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Genesis 28:18

Context

28:18 Early 1  in the morning Jacob 2  took the stone he had placed near his head 3  and set it up as a sacred stone. 4  Then he poured oil on top of it.

Genesis 31:44-48

Context
31:44 So now, come, let’s make a formal agreement, 5  you and I, and it will be 6  proof that we have made peace.” 7 

31:45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up as a memorial pillar. 31:46 Then he 8  said to his relatives, “Gather stones.” So they brought stones and put them in a pile. 9  They ate there by the pile of stones. 31:47 Laban called it Jegar Sahadutha, 10  but Jacob called it Galeed. 11 

31:48 Laban said, “This pile of stones is a witness of our agreement 12  today.” That is why it was called Galeed.

1 tn Heb “and he got up early…and he took.”

2 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn See the note on this phrase in v. 11.

4 tn Heb “standing stone.”

sn Sacred stone. Such a stone could be used as a boundary marker, a burial stone, or as a shrine. Here the stone is intended to be a reminder of the stairway that was “erected” and on which the Lord “stood.” (In Hebrew the word translated “sacred stone” is derived from the verb translated “erected” in v. 12 and “stood” in v. 13. Since the top of the stairway reached the heavens where the Lord stood, Jacob poured oil on the top of the stone. See C. F. Graesser, “Standing Stones in Ancient Palestine,” BA 35 (1972): 34-63; and E. Stockton, “Sacred Pillars in the Bible,” ABR 20 (1972): 16-32.

5 tn Heb “cut a covenant.”

6 tn The verb הָיָה (hayah) followed by the preposition לְ (lÿ) means “become.”

7 tn Heb “and it will become a witness between me and you.”

8 tn Heb “Jacob”; the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.

9 sn The Hebrew word for “pile” is גַּל (gal), which sounds like the name “Galeed” (גַּלְעֵד, galed). See v. 48.

10 sn Jegar Sahadutha. Laban the Aramean gave the place an Aramaic name which means “witness pile” or “the pile is a witness.”

11 sn Galeed also means “witness pile” or “the pile is a witness,” but this name is Canaanite or Western Semitic and closer to later Hebrew. Jacob, though certainly capable of speaking Aramaic, here prefers to use the western dialect.

12 tn Heb “a witness between me and you.”



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