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Genesis 14:5-24

Context
14:5 In the fourteenth year, Kedorlaomer and the kings who were his allies came and defeated 1  the Rephaites in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzites in Ham, the Emites in Shaveh Kiriathaim, 14:6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran, which is near the desert. 2  14:7 Then they attacked En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh) again, 3  and they conquered all the territory of the Amalekites, as well as the Amorites who were living in Hazazon Tamar.

14:8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out and prepared for battle. In the Valley of Siddim they met 4  14:9 Kedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of nations, 5  Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. Four kings fought against 6  five. 14:10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar pits. 7  When the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell into them, 8  but some survivors 9  fled to the hills. 10  14:11 The four victorious kings 11  took all the possessions and food of Sodom and Gomorrah and left. 14:12 They also took Abram’s nephew 12  Lot and his possessions when 13  they left, for Lot 14  was living in Sodom. 15 

14:13 A fugitive 16  came and told Abram the Hebrew. 17  Now Abram was living by the oaks 18  of Mamre the Amorite, the brother 19  of Eshcol and Aner. (All these were allied by treaty 20  with Abram.) 21  14:14 When Abram heard that his nephew 22  had been taken captive, he mobilized 23  his 318 trained men who had been born in his household, and he pursued the invaders 24  as far as Dan. 25  14:15 Then, during the night, 26  Abram 27  divided his forces 28  against them and defeated them. He chased them as far as Hobah, which is north 29  of Damascus. 14:16 He retrieved all the stolen property. 30  He also brought back his nephew Lot and his possessions, as well as the women and the rest of 31  the people.

14:17 After Abram 32  returned from defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet Abram 33  in the Valley of Shaveh (known as the King’s Valley). 34  14:18 Melchizedek king of Salem 35  brought out bread and wine. (Now he was the priest of the Most High God.) 36  14:19 He blessed Abram, saying,

“Blessed be Abram by 37  the Most High God,

Creator 38  of heaven and earth. 39 

14:20 Worthy of praise is 40  the Most High God,

who delivered 41  your enemies into your hand.”

Abram gave Melchizedek 42  a tenth of everything.

14:21 Then the king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people and take the possessions for yourself.” 14:22 But Abram replied to the king of Sodom, “I raise my hand 43  to the Lord, the Most High God, Creator of heaven and earth, and vow 44  14:23 that I will take nothing 45  belonging to you, not even a thread or the strap of a sandal. That way you can never say, ‘It is I 46  who made Abram rich.’ 14:24 I will take nothing 47  except compensation for what the young men have eaten. 48  As for the share of the men who went with me – Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre – let them take their share.”

1 tn The Hebrew verb נָכָה (nakhah) means “to attack, to strike, to smite.” In this context it appears that the strike was successful, and so a translation of “defeated” is preferable.

2 sn The line of attack ran down the eastern side of the Jordan Valley into the desert, and then turned and came up the valley to the cities of the plain.

3 tn Heb “they returned and came to En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh).” The two verbs together form a verbal hendiadys, the first serving as the adverb: “they returned and came” means “they came again.” Most English translations do not treat this as a hendiadys, but translate “they turned back” or something similar. Since in the context, however, “came again to” does not simply refer to travel but an assault against the place, the present translation expresses this as “attacked…again.”

4 tn Heb “against.”

5 tn Or “Goyim.” See the note on the word “nations” in 14:1.

6 tn The Hebrew text has simply “against.” The word “fought” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

7 tn Heb “Now the Valley of Siddim [was] pits, pits of tar.” This parenthetical disjunctive clause emphasizes the abundance of tar pits in the area through repetition of the noun “pits.”

sn The word for “tar” (or “bitumen”) occurs earlier in the story of the building of the tower in Babylon (see Gen 11:3).

8 tn Or “they were defeated there.” After a verb of motion the Hebrew particle שָׁם (sham) with the directional heh (שָׁמָּה, shammah) can mean “into it, therein” (BDB 1027 s.v. שָׁם).

9 tn Heb “the rest.”

10 sn The reference to the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah must mean the kings along with their armies. Most of them were defeated in the valley, but some of them escaped to the hills.

11 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the four victorious kings, see v. 9) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

12 tn Heb “Lot the son of his brother.”

13 tn Heb “and.”

14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Lot) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

15 tn This disjunctive clause is circumstantial/causal, explaining that Lot was captured because he was living in Sodom at the time.

16 tn Heb “the fugitive.” The article carries a generic force or indicates that this fugitive is definite in the mind of the speaker.

17 sn E. A. Speiser (Genesis [AB], 103) suggests that part of this chapter came from an outside source since it refers to Abram the Hebrew. That is not impossible, given that the narrator likely utilized traditions and genealogies that had been collected and transmitted over the years. The meaning of the word “Hebrew” has proved elusive. It may be related to the verb “to cross over,” perhaps meaning “immigrant.” Or it might be derived from the name of Abram’s ancestor Eber (see Gen 11:14-16).

