3:1 You 1 foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell 2 on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed 3 as crucified! 3:2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law 4 or by believing what you heard? 5 3:3 Are you so foolish? Although you began 6 with 7 the Spirit, are you now trying to finish 8 by human effort? 9 3:4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing? – if indeed it was for nothing. 3:5 Does God then give 10 you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law 11 or by your believing what you heard? 12
3:6 Just as Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, 13 3:7 so then, understand 14 that those who believe are the sons of Abraham. 15 3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel to Abraham ahead of time, 16 saying, “All the nations 17 will be blessed in you.” 18 3:9 So then those who believe 19 are blessed along with Abraham the believer. 3:10 For all who 20 rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law.” 21 3:11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous one will live by faith. 22 3:12 But the law is not based on faith, 23 but the one who does the works of the law 24 will live by them. 25 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming 26 a curse for us (because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”) 27 3:14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, 28 so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.
3:15 Brothers and sisters, 29 I offer an example from everyday life: 30 When a covenant 31 has been ratified, 32 even though it is only a human contract, no one can set it aside or add anything to it. 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his descendant. 33 Scripture 34 does not say, “and to the descendants,” 35 referring to many, but “and to your descendant,” 36 referring to one, who is Christ. 3:17 What I am saying is this: The law that came four hundred thirty years later does not cancel a covenant previously ratified by God, 37 so as to invalidate the promise. 3:18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise, but God graciously gave 38 it to Abraham through the promise.
3:19 Why then was the law given? 39 It was added 40 because of transgressions, 41 until the arrival of the descendant 42 to whom the promise had been made. It was administered 43 through angels by an intermediary. 44 3:20 Now an intermediary is not for one party alone, but God is one. 45 3:21 Is the law therefore opposed to the promises of God? 46 Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that was able to give life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. 47 3:22 But the scripture imprisoned 48 everything and everyone 49 under sin so that the promise could be given – because of the faithfulness 50 of Jesus Christ – to those who believe.
3:23 Now before faith 51 came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 52 until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 53 until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 54 by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 55 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 56 3:27 For all of you who 57 were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 58 nor free, there is neither male nor female 59 – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 60 heirs according to the promise.
4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, 61 is no different from a slave, though he is the owner 62 of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians 63 and managers until the date set by his 64 father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors, 65 were enslaved under the basic forces 66 of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time 67 had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 68 4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, who calls 69 “Abba! 70 Father!” 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are 71 a son, then you are also an heir through God. 72
1 tn Grk “O” (an interjection used both in address and emotion). In context the following section is highly charged emotionally.
2 tn Or “deceived”; the verb βασκαίνω (baskainw) can be understood literally here in the sense of bewitching by black magic, but could also be understood figuratively to refer to an act of deception (see L&N 53.98 and 88.159).
3 tn Or “publicly placarded,” “set forth in a public proclamation” (BDAG 867 s.v. προγράφω 2).
4 tn Grk “by [the] works of [the] law,” a reference to observing the Mosaic law.
5 tn Grk “by [the] hearing of faith.”
6 tn Grk “Having begun”; the participle ἐναρξάμενοι (enarxamenoi) has been translated concessively.
7 tn Or “by the Spirit.”
8 tn The verb ἐπιτελεῖσθε (epiteleisqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534). This is something the Galatians were attempting to do, but could not accomplish successfully.
9 tn Grk “in/by [the] flesh.”
10 tn Or “provide.”
14 tn Grk “know.”
15 tn The phrase “sons of Abraham” is used here in a figurative sense to describe people who are connected to a personality, Abraham, by close nonmaterial ties. It is this personality that has defined the relationship and its characteristics (BDAG 1024-25 s.v. υἱός 2.c.α).
16 tn For the Greek verb προευαγγελίζομαι (proeuangelizomai) translated as “proclaim the gospel ahead of time,” compare L&N 33.216.
17 tn The same plural Greek word, τὰ ἔθνη (ta eqnh), can be translated as “nations” or “Gentiles.”
20 tn Grk “For as many as.”
21 tn Grk “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all the things written in the book of the law, to do them.”
sn A quotation from Deut 27:26.
