29:2 He saw 1 in the field a well with 2 three flocks of sheep lying beside it, because the flocks were watered from that well. Now 3 a large stone covered the mouth of the well.
31:4 So Jacob sent a message for Rachel and Leah 4 to come to the field 5 where his flocks were. 6
34:7 Now Jacob’s sons had come in from the field when they heard the news. 7 They 8 were offended 9 and very angry because Shechem 10 had disgraced Israel 11 by sexually assaulting 12 Jacob’s daughter, a crime that should not be committed. 13
2 tn Heb “and look, there.”
3 tn The disjunctive clause (introduced by the noun with the prefixed conjunction) provides supplemental information that is important to the story.
4 tn Heb “sent and called for Rachel and for Leah.” Jacob did not go in person, but probably sent a servant with a message for his wives to meet him in the field.
5 tn Heb “the field.” The word is an adverbial accusative, indicating that this is where Jacob wanted them to meet him. The words “to come to” are supplied in the translation for clarification and stylistic reasons.
6 tn Heb “to his flock.”
7 tn Heb “when they heard.” The words “the news” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
8 tn Heb “the men.” This sounds as if a new group has been introduced into the narrative, so it has been translated as “they” to indicate that it refers to Jacob’s sons, mentioned in the first part of the verse.
9 tn The Hebrew verb עָצַב (’atsav) can carry one of three semantic nuances depending on the context: (1) “to be injured” (Ps 56:5; Eccl 10:9; 1 Chr 4:10); (2) “to experience emotional pain; to be depressed emotionally; to be worried” (2 Sam 19:2; Isa 54:6; Neh 8:10-11); (3) “to be embarrassed; to be insulted; to be offended” (to the point of anger at another or oneself; Gen 6:6; 45:5; 1 Sam 20:3, 34; 1 Kgs 1:6; Isa 63:10; Ps 78:40). This third category develops from the second by metonymy. In certain contexts emotional pain leads to embarrassment and/or anger. In this last use the subject sometimes directs his anger against the source of grief (see especially Gen 6:6). The third category fits best in Gen 34:7 because Jacob’s sons were not merely wounded emotionally. On the contrary, Shechem’s action prompted them to strike out in judgment against the source of their distress.
10 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Shechem) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
11 tn Heb “a disgraceful thing he did against Israel.”
12 tn Heb “by lying with the daughter of Jacob.” The infinitive here explains the preceding verb, indicating exactly how he had disgraced Jacob. The expression “to lie with” is a euphemism for sexual relations, or in this case, sexual assault.
13 tn Heb “and so it should not be done.” The negated imperfect has an obligatory nuance here, but there is also a generalizing tone. The narrator emphasizes that this particular type of crime (sexual assault) is especially reprehensible.