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Hebrews 4:14--10:18

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Jesus Our Compassionate High Priest

4:14 Therefore since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. 4:15 For we do not have a high priest incapable of sympathizing with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way just as we are, yet without sin. 4:16 Therefore let us confidently approach the throne of grace to receive mercy and find grace whenever we need help. 1 

5:1 For every high priest is taken from among the people 2  and appointed 3  to represent them before God, 4  to offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. 5:2 He is able to deal compassionately with those who are ignorant and erring, since he also is subject to weakness, 5:3 and for this reason he is obligated to make sin offerings for himself as well as for the people. 5:4 And no one assumes this honor 5  on his own initiative, 6  but only when called to it by God, 7  as in fact Aaron was. 5:5 So also Christ did not glorify himself in becoming high priest, but the one who glorified him was God, 8  who said to him, “You are my Son! Today I have fathered you,” 9  5:6 as also in another place God 10  says, “You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.” 11  5:7 During his earthly life 12  Christ 13  offered 14  both requests and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able to save him from death and he was heard because of his devotion. 5:8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through the things he suffered. 15  5:9 And by being perfected in this way, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 5:10 and he was designated 16  by God as high priest in the order of Melchizedek. 17 

The Need to Move on to Maturity

5:11 On this topic we have much to say 18  and it is difficult to explain, since you have become sluggish 19  in hearing. 5:12 For though you should in fact be teachers by this time, 20  you need someone to teach you the beginning elements of God’s utterances. 21  You have gone back to needing 22  milk, not 23  solid food. 5:13 For everyone who lives on milk is inexperienced in the message of righteousness, because he is an infant. 5:14 But solid food is for the mature, whose perceptions are trained by practice to discern both good and evil.

6:1 Therefore we must progress beyond 24  the elementary 25  instructions about Christ 26  and move on 27  to maturity, not laying this foundation again: repentance from dead works and faith in God, 6:2 teaching about baptisms, laying on of hands, resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment. 6:3 And this is what we intend to do, 28  if God permits. 6:4 For it is impossible in the case of those who have once been enlightened, tasted the heavenly gift, become partakers of the Holy Spirit, 6:5 tasted the good word of God and the miracles of the coming age, 6:6 and then have committed apostasy, 29  to renew them again to repentance, since 30  they are crucifying the Son of God for themselves all over again 31  and holding him up to contempt. 6:7 For the ground that has soaked up the rain that frequently falls on 32  it and yields useful vegetation for those who tend it receives a blessing from God. 6:8 But if it produces thorns and thistles, it is useless and about to be cursed; 33  its fate is to be burned. 6:9 But in your case, dear friends, even though we speak like this, we are convinced of better things relating to salvation. 6:10 For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love you have demonstrated for his name, in having served and continuing to serve the saints. 6:11 But we passionately want each of you to demonstrate the same eagerness for the fulfillment of your hope until the end, 6:12 so that you may not be sluggish, 34  but imitators of those who through faith and perseverance inherit the promises.

6:13 Now when God made his promise to Abraham, since he could swear by no one greater, he swore by himself, 6:14 saying, “Surely I will bless you greatly and multiply your descendants abundantly.” 35  6:15 And so by persevering, Abraham 36  inherited the promise. 6:16 For people 37  swear by something greater than themselves, 38  and the oath serves as a confirmation to end all dispute. 39  6:17 In the same way 40  God wanted to demonstrate more clearly to the heirs of the promise that his purpose was unchangeable, 41  and so he intervened with an oath, 6:18 so that we who have found refuge in him 42  may find strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us through two unchangeable things, since it is impossible for God to lie. 6:19 We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, sure and steadfast, which reaches inside behind the curtain, 43  6:20 where Jesus our forerunner entered on our behalf, since he became a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek. 44 

