4:20 Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the first 4 of those who live in tents and keep 5 livestock.
4:22 Now Zillah also gave birth to Tubal-Cain, who heated metal and shaped 6 all kinds of tools made of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubal-Cain was Naamah.
1 tn Heb “knew,” a frequent euphemism for sexual relations.
2 tn Or “she conceived.”
3 tn Heb “according to the name of.”
4 tn Heb “father.” In this passage the word “father” means “founder,” referring to the first to establish such lifestyles and occupations.
5 tn The word “keep” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation. Other words that might be supplied instead are “tend,” “raise” (NIV), or “have” (NRSV).
6 tn The traditional rendering here, “who forged” (or “a forger of”) is now more commonly associated with counterfeit or fraud (e.g., “forged copies” or “forged checks”) than with the forging of metal. The phrase “heated metal and shaped [it]” has been used in the translation instead.