23 tn Grk “is not from faith.”
25 sn A quotation from Lev 18:5. The phrase the works of the law is an editorial expansion on the Greek text (see previous note); it has been left as normal typeface to indicate it is not part of the OT text.
26 tn Grk “having become”; the participle γενόμενος (genomenos) has been taken instrumentally.
28 tn Or “so that the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles in Christ Jesus.”
30 tn Grk “I speak according to man,” referring to the illustration that follows.
32 tn Or “has been put into effect.”
33 tn Grk “his seed,” a figurative extension of the meaning of σπέρμα (sperma) to refer to descendants (L&N 10.29).
34 tn Grk “It”; the referent (the scripture) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The understood subject of the verb λέγει (legei) could also be “He” (referring to God) as the one who spoke the promise to Abraham.
35 tn Grk “to seeds.” See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse. Here the term is plural; the use of the singular in the OT text cited later in this verse is crucial to Paul’s argument.
36 tn See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse.
sn A quotation from Gen 12:7; 13:15; 17:7; 24:7.
37 tc Most
38 tn On the translation “graciously gave” for χαρίζομαι (carizomai) see L&N 57.102.
39 tn Grk “Why then the law?”
40 tc For προσετέθη (proseteqh) several Western
41 tc παραδόσεων (paradosewn; “traditions, commandments”) is read by D*, while the vast majority of witnesses read παραβάσεων (parabasewn, “transgressions”). D’s reading makes little sense in this context. πράξεων (praxewn, “of deeds”) replaces παραβάσεων in Ì46 F G it Irlat Ambst Spec. The wording is best taken as going with νόμος (nomo"; “Why then the law of deeds?”), as is evident by the consistent punctuation in the later witnesses. But such an expression is unpauline and superfluous; it was almost certainly added by some early scribe(s) to soften the blow of Paul’s statement.
43 tn Or “was ordered.” L&N 31.22 has “was put into effect” here.
44 tn Many modern translations (NASB, NIV, NRSV) render this word (μεσίτης, mesith"; here and in v. 20) as “mediator,” but this conveys a wrong impression in contemporary English. If this is referring to Moses, he certainly did not “mediate” between God and Israel but was an intermediary on God’s behalf. Moses was not a mediator, for example, who worked for compromise between opposing parties. He instead was God’s representative to his people who enabled them to have a relationship, but entirely on God’s terms.
45 tn The meaning of this verse is disputed. According to BDAG 634 s.v. μεσίτης, “It prob. means that the activity of an intermediary implies the existence of more than one party, and hence may be unsatisfactory because it must result in a compromise. The presence of an intermediary would prevent attainment, without any impediment, of the purpose of the εἶς θεός in giving the law.” See also A. Oepke, TDNT 4:598-624, esp. 618-19.
46 tc The reading τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) is well attested in א A C D (F G read θεοῦ without the article) Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï lat sy co. However, Ì46 B d Ambst lack the words. Ì46 and B perhaps should not to be given as much weight as they normally are, since the combination of these two witnesses often produces a secondary shorter reading against all others. In addition, one might expect that if the shorter reading were original other variants would have crept into the textual tradition early on. But 104 (
47 tn Or “have been based on the law.”
48 tn Or “locked up.”
49 tn Grk “imprisoned all things” but τὰ πάντα (ta panta) includes people as part of the created order. Because people are the emphasis of Paul’s argument ( “given to those who believe” at the end of this verse.), “everything and everyone” was used here.
50 tn Or “so that the promise could be given by faith in Jesus Christ to those who believe.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 2:16, 20; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
51 tn Or “the faithfulness [of Christ] came.”
52 tc Instead of the present participle συγκλειόμενοι (sunkleiomenoi; found in Ì46 א A B D* F G P Ψ 33 1739 al), C D1 0176 0278 Ï have the perfect συγκεκλεισμένοι (sunkekleismenoi). The syntactical implication of the perfect is that the cause or the means of being held in custody was confinement (“we were held in custody [by/because of] being confined”). The present participle of course allows for such options, but also allows for contemporaneous time (“while being confined”) and result (“with the result that we were confined”). Externally, the perfect participle has little to commend it, being restricted for the most part to later and Byzantine witnesses.
tn Grk “being confined.”