The Nature of Melchizedek’s Priesthood

7:1 Now this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, met Abraham as he was returning from defeating the kings and blessed him. 45  7:2 To him 46  also Abraham apportioned a tithe 47  of everything. 48  His name first means 49  king of righteousness, then king of Salem, that is, king of peace. 7:3 Without father, without mother, without genealogy, he has neither beginning of days nor end of life but is like the son of God, and he remains a priest for all time. 7:4 But see how great he must be, if 50  Abraham the patriarch gave him a tithe 51  of his plunder. 7:5 And those of the sons of Levi who receive the priestly office 52  have authorization according to the law to collect a tithe from the people, that is, from their fellow countrymen, 53  although they too are descendants of Abraham. 54  7:6 But Melchizedek 55  who does not share their ancestry 56  collected a tithe 57  from Abraham and blessed 58  the one who possessed the promise. 7:7 Now without dispute the inferior is blessed by the superior, 7:8 and in one case tithes are received by mortal men, while in the other by him who is affirmed to be alive. 7:9 And it could be said that Levi himself, who receives tithes, paid a tithe through Abraham. 7:10 For he was still in his ancestor Abraham’s loins 59  when Melchizedek met him.

Jesus and the Priesthood of Melchizedek

7:11 So if perfection had in fact been possible through the Levitical priesthood – for on that basis 60  the people received the law – what further need would there have been for another priest to arise, said to be in the order of Melchizedek and not in Aaron’s order? 7:12 For when the priesthood changes, a change in the law must come 61  as well. 7:13 Yet the one these things are spoken about belongs to 62  a different tribe, and no one from that tribe 63  has ever officiated at the altar. 7:14 For it is clear that our Lord is descended from Judah, yet Moses said nothing about priests in connection with that tribe. 7:15 And this is even clearer if another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, 7:16 who has become a priest not by a legal regulation about physical descent 64  but by the power of an indestructible life. 7:17 For here is the testimony about him: 65 You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.” 66  7:18 On the one hand a former command is set aside 67  because it is weak and useless, 68  7:19 for the law made nothing perfect. On the other hand a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God. 7:20 And since 69  this was not done without a sworn affirmation – for the others have become priests without a sworn affirmation, 7:21 but Jesus 70  did so 71  with a sworn affirmation by the one who said to him, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind,You are a priest forever’” 72 7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee 73  of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others 74  who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them 75  from continuing in office, 76  7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness, 77  but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.

The High Priest of a Better Covenant

8:1 Now the main point of what we are saying is this: 78  We have such a high priest, one who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, 79  8:2 a minister in the sanctuary and the true tabernacle that the Lord, not man, set up. 8:3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. So this one too had to have something to offer. 8:4 Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest, since there are already priests who offer 80  the gifts prescribed by the law. 8:5 The place where they serve is 81  a sketch 82  and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary, just as Moses was warned by God as he was about to complete the tabernacle. For he says, “See that you make everything according to the design 83  shown to you on the mountain.” 84  8:6 But 85  now Jesus 86  has obtained a superior ministry, since 87  the covenant that he mediates is also better and is enacted 88  on better promises. 89 

8:7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, no one would have looked for a second one. 90  8:8 But 91  showing its fault, 92  God 93  says to them, 94 

Look, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will complete a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah.

8:9It will not be like the covenant 95  that I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not continue in my covenant and I had no regard for them, says the Lord.

8:10For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord. I will put 96  my laws in their minds 97  and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people. 98 

8:11And there will be no need at all 99  for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying,Know the Lord,since they will all know me, from the least to the greatest. 100 

8:12For I will be merciful toward their evil deeds, and their sins I will remember no longer. 101 

8:13 When he speaks of a new covenant, 102  he makes the first obsolete. Now what is growing obsolete and aging is about to disappear. 103 

The Arrangement and Ritual of the Earthly Sanctuary

9:1 Now the first covenant, 104  in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 105  which contained 106  the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 107  is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 108  were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 109  were the cherubim 110  of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 111  as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 112  and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 113  9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 114  was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 115  and various washings; they are external regulations 116  imposed until the new order came. 117 

Christ’s Service in the Heavenly Sanctuary

9:11 But now Christ has come 118  as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 119  eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 120  9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 121  consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

9:15 And so he is the mediator 122  of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 123  since he died 124  to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 125  9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 126  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 127  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 128  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 129  but the heavenly things themselves required 130  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 131  of the true sanctuary 132  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 133  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 134  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 135  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 136  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 137  but to bring salvation. 138 

Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted

10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 139  10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 140  no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 141  there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 142  10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,

Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

10:6Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

10:7Then I said,Here I am: 143  I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 144 

10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 145  (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 146  He does away with 147  the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 148  we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 149  serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 150  had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 151  of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 152  until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 153  10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 154  10:16This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 155  my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 156  10:17 then he says, 157 Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 158  10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

1 tn Grk “for timely help.”

