2:13 And the rest of the Jews also joined with him in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray with them 1 by their hypocrisy. 2:14 But when I saw that they were not behaving consistently with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas 2 in front of them all, “If you, although you are a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you try to force 3 the Gentiles to live like Jews?”
2:15 We are Jews by birth 4 and not Gentile sinners, 5 2:16 yet we know 6 that no one 7 is justified by the works of the law 8 but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ. 9 And 10 we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by the faithfulness of Christ 11 and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one 12 will be justified. 2:17 But if while seeking to be justified in Christ we ourselves have also been found to be sinners, is Christ then one who encourages 13 sin? Absolutely not! 2:18 But if I build up again those things I once destroyed, 14 I demonstrate that I am one who breaks God’s law. 15 2:19 For through the law I died to the law so that I may live to God. 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ, 16 and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me. So 17 the life I now live in the body, 18 I live because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, 19 who loved me and gave himself for me. 2:21 I do not set aside 20 God’s grace, because if righteousness 21 could come through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 22
3:1 You 23 foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell 24 on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed 25 as crucified! 3:2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law 26 or by believing what you heard? 27 3:3 Are you so foolish? Although you began 28 with 29 the Spirit, are you now trying to finish 30 by human effort? 31 3:4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing? – if indeed it was for nothing. 3:5 Does God then give 32 you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law 33 or by your believing what you heard? 34
3:6 Just as Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, 35 3:7 so then, understand 36 that those who believe are the sons of Abraham. 37 3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel to Abraham ahead of time, 38 saying, “All the nations 39 will be blessed in you.” 40 3:9 So then those who believe 41 are blessed along with Abraham the believer. 3:10 For all who 42 rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law.” 43 3:11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous one will live by faith. 44 3:12 But the law is not based on faith, 45 but the one who does the works of the law 46 will live by them. 47 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming 48 a curse for us (because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”) 49 3:14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, 50 so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.
3:15 Brothers and sisters, 51 I offer an example from everyday life: 52 When a covenant 53 has been ratified, 54 even though it is only a human contract, no one can set it aside or add anything to it. 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his descendant. 55 Scripture 56 does not say, “and to the descendants,” 57 referring to many, but “and to your descendant,” 58 referring to one, who is Christ. 3:17 What I am saying is this: The law that came four hundred thirty years later does not cancel a covenant previously ratified by God, 59 so as to invalidate the promise. 3:18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise, but God graciously gave 60 it to Abraham through the promise.
3:19 Why then was the law given? 61 It was added 62 because of transgressions, 63 until the arrival of the descendant 64 to whom the promise had been made. It was administered 65 through angels by an intermediary. 66 3:20 Now an intermediary is not for one party alone, but God is one. 67 3:21 Is the law therefore opposed to the promises of God? 68 Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that was able to give life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. 69 3:22 But the scripture imprisoned 70 everything and everyone 71 under sin so that the promise could be given – because of the faithfulness 72 of Jesus Christ – to those who believe.
3:23 Now before faith 73 came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 74 until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 75 until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 76 by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 77 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 78 3:27 For all of you who 79 were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 80 nor free, there is neither male nor female 81 – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 82 heirs according to the promise.
4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, 83 is no different from a slave, though he is the owner 84 of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians 85 and managers until the date set by his 86 father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors, 87 were enslaved under the basic forces 88 of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time 89 had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 90 4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, who calls 91 “Abba! 92 Father!” 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are 93 a son, then you are also an heir through God. 94
4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 95 4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless 96 basic forces? 97 Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again? 98 4:10 You are observing religious 99 days and months and seasons and years. 4:11 I fear for you that my work for you may have been in vain. 4:12 I beg you, brothers and sisters, 100 become like me, because I have become like you. You have done me no wrong!
