in Abraham’s action when Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek.
60 tn Grk “based on it.”
61 tn Grk “of necessity a change in the law comes to pass.”
62 tn Grk “shares in.”
63 tn Grk “from which no one.”
64 tn Grk “a law of a fleshly command.”
65 tn Grk “for he/it is witnessed that.”
67 tn Grk “the setting aside of a former command comes to pass.”
68 tn Grk “because of its weakness and uselessness.”
69 sn The Greek text contains an elaborate comparison between v. 20a and v. 22, with a parenthesis (vv. 20b-21) in between; the comparison is literally, “by as much as…by so much” or “to the degree that…to that same degree.”
70 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
71 tn The words “did so” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
73 tn Or “surety.”
75 tn Grk “they were prevented by death.”
76 tn Grk “from continuing” (the words “in office” are supplied for clarity).
78 tn Grk “the main point of the things being said.”
80 tn Grk “there are those who offer.”
81 tn Grk “who serve in,” referring to the Levitical priests, but focusing on the provisional and typological nature of the tabernacle in which they served.
82 tn Or “prototype,” “outline.” The Greek word ὑπόδειγμα (Jupodeigma) does not mean “copy,” as it is often translated; it means “something to be copied,” a basis for imitation. BDAG 1037 s.v. 2 lists both Heb 8:5 and 9:23 under the second category of usage, “an indication of someth. that appears at a subsequent time,” emphasizing the temporal progression between the earthly and heavenly sanctuaries.
sn There are two main options for understanding the conceptual background of the heavenly sanctuary imagery. The first is to understand the imagery to be functioning on a vertical plane. This background is Hellenistic, philosophical, and spatial in orientation and sees the earthly sanctuary as a copy of the heavenly reality. The other option is to see the imagery functioning on a horizontal plane. This background is Jewish, eschatological, and temporal and sees the heavenly sanctuary as the fulfillment and true form of the earthly sanctuary which preceded it. The second option is preferred, both for lexical reasons (see tn above) and because it fits the Jewish context of the book (although many scholars prefer to emphasize the relationship the book has to Hellenistic thought).
83 tn The word τύπος (tupos) here has the meaning “an archetype serving as a model, type, pattern, model” (BDAG 1020 s.v. 6.a). This is in keeping with the horizontal imagery accepted for this verse (see sn on “sketch” earlier in the verse). Here Moses was shown the future heavenly sanctuary which, though it did not yet exist, became the outline for the earthly sanctuary.
86 tn Grk “he”; in the translation the referent (Jesus) has been specified for clarity.
87 tn Grk “to the degree that.”
88 tn Grk “which is enacted.”
90 tn Grk “no occasion for a second one would have been sought.”
92 sn The “fault” or limitation in the first covenant was not in its inherent righteousness, but in its design from God himself. It was never intended to be his final revelation or provision for mankind; it was provisional, always pointing toward the fulfillment to come in Christ.
93 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
94 tc ‡ Several witnesses (א* A D* I K P Ψ 33 81 326 365 1505 2464 al latt co Cyr) have αὐτούς (autous) here, “[in finding fault with] them, [he says],” alluding to Israel’s failings mentioned in v. 9b. (The verb μέμφομαι [memfomai, “to find fault with”] can take an accusative or dative direct object.) The reading behind the text above (αὐτοίς, autoi"), supported by Ì46 א2 B D2 0278 1739 1881 Ï, is perhaps a harder reading theologically, and is more ambiguous in meaning. If αὐτοίς goes with μεμφόμενος (memfomeno", here translated “showing its fault”), the clause could be translated “in finding fault with them” or “in showing [its] faults to them.” If αὐτοίς goes with the following λέγει (legei, “he says”), the clause is best translated, “in finding/showing [its] faults, he says to them.” The accusative pronoun suffers no such ambiguity, for it must be the object of μεμφόμενος rather than λέγει. Although a decision is difficult, the dative form of the pronoun best explains the rise of the other reading and is thus more likely to be original.
96 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”
97 tn Grk “mind.”
99 tn Grk “they will not teach, each one his fellow citizen…” The Greek makes this negation emphatic: “they will certainly not teach.”
100 tn Grk “from the small to the great.”
102 tn Grk “when he says, ‘new,’” (referring to the covenant).
103 tn Grk “near to disappearing.”
105 tn Grk “the first,” in order of approach in the ritual.
106 tn Grk “in which [were].”
107 tn Grk “which,” describing the outer tent.
108 tn Grk “in which”; in the translation the referent (the ark) has been specified for clarity.
109 tn Grk “above it”; in the translation the referent (the ark) has been specified for clarity.