53 tn Or “disciplinarian,” “custodian,” or “guide.” According to BDAG 748 s.v. παιδαγωγός, “the man, usu. a slave…whose duty it was to conduct a boy or youth…to and from school and to superintend his conduct gener.; he was not a ‘teacher’ (despite the present mng. of the derivative ‘pedagogue’…When the young man became of age, the π. was no longer needed.” L&N 36.5 gives “guardian, leader, guide” here.
54 tn Or “be justified.”
55 tn See the note on the word “guardian” in v. 24. The punctuation of vv. 25, 26, and 27 is difficult to represent because of the causal connections between each verse. English style would normally require a comma either at the end of v. 25 or v. 26, but in so doing the translation would then link v. 26 almost exclusively with either v. 25 or v. 27; this would be problematic as scholars debate which two verses are to be linked. Because of this, the translation instead places a period at the end of each verse. This preserves some of the ambiguity inherent in the Greek and does not exclude any particular causal connection.
56 tn Or “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”
57 tn Grk “For as many of you as.”
59 tn Grk “male and female.”
61 tn Grk “a small child.” The Greek term νήπιος (nhpios) refers to a young child, no longer a helpless infant but probably not more than three or four years old (L&N 9.43). The point in context, though, is that this child is too young to take any responsibility for the management of his assets.
62 tn Grk “master” or “lord” (κύριος, kurios).
63 tn The Greek term translated “guardians” here is ἐπίτροπος (epitropo"), whose semantic domain overlaps with that of παιδαγωγός (paidagwgo") according to L&N 36.5.
64 tn Grk “the,” but the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
66 tn Or “basic principles,” “elemental things,” or “elemental spirits.” Some interpreters take this as a reference to supernatural powers who controlled nature and/or human fate.
67 tn Grk “the fullness of time” (an idiom for the totality of a period of time, with the implication of proper completion; see L&N 67.69).
68 tn The Greek term υἱοθεσία (Juioqesia) was originally a legal technical term for adoption as a son with full rights of inheritance. BDAG 1024 s.v. notes, “a legal t.t. of ‘adoption’ of children, in our lit., i.e. in Paul, only in a transferred sense of a transcendent filial relationship between God and humans (with the legal aspect, not gender specificity, as major semantic component).” Although some modern translations remove the filial sense completely and render the term merely “adoption” (cf. NAB), the retention of this component of meaning was accomplished in the present translation by the phrase “as sons.”
69 tn Grk “calling.” The participle is neuter indicating that the Spirit is the one who calls.
70 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father” but taken over simply as “father,” used in prayer and in the family circle, and later taken over by the early Greek-speaking Christians (BDAG 1 s.v. ἀββα).
71 tn Grk “and if a son, then also an heir.” The words “you are” have been supplied twice to clarify the statement.
72 tc The unusual expression διὰ θεοῦ (dia qeou, “through God”) certainly prompted scribes to alter it to more customary or theologically acceptable ones such as διὰ θεόν (dia qeon, “because of God”; F G 1881 pc), διὰ Χριστοῦ (dia Cristou, “through Christ”; 81 630 pc sa), διὰ ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (dia Ihsou Cristou, “through Jesus Christ”; 1739c), θεοῦ διὰ Χριστοῦ (“[an heir] of God through Christ”; א2 C3 D [P] 0278 [6 326 1505] Ï ar sy), or κληρονόμος μὲν θεοῦ, συγκληρονόμος δὲ Χριστοῦ (klhronomo" men qeou, sugklhronomo" de Cristou, “an heir of God, and fellow-heir with Christ”; Ψ pc [cf. Rom 8:17]). Although it is unusual for Paul to speak of God as an intermediate agent, it is not unprecedented (cf. Gal 1:1; 1 Cor 1:9). Nevertheless, Gal 4:7 is the most direct statement to this effect. Further testimony on behalf of διὰ θεοῦ is to be found in external evidence: The witnesses with this phrase are among the most important in the NT (Ì46 א* A B C* 33 1739*vid lat bo Cl).