18:2 Abraham 1 looked up 2 and saw 3 three men standing across 4 from him. When he saw them 5 he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them and bowed low 6 to the ground. 7
1 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
2 tn Heb “lifted up his eyes.”
3 tn Heb “and saw, and look.” The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) draws attention to what he saw. The drawn-out description focuses the reader’s attention on Abraham’s deliberate, fixed gaze and indicates that what he is seeing is significant.
4 tn The Hebrew preposition עַל (’al) indicates the three men were nearby, but not close by, for Abraham had to run to meet them.
5 tn The pronoun “them” has been supplied in the translation for clarification. In the Hebrew text the verb has no stated object.
6 tn The form וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ (vayyishtakhu, “and bowed low”) is from the verb הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה (hishtakhavah, “to worship, bow low to the ground”). It is probably from a root חָוָה (khavah), though some derive it from שָׁחָה (shakhah).
7 sn The reader knows this is a theophany. The three visitors are probably the
8 tn Heb “And the men turned from there.” The word “two” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied here for clarity. Gen 19:1 mentions only two individuals (described as “angels”), while Abraham had entertained three visitors (18:2). The implication is that the
9 tn Heb “went.”
10 tc An ancient Hebrew scribal tradition reads “but the