10:8 Cush was the father of 1 Nimrod; he began to be a valiant warrior on the earth. 10:9 He was a mighty hunter 2 before the Lord. 3 (That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord.”) 10:10 The primary regions 4 of his kingdom were Babel, 5 Erech, 6 Akkad, 7 and Calneh 8 in the land of Shinar. 9
1 tn Heb “fathered.” Embedded within Cush’s genealogy is an account of Nimrod, a mighty warrior. There have been many attempts to identify him, but none are convincing.
3 tn Another option is to take the divine name here, לִפְנֵי יִהוָה (lifne yÿhvah, “before the
5 tn Or “Babylon.”
6 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.
7 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.
8 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).
9 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.