10:8 Cush was the father of 1 Nimrod; he began to be a valiant warrior on the earth. 10:9 He was a mighty hunter 2 before the Lord. 3 (That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”) 10:10 The primary regions 4 of his kingdom were Babel, 5 Erech, 6 Akkad, 7 and Calneh 8 in the land of Shinar. 9 10:11 From that land he went 10 to Assyria, 11 where he built Nineveh, 12 Rehoboth-Ir, 13 Calah, 14 10:12 and Resen, which is between Nineveh and the great city Calah. 15
1 tn Heb “fathered.” Embedded within Cush’s genealogy is an account of Nimrod, a mighty warrior. There have been many attempts to identify him, but none are convincing.
3 tn Another option is to take the divine name here, לִפְנֵי יִהוָה (lifne yÿhvah, “before the
5 tn Or “Babylon.”
6 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.
7 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.
8 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).
9 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.
10 tn The subject of the verb translated “went” is probably still Nimrod. However, it has also been interpreted that “Ashur went,” referring to a derivative power.
11 tn Heb “Asshur.”
12 sn Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city situated on the Tigris River.
13 sn The name Rehoboth-Ir means “and broad streets of a city,” perhaps referring to a suburb of Nineveh.
14 sn Calah (modern Nimrud) was located twenty miles north of Nineveh.
15 tn Heb “and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; it [i.e., Calah] is the great city.”