2 tn Grk “from among men,” but since the point in context is shared humanity (rather than shared maleness), the plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) has been translated “people.”

3 tn Grk “who is taken from among people is appointed.”

4 tn Grk “appointed on behalf of people in reference to things relating to God.”

5 sn Honor refers here to the honor of the high priesthood.

6 tn Grk “by himself, on his own.”

7 tn Grk “being called by God.”

8 tn Grk “the one”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

9 tn Grk “I have begotten you”; see Heb 1:5.

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 sn A quotation from Ps 110:4.

12 tn Grk “in the days of his flesh.”

13 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn Grk “who…having offered,” continuing the description of Christ from Heb 5:5-6.

15 sn There is a wordplay in the Greek text between the verbs “learned” (ἔμαθεν, emaqen) and “suffered” (ἔπαθεν, epaqen).

16 tn Grk “having been designated,” continuing the thought of Heb 5:9.

17 sn The phrase in the order of Melchizedek picks up the quotation from Ps 110:4 in Heb 5:6.

18 tn Grk “concerning which the message for us is great.”

19 tn Or “dull.”

20 tn Grk “because of the time.”

21 tn Grk “the elements of the beginning of the oracles of God.”

22 tn Grk “you have come to have a need for.”

23 tc ‡ Most texts, including some early and important ones (א2 A B* D Ψ 0122 0278 1881 Ï sy Cl), have καί (kai, “and”) immediately preceding οὐ (ou, “not”), but other equally significant witnesses (Ì46 א* B2 C 33 81 1739 lat Or Did) lack the conjunction. As it was a natural tendency for scribes to add a coordinating conjunction, the καί appears to be a motivated reading. On balance, it is probably best to regard the shorter reading as authentic. NA27 has καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

24 tn Grk “Therefore leaving behind.” The implication is not of abandoning this elementary information, but of building on it.

25 tn Or “basic.”

26 tn Grk “the message of the beginning of Christ.”

27 tn Grk “leaving behind…let us move on.”

28 tn Grk “and we will do this.”

29 tn Or “have fallen away.”

30 tn Or “while”; Grk “crucifying…and holding.” The Greek participles here (“crucifying…and holding”) can be understood as either causal (“since”) or temporal (“while”).

31 tn Grk “recrucifying the son of God for themselves.”

32 tn Grk “comes upon.”

33 tn Grk “near to a curse.”

34 tn Or “dull.”

35 tn Grk “in blessing I will bless you and in multiplying I will multiply you,” the Greek form of a Hebrew idiom showing intensity.

sn A quotation from Gen 22:17.

36 tn Grk “he”; in the translation the referent (Abraham) has been specified for clarity.

37 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποι (anqrwpoi) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women, and is thus translated “people.”

38 tn Grk “by something greater”; the rest of the comparison (“than themselves”) is implied.

39 tn Grk “the oath for confirmation is an end of all dispute.”

40 tn Grk “in which.”

41 tn Or “immutable” (here and in v. 18); Grk “the unchangeableness of his purpose.”

42 tn Grk “have taken refuge”; the basis of that refuge is implied in the preceding verse.

43 sn The curtain refers to the veil or drape in the temple that separated the holy place from the holy of holies.

44 sn A quotation from Ps 110:4, picked up again from Heb 5:6, 10.

45 sn A series of quotations from Gen 14:17-19.

46 tn Grk “to whom,” continuing the description of Melchizedek. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

47 tn Or “a tenth part.”

48 sn A quotation from Gen 14:20.

49 tn Grk “first being interpreted,” describing Melchizedek.

50 tn Grk “to whom.”

51 tn Or “a tenth part.”

52 tn Or “the priesthood.”

53 tn Grk “from their brothers.” See BDAG 18-19 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.b.

54 tn Grk “have come from the loins of Abraham.”

55 tn Grk “the one”; in the translation the referent (Melchizedek) has been specified for clarity.

56 tn Grk “is not descended from them.”

57 tn Or “a tenth part.”

58 sn The verbs “collected…and blessed” emphasize the continuing effect of the past actions, i.e., Melchizedek’s importance.