18 tn Or “terebinths.”

19 tn Or “a brother”; or “a relative”; or perhaps “an ally.”

20 tn Heb “possessors of a treaty with.” Since it is likely that the qualifying statement refers to all three (Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner) the words “all these” have been supplied in the translation to make this clear.

21 tn This parenthetical disjunctive clause explains how Abram came to be living in their territory, but it also explains why they must go to war with Abram.

22 tn Heb “his brother,” by extension, “relative.” Here and in v. 16 the more specific term “nephew” has been used in the translation for clarity. Lot was the son of Haran, Abram’s brother (Gen 11:27).

23 tn The verb וַיָּרֶק (vayyareq) is a rare form, probably related to the word רֵיק (req, “to be empty”). If so, it would be a very figurative use: “he emptied out” (or perhaps “unsheathed”) his men. The LXX has “mustered” (cf. NEB). E. A. Speiser (Genesis [AB], 103-4) suggests reading with the Samaritan Pentateuch a verb diq, cognate with Akkadian deku, “to mobilize” troops. If this view is accepted, one must assume that a confusion of the Hebrew letters ד (dalet) and ר (resh) led to the error in the traditional Hebrew text. These two letters are easily confused in all phases of ancient Hebrew script development. The present translation is based on this view.

24 tn The words “the invaders” have been supplied in the translation for clarification.

25 sn The use of the name Dan reflects a later perspective. The Danites did not migrate to this northern territory until centuries later (see Judg 18:29). Furthermore Dan was not even born until much later. By inserting this name a scribe has clarified the location of the region.

26 tn The Hebrew text simply has “night” as an adverbial accusative.

27 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abram) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

28 tn Heb “he divided himself…he and his servants.”

29 tn Heb “left.” Directions in ancient Israel were given in relation to the east rather than the north.

30 tn The word “stolen” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

31 tn The phrase “the rest of “ has been supplied in the translation for clarification.

32 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abram) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

33 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Abram) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

34 sn The King’s Valley is possibly a reference to what came to be known later as the Kidron Valley.

35 sn Salem is traditionally identified as the Jebusite stronghold of old Jerusalem. Accordingly, there has been much speculation about its king. Though some have identified him with the preincarnate Christ or with Noah’s son Shem, it is far more likely that Melchizedek was a Canaanite royal priest whom God used to renew the promise of the blessing to Abram, perhaps because Abram considered Melchizedek his spiritual superior. But Melchizedek remains an enigma. In a book filled with genealogical records he appears on the scene without a genealogy and then disappears from the narrative. In Psalm 110 the Lord declares that the Davidic king is a royal priest after the pattern of Melchizedek.

36 tn The parenthetical disjunctive clause significantly identifies Melchizedek as a priest as well as a king.

sn It is his royal priestly status that makes Melchizedek a type of Christ: He was identified with Jerusalem, superior to the ancestor of Israel, and both a king and a priest. Unlike the normal Canaanites, this man served “God Most High” (אֵל עֶלְיוֹן, ’elelyon) – one sovereign God, who was the creator of all the universe. Abram had in him a spiritual brother.

37 tn The preposition לְ (lamed) introduces the agent after the passive participle.

38 tn Some translate “possessor of heaven and earth” (cf. NASB). But cognate evidence from Ugaritic indicates that there were two homonymic roots ָקנָה (qanah), one meaning “to create” (as in Gen 4:1) and the other “to obtain, to acquire, to possess.” While “possessor” would fit here, “creator” is the more likely due to the collocation with “heaven and earth.”

39 tn The terms translated “heaven” and “earth” are both objective genitives after the participle in construct.

40 tn Heb “blessed be.” For God to be “blessed” means that is praised. His reputation is enriched in the world as his name is praised.

41 sn Who delivered. The Hebrew verb מִגֵּן (miggen, “delivered”) foreshadows the statement by God to Abram in Gen 15:1, “I am your shield” (מָגֵן, magen). Melchizedek provided a theological interpretation of Abram’s military victory.

42 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Melchizedek) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

43 tn Abram takes an oath, raising his hand as a solemn gesture. The translation understands the perfect tense as having an instantaneous nuance: “Here and now I raise my hand.”

44 tn The words “and vow” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarification.

45 tn The oath formula is elliptical, reading simply: “…if I take.” It is as if Abram says, “[May the Lord deal with me] if I take,” meaning, “I will surely not take.” The positive oath would add the negative adverb and be the reverse: “[God will deal with me] if I do not take,” meaning, “I certainly will.”

46 tn The Hebrew text adds the independent pronoun (“I”) to the verb form for emphasis.

47 tn The words “I will take nothing” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

48 tn Heb “except only what the young men have eaten.”



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