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Haggai 1:1

Context
Introduction

1:1 On the first day of the sixth month 1  of King Darius’ 2  second year, the Lord spoke this message through the prophet Haggai 3  to Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak: 4 

Haggai 1:14

Context
1:14 So the Lord energized and encouraged 5  Zerubbabel 6  son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak, 7  and the whole remnant of the people. 8  They came and worked on the temple of their God, the Lord who rules over all.

Haggai 2:2

Context
2:2 “Ask the following questions to 9  Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak, 10  and the remnant of the people:

1 sn The first day of the sixth month was Elul 1 according to the Jewish calendar; August 29, 520 b.c. according to the modern (Julian) calendar.

2 sn King Darius is the Persian king Darius Hystaspes who ruled from 522-486 b.c.

3 tn Heb “the word of the Lord came by the hand of Haggai the prophet” (בְּיַד־חַגַּי, bÿyad-khaggay). This suggests that the prophet is only an instrument of the Lord; the Lord is to be viewed as the true author (see 1:3; 2:1; Mal 1:1).

4 tn The typical translation “Joshua (the) son of Jehozadak, the high priest” (cf. ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV) can be understood to mean that Jehozadak was high priest. However, Zech 3:1, 8 clearly indicates that Joshua was high priest (see also Ezra 5:1-2; cf. NAB). The same potential misunderstanding occurs in Hag 1:12, 14 and 2:2, where the same solution has been employed in the translation.

5 tn Heb “stirred up” (as in many English versions). Only one verb appears in the Hebrew text, but the translation “energized and encouraged” brings out its sense in this context. Cf. TEV “inspired”; NLT “sparked the enthusiasm of”; CEV “made everyone eager to work.”

sn It was God who initiated the rebuilding by providing the people with motivation and ability.

6 tn Heb “the spirit of Zerubbabel” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).

7 tn Heb “the spirit of Joshua son of Jehozadak, the high priest” (as in many English versions), but this is subject to misunderstanding. See the note on the name “Jehozadak” at the end of v. 1.

8 tn Heb “and the spirit of all the remnant of the people.” The Hebrew phrase שְׁאֵרִית הָעָם (shÿerit haam) in this postexilic context is used as a technical term to refer to the returned remnant; see the note on the phrase “the whole remnant of the people” in v. 12.

9 tn Heb “say to”; NAB “Tell this to.”

10 tn Many English versions have “Joshua (the) son of Jehozadak the high priest,” but this is subject to misunderstanding. See the note on the name “Jehozadak” at the end of v. 1.



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