59 tn Grk “in the loins of his father” (a reference to Abraham). The name “Abraham” has been repeated in the translation at this point (cf. v. 9) in order to clarify the referent (i.e., what ancestor was in view).

sn The point of the phrase still in his ancestor’s loins is that Levi was as yet unborn, still in his ancestor Abraham’s body. Thus Levi participated in Abraham’s action when Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek.

60 tn Grk “based on it.”

61 tn Grk “of necessity a change in the law comes to pass.”

62 tn Grk “shares in.”

63 tn Grk “from which no one.”

64 tn Grk “a law of a fleshly command.”

65 tn Grk “for he/it is witnessed that.”

66 sn A quotation from Ps 110:4 (see Heb 5:6 and 6:20).

67 tn Grk “the setting aside of a former command comes to pass.”

68 tn Grk “because of its weakness and uselessness.”

69 sn The Greek text contains an elaborate comparison between v. 20a and v. 22, with a parenthesis (vv. 20b-21) in between; the comparison is literally, “by as much as…by so much” or “to the degree that…to that same degree.”

70 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

71 tn The words “did so” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

72 sn A quotation from Ps 110:4 (see Heb 5:6, 6:20, and 7:17).

73 tn Or “surety.”

74 tn Grk “they on the one hand” in contrast with “he on the other hand” in v. 24.

75 tn Grk “they were prevented by death.”

76 tn Grk “from continuing” (the words “in office” are supplied for clarity).

77 sn See Heb 5:2 where this concept was introduced.

78 tn Grk “the main point of the things being said.”

79 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1; see Heb 1:3, 13.

80 tn Grk “there are those who offer.”

81 tn Grk “who serve in,” referring to the Levitical priests, but focusing on the provisional and typological nature of the tabernacle in which they served.

82 tn Or “prototype,” “outline.” The Greek word ὑπόδειγμα (Jupodeigma) does not mean “copy,” as it is often translated; it means “something to be copied,” a basis for imitation. BDAG 1037 s.v. 2 lists both Heb 8:5 and 9:23 under the second category of usage, “an indication of someth. that appears at a subsequent time,” emphasizing the temporal progression between the earthly and heavenly sanctuaries.

sn There are two main options for understanding the conceptual background of the heavenly sanctuary imagery. The first is to understand the imagery to be functioning on a vertical plane. This background is Hellenistic, philosophical, and spatial in orientation and sees the earthly sanctuary as a copy of the heavenly reality. The other option is to see the imagery functioning on a horizontal plane. This background is Jewish, eschatological, and temporal and sees the heavenly sanctuary as the fulfillment and true form of the earthly sanctuary which preceded it. The second option is preferred, both for lexical reasons (see tn above) and because it fits the Jewish context of the book (although many scholars prefer to emphasize the relationship the book has to Hellenistic thought).

83 tn The word τύπος (tupos) here has the meaning “an archetype serving as a model, type, pattern, model” (BDAG 1020 s.v. 6.a). This is in keeping with the horizontal imagery accepted for this verse (see sn on “sketch” earlier in the verse). Here Moses was shown the future heavenly sanctuary which, though it did not yet exist, became the outline for the earthly sanctuary.

84 sn A quotation from Exod 25:40.

85 sn The Greek text indicates a contrast between vv. 4-5 and v. 6 that is difficult to render in English: Jesus’ status in the old order of priests (vv. 4-5) versus his superior ministry (v. 6).

86 tn Grk “he”; in the translation the referent (Jesus) has been specified for clarity.

87 tn Grk “to the degree that.”

88 tn Grk “which is enacted.”

89 sn This linkage of the change in priesthood with a change in the law or the covenant goes back to Heb 7:12, 22 and is picked up again in Heb 9:6-15 and 10:1-18.

90 tn Grk “no occasion for a second one would have been sought.”

91 tn Grk “for,” but providing an explanation of the God-intended limitation of the first covenant from v. 7.

92 sn The “fault” or limitation in the first covenant was not in its inherent righteousness, but in its design from God himself. It was never intended to be his final revelation or provision for mankind; it was provisional, always pointing toward the fulfillment to come in Christ.