110 sn The cherubim (pl.) were an order of angels mentioned repeatedly in the OT but only here in the NT. They were associated with God’s presence, glory, and holiness. Their images that sat on top of the ark of the covenant are described in Exod 25:18-20.
111 tn Grk “the first tent.”
112 tn Grk “the second tent.”
113 tn Or perhaps “the unintentional sins of the people”; Grk “the ignorances of the people.” Cf. BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνόημα, “sin committed in ignorance/unintentionally.” This term seems to be simply a synonym for “sins” (cf. Heb 5:2) and does not pick up the distinction made in Num 15:22-31 between unwitting sin and “high-handed” sin. The Day of Atonement ritual in Lev 16 covered all the sins of the people, not just the unwitting ones.
114 tn Grk “the first tent.” The literal phrase “the first tent” refers to either (1) the outer chamber of the tabernacle in the wilderness (as in vv. 2, 6) or (2) the entire tabernacle as a symbol of the OT system of approaching God. The second is more likely given the contrast that follows in vv. 11-12.
115 tn Grk “only for foods and drinks.”
116 tc Most witnesses (D1 Ï) have “various washings, and external regulations” (βαπτισμοῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν, baptismoi" kai dikaiwmasin), with both nouns in the dative. The translation “washings; they are… regulations” renders βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα (baptismoi", dikaiwmata; found in such important
117 tn Grk “until the time of setting things right.”
118 tn Grk “But Christ, when he came,” introducing a sentence that includes all of Heb 9:11-12. The main construction is “Christ, having come…, entered…, having secured…,” and everything else describes his entrance.
119 tn This verb occurs in the Greek middle voice, which here intensifies the role of the subject, Christ, in accomplishing the action: “he alone secured”; “he and no other secured.”
121 tc The reading adopted by the translation is attested by many authorities (A D* K P 365 1739* al). But many others (א D2 0278 33 1739c 1881 Ï lat sa) read “your” instead of “our.” The diversity of evidence makes this a difficult case to decide from external evidence alone. The first and second person pronouns differ by only one letter in Greek, as in English, also making this problem difficult to decide based on internal evidence and transcriptional probability. In the context, the author’s description of sacrificial activities seems to invite the reader to compare his own possible participation in OT liturgy as over against the completed work of Christ, so the second person pronoun “your” might make more sense. On the other hand, TCGNT 599 argues that “our” is preferable because the author of Hebrews uses direct address (i.e., the second person) only in the hortatory sections. What is more, the author seems to prefer the first person in explanatory remarks or when giving the logical grounds for an assertion (cf. Heb 4:15; 7:14). It is hard to reach a definitive conclusion in this case, but the data lean slightly in favor of the first person pronoun.
122 tn The Greek word μεσίτης (mesith", “mediator”) in this context does not imply that Jesus was a mediator in the contemporary sense of the word, i.e., he worked for compromise between opposing parties. Here the term describes his function as the one who was used by God to enact a new covenant which established a new relationship between God and his people, but entirely on God’s terms.
123 tn Grk “the promise of the eternal inheritance.”
124 tn Grk “a death having occurred.”
125 tn Grk “there is a necessity for the death of the one who made it to be proven.”
126 sn The Greek text reinforces this by negating the opposite (“not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood”), but this double negation is not used in contemporary English.
127 tn Grk “which God commanded for you (or in your case).”
sn A quotation from Exod 24:8.
129 tn Grk “with these”; in the translation the referent (sacrifices) has been specified for clarity.
130 tn Grk “the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.”
131 tn Or “prefiguration.”
132 tn The word “sanctuary” is not in the Greek text at this point, but has been supplied for clarity.
133 tn Grk “and not that he might offer,” continuing the previous construction.
134 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).
135 tn Grk “and after this – judgment.”
138 tn Grk “for salvation.” This may be construed with the verb “await” (those who wait for him to bring them salvation), but the connection with “appear” (as in the translation) is more likely.
139 tn Grk “those who approach.”
140 tn Grk “the worshipers, having been purified once for all, would have.”
141 tn Grk “in them”; the referent (those sacrifices) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
142 tn Grk “for it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.”
143 tn Grk “behold,” but this construction often means “here is/there is” (cf. BDAG 468 s.v. ἰδού 2).
146 tc The majority of
147 tn Or “abolishes.”
148 tn Grk “by which will.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
149 tn Or “daily,” “every day.”
152 tn Grk “from then on waiting.”
154 tn Grk “after having said,” emphasizing the present impact of this utterance.
155 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”
157 tn Grk “and.”