4:13 But you know it was because of a physical illness that I first proclaimed the gospel to you, 4:14 and though my physical condition put you to the test, you did not despise or reject me. 101 Instead, you welcomed me as though I were an angel of God, 102 as though I were Christ Jesus himself! 103 4:15 Where then is your sense of happiness 104 now? For I testify about you that if it were possible, you would have pulled out your eyes and given them to me! 4:16 So then, have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? 105
4:17 They court you eagerly, 106 but for no good purpose; 107 they want to exclude you, so that you would seek them eagerly. 108 4:18 However, it is good 109 to be sought eagerly 110 for a good purpose 111 at all times, and not only when I am present with you. 4:19 My children – I am again undergoing birth pains until Christ is formed in you! 112 4:20 I wish I could be with you now and change my tone of voice, 113 because I am perplexed about you.
4:21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law, do you not understand the law? 114 4:22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the 115 slave woman and the other by the free woman. 4:23 But one, the son by the slave woman, was born by natural descent, 116 while the other, the son by the free woman, was born through the promise. 4:24 These things may be treated as an allegory, 117 for these women represent two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai bearing children for slavery; this is Hagar. 4:25 Now Hagar represents Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 4:26 But the Jerusalem above is free, 118 and she is our mother. 4:27 For it is written:
“Rejoice, O barren woman who does not bear children; 119
break forth and shout, you who have no birth pains,
because the children of the desolate woman are more numerous
than those of the woman who has a husband.” 120
4:28 But you, 121 brothers and sisters, 122 are children of the promise like Isaac. 4:29 But just as at that time the one born by natural descent 123 persecuted the one born according to the Spirit, 124 so it is now. 4:30 But what does the scripture say? “Throw out the slave woman and her son, for the son of the slave woman will not share the inheritance with the son” 125 of the free woman. 4:31 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 126 we are not children of the slave woman but of the free woman.
5:1 For freedom 127 Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not be subject again to the yoke 128 of slavery. 5:2 Listen! I, Paul, tell you that if you let yourselves be circumcised, Christ will be of no benefit to you at all! 5:3 And I testify again to every man who lets himself be circumcised that he is obligated to obey 129 the whole law. 5:4 You who are trying to be declared righteous 130 by the law have been alienated 131 from Christ; you have fallen away from grace! 5:5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we wait expectantly for the hope of righteousness. 5:6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision carries any weight – the only thing that matters is faith working through love. 132
5:7 You were running well; who prevented you from obeying 133 the truth? 5:8 This persuasion 134 does not come from the one who calls you! 5:9 A little yeast makes the whole batch of dough rise! 135 5:10 I am confident 136 in the Lord that you will accept no other view. 137 But the one who is confusing 138 you will pay the penalty, 139 whoever he may be. 5:11 Now, brothers and sisters, 140 if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? 141 In that case the offense of the cross 142 has been removed. 143 5:12 I wish those agitators 144 would go so far as to 145 castrate themselves! 146
5:13 For you were called to freedom, brothers and sisters; 147 only do not use your freedom as an opportunity to indulge your flesh, 148 but through love serve one another. 149 5:14 For the whole law can be summed up in a single commandment, 150 namely, “You must love your neighbor as yourself.” 151 5:15 However, if you continually bite and devour one another, 152 beware that you are not consumed 153 by one another. 5:16 But I say, live 154 by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desires of the flesh. 155 5:17 For the flesh has desires that are opposed to the Spirit, and the Spirit has desires 156 that are opposed to the flesh, for these are in opposition to 157 each other, so that you cannot do what you want. 5:18 But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. 5:19 Now the works of the flesh 158 are obvious: 159 sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 160 hostilities, 161 strife, 162 jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 163 factions, 5:21 envying, 164 murder, 165 drunkenness, carousing, 166 and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!
5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit 167 is love, 168 joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 169 5:23 gentleness, and 170 self-control. Against such things there is no law. 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 171 have crucified the flesh 172 with its passions 173 and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 174 the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 175 provoking 176 one another, being jealous 177 of one another.
6:1 Brothers and sisters, 178 if a person 179 is discovered in some sin, 180 you who are spiritual 181 restore such a person in a spirit of gentleness. 182 Pay close attention 183 to yourselves, so that you are not tempted too. 6:2 Carry one another’s burdens, and in this way you will fulfill the law of Christ. 6:3 For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself. 6:4 Let each one examine 184 his own work. Then he can take pride 185 in himself and not compare himself with 186 someone else. 6:5 For each one will carry 187 his own load.