93 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

94 tc ‡ Several witnesses (א* A D* I K P Ψ 33 81 326 365 1505 2464 al latt co Cyr) have αὐτούς (autous) here, “[in finding fault with] them, [he says],” alluding to Israel’s failings mentioned in v. 9b. (The verb μέμφομαι [memfomai, “to find fault with”] can take an accusative or dative direct object.) The reading behind the text above (αὐτοίς, autoi"), supported by Ì46 א2 B D2 0278 1739 1881 Ï, is perhaps a harder reading theologically, and is more ambiguous in meaning. If αὐτοίς goes with μεμφόμενος (memfomeno", here translated “showing its fault”), the clause could be translated “in finding fault with them” or “in showing [its] faults to them.” If αὐτοίς goes with the following λέγει (legei, “he says”), the clause is best translated, “in finding/showing [its] faults, he says to them.” The accusative pronoun suffers no such ambiguity, for it must be the object of μεμφόμενος rather than λέγει. Although a decision is difficult, the dative form of the pronoun best explains the rise of the other reading and is thus more likely to be original.

95 tn Grk “not like the covenant,” continuing the description of v. 8b.

96 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”

97 tn Grk “mind.”

98 tn Grk “I will be to them for a God and they will be to me for a people,” following the Hebrew constructions of Jer 31.

99 tn Grk “they will not teach, each one his fellow citizen…” The Greek makes this negation emphatic: “they will certainly not teach.”

100 tn Grk “from the small to the great.”

101 sn A quotation from Jer 31:31-34.

102 tn Grk “when he says, ‘new,’” (referring to the covenant).

103 tn Grk “near to disappearing.”

104 tn Grk “the first” (referring to the covenant described in Heb 8:7, 13). In the translation the referent (covenant) has been specified for clarity.

105 tn Grk “the first,” in order of approach in the ritual.

106 tn Grk “in which [were].”

107 tn Grk “which,” describing the outer tent.

108 tn Grk “in which”; in the translation the referent (the ark) has been specified for clarity.

109 tn Grk “above it”; in the translation the referent (the ark) has been specified for clarity.

110 sn The cherubim (pl.) were an order of angels mentioned repeatedly in the OT but only here in the NT. They were associated with God’s presence, glory, and holiness. Their images that sat on top of the ark of the covenant are described in Exod 25:18-20.

111 tn Grk “the first tent.”

112 tn Grk “the second tent.”

113 tn Or perhaps “the unintentional sins of the people”; Grk “the ignorances of the people.” Cf. BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνόημα, “sin committed in ignorance/unintentionally.” This term seems to be simply a synonym for “sins” (cf. Heb 5:2) and does not pick up the distinction made in Num 15:22-31 between unwitting sin and “high-handed” sin. The Day of Atonement ritual in Lev 16 covered all the sins of the people, not just the unwitting ones.

114 tn Grk “the first tent.” The literal phrase “the first tent” refers to either (1) the outer chamber of the tabernacle in the wilderness (as in vv. 2, 6) or (2) the entire tabernacle as a symbol of the OT system of approaching God. The second is more likely given the contrast that follows in vv. 11-12.

115 tn Grk “only for foods and drinks.”

116 tc Most witnesses (D1 Ï) have “various washings, and external regulations” (βαπτισμοῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν, baptismoi" kai dikaiwmasin), with both nouns in the dative. The translation “washings; they are… regulations” renders βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα (baptismoi", dikaiwmata; found in such important mss as Ì46 א* A I P 0278 33 1739 1881 al sa) in which case δικαιώματα is taken as the nominative subject of the participle ἐπικείμενα (epikeimena). It seems far more likely that scribes would conform δικαιώματα to the immediately preceding datives and join it to them by καί than they would to the following nominative participle. Both on external and internal evidence the text is thus secure as reading βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα.

117 tn Grk “until the time of setting things right.”

118 tn Grk “But Christ, when he came,” introducing a sentence that includes all of Heb 9:11-12. The main construction is “Christ, having come…, entered…, having secured…,” and everything else describes his entrance.

119 tn This verb occurs in the Greek middle voice, which here intensifies the role of the subject, Christ, in accomplishing the action: “he alone secured”; “he and no other secured.”

120 tn Grk “for the purifying of the flesh.” The “flesh” here is symbolic of outward or ritual purity in contrast to inner purity, that of the conscience (cf. Heb 9:9).

