2:3 Yet 1 not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, although he was a Greek. 2:4 Now this matter arose 2 because of the false brothers with false pretenses 3 who slipped in unnoticed to spy on 4 our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, to make us slaves. 5 2:5 But 6 we did not surrender to them 7 even for a moment, 8 in order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 9
2:11 But when Cephas 10 came to Antioch, 11 I opposed him to his face, because he had clearly done wrong. 12 2:12 Until 13 certain people came from James, he had been eating with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he stopped doing this 14 and separated himself 15 because he was afraid of those who were pro-circumcision. 16
3 tn The adjective παρεισάκτους (pareisaktou"), which relates to someone joining a group with false motives or false pretenses, applies to the “false brothers.” Although the expression “false brothers with false pretenses” is somewhat redundant, it captures the emphatic force of Paul’s expression, which labels both these “brothers” as false (ψευδαδέλφους, yeudadelfou") as well as their motives. See L&N 34.29 for more information.
4 tn The verb translated here as “spy on” (κατασκοπέω, kataskopew) can have a neutral nuance, but here the connotation is certainly negative (so F. F. Bruce, Galatians [NIGTC], 112-13, and E. Burton, Galatians [ICC], 83).
5 tn Grk “in order that they might enslave us.” The ἵνα (Jina) clause with the subjunctive verb καταδουλώσουσιν (katadoulwsousin) has been translated as an English infinitival clause.
6 tn Grk “slaves, nor did we…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, οὐδέ (oude) was translated as “But…even” and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 5.
7 tn Or “we did not cave in to their demands.”
8 tn Grk “even for an hour” (an idiom for a very short period of time).
9 sn In order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. Paul evidently viewed the demands of the so-called “false brothers” as a departure from the truth contained in the gospel he preached. This was a very serious charge (see Gal 1:8).
10 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
12 tn Grk “because he stood condemned.”
13 tn The conjunction γάρ has not been translated here.
14 tn Grk “he drew back.” If ἑαυτόν (Jeauton) goes with both ὑπέστελλεν (Jupestellen) and ἀφώριζεν (afwrizen) rather than only the latter, the meaning would be “he drew himself back” (see BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 1.a).
15 tn Or “and held himself aloof.”
16 tn Grk “the [ones] of the circumcision,” that is, the group of Jewish Christians who insisted on circumcision of Gentiles before they could become Christians.