121 tc The reading adopted by the translation is attested by many authorities (A D* K P 365 1739* al). But many others (א D2 0278 33 1739c 1881 Ï lat sa) read “your” instead of “our.” The diversity of evidence makes this a difficult case to decide from external evidence alone. The first and second person pronouns differ by only one letter in Greek, as in English, also making this problem difficult to decide based on internal evidence and transcriptional probability. In the context, the author’s description of sacrificial activities seems to invite the reader to compare his own possible participation in OT liturgy as over against the completed work of Christ, so the second person pronoun “your” might make more sense. On the other hand, TCGNT 599 argues that “our” is preferable because the author of Hebrews uses direct address (i.e., the second person) only in the hortatory sections. What is more, the author seems to prefer the first person in explanatory remarks or when giving the logical grounds for an assertion (cf. Heb 4:15; 7:14). It is hard to reach a definitive conclusion in this case, but the data lean slightly in favor of the first person pronoun.

122 tn The Greek word μεσίτης (mesith", “mediator”) in this context does not imply that Jesus was a mediator in the contemporary sense of the word, i.e., he worked for compromise between opposing parties. Here the term describes his function as the one who was used by God to enact a new covenant which established a new relationship between God and his people, but entirely on God’s terms.

123 tn Grk “the promise of the eternal inheritance.”

124 tn Grk “a death having occurred.”

125 tn Grk “there is a necessity for the death of the one who made it to be proven.”

126 sn The Greek text reinforces this by negating the opposite (“not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood”), but this double negation is not used in contemporary English.

127 tn Grk “which God commanded for you (or in your case).”

sn A quotation from Exod 24:8.

128 tn Or “prototypes,” “outlines,” referring to the earthly sanctuary. See Heb 8:5 above for the prior use of this term.

129 tn Grk “with these”; in the translation the referent (sacrifices) has been specified for clarity.

130 tn Grk “the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.”

131 tn Or “prefiguration.”

132 tn The word “sanctuary” is not in the Greek text at this point, but has been supplied for clarity.

133 tn Grk “and not that he might offer,” continuing the previous construction.

134 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).

135 tn Grk “and after this – judgment.”

136 sn An allusion to Isa 53:12.

137 tn Grk “without sin,” but in context this does not refer to Christ’s sinlessness (as in Heb 4:15) but to the fact that sin is already dealt with by his first coming.

138 tn Grk “for salvation.” This may be construed with the verb “await” (those who wait for him to bring them salvation), but the connection with “appear” (as in the translation) is more likely.

139 tn Grk “those who approach.”

140 tn Grk “the worshipers, having been purified once for all, would have.”

141 tn Grk “in them”; the referent (those sacrifices) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

142 tn Grk “for it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.”

143 tn Grk “behold,” but this construction often means “here is/there is” (cf. BDAG 468 s.v. ἰδού 2).

144 sn A quotation from Ps 40:6-8 (LXX). The phrase a body you prepared for me (in v. 5) is apparently an interpretive expansion of the HT reading “ears you have dug out for me.”

145 sn Various phrases from the quotation of Ps 40:6 in Heb 10:5-6 are repeated in Heb 10:8.

146 tc The majority of mss, especially the later ones (א2 0278vid 1739 Ï lat), have ὁ θεός (Jo qeo", “God”) at this point, while most of the earliest and best witnesses lack such an explicit addressee (so Ì46 א* A C D K P Ψ 33 1175 1881 2464 al). The longer reading is a palpable corruption, apparently motivated in part by the wording of Ps 40:8 (39:9 LXX) and by the word order of this same verse as quoted in Heb 10:7.

147 tn Or “abolishes.”

148 tn Grk “by which will.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

149 tn Or “daily,” “every day.”

150 tn Grk “this one.” This pronoun refers to Jesus, but “this priest” was used in the translation to make the contrast between the Jewish priests in v. 11 and Jesus as a priest clearer in English.

151 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1.

152 tn Grk “from then on waiting.”

153 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1.

154 tn Grk “after having said,” emphasizing the present impact of this utterance.

155 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”

156 sn A quotation from Jer 31:33.

157 tn Grk “and.”

158 sn A quotation from Jer 31:34.



TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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