6:6 Now the one who receives instruction in the word must share all good things with the one who teaches 188 it. 6:7 Do not be deceived. God will not be made a fool. 189 For a person 190 will reap what he sows, 6:8 because the person who sows to his own flesh 191 will reap corruption 192 from the flesh, 193 but the one who sows to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit. 6:9 So we must not grow weary 194 in doing good, for in due time we will reap, if we do not give up. 195 6:10 So then, 196 whenever we have an opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who belong to the family of faith. 197
6:11 See what big letters I make as I write to you with my own hand!
6:12 Those who want to make a good showing in external matters 198 are trying to force you to be circumcised. They do so 199 only to avoid being persecuted 200 for the cross of Christ. 6:13 For those who are circumcised do not obey the law themselves, but they want you to be circumcised so that they can boast about your flesh. 201 6:14 But may I never boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which 202 the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. 6:15 For 203 neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for 204 anything; the only thing that matters is a new creation! 205 6:16 And all who will behave 206 in accordance with this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and on the Israel of God. 207
1 tn The words “with them” are a reflection of the σύν- (sun-) prefix on the verb συναπήχθη (sunaphcqh; see L&N 31.76).
2 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
3 tn Here ἀναγκάζεις (anankazei") has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534).
4 tn Grk “by nature.”
5 tn Grk “and not sinners from among the Gentiles.”
6 tn Grk “yet knowing”; the participle εἰδότες (eidotes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
7 tn Grk “no man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.
8 sn The law is a reference to the law of Moses.
9 tn Or “faith in Jesus Christ.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in v. 20; Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 3:22; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
sn On the phrase translated the faithfulness of Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
10 tn In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.
11 tn Or “by faith in Christ.” See comment above on “the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.”
12 tn Or “no human being”; Grk “flesh.”
13 tn Or “does Christ serve the interests of sin?”; or “is Christ an agent for sin?” See BDAG 230-31 s.v. διάκονος 2.
14 tn Or “once tore down.”
15 tn Traditionally, “that I am a transgressor.”
17 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to bring out the connection of the following clauses with the preceding ones. What Paul says here amounts to a result or inference drawn from his co-crucifixion with Christ and the fact that Christ now lives in him. In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.
18 tn Grk “flesh.”
19 tc A number of important witnesses (Ì46 B D* F G) have θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ (qeou kai Cristou, “of God and Christ”) instead of υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ (Juiou tou qeou, “the Son of God”), found in the majority of
tn Or “I live by faith in the Son of God.” See note on “faithfulness of Jesus Christ” in v. 16 for the rationale behind the translation “the faithfulness of the Son of God.”
sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
20 tn Or “I do not declare invalid,” “I do not nullify.”
21 tn Or “justification.”
22 tn Or “without cause,” “for no purpose.”
23 tn Grk “O” (an interjection used both in address and emotion). In context the following section is highly charged emotionally.
24 tn Or “deceived”; the verb βασκαίνω (baskainw) can be understood literally here in the sense of bewitching by black magic, but could also be understood figuratively to refer to an act of deception (see L&N 53.98 and 88.159).
25 tn Or “publicly placarded,” “set forth in a public proclamation” (BDAG 867 s.v. προγράφω 2).
26 tn Grk “by [the] works of [the] law,” a reference to observing the Mosaic law.
27 tn Grk “by [the] hearing of faith.”
28 tn Grk “Having begun”; the participle ἐναρξάμενοι (enarxamenoi) has been translated concessively.
29 tn Or “by the Spirit.”
30 tn The verb ἐπιτελεῖσθε (epiteleisqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534). This is something the Galatians were attempting to do, but could not accomplish successfully.
31 tn Grk “in/by [the] flesh.”
32 tn Or “provide.”
36 tn Grk “know.”
37 tn The phrase “sons of Abraham” is used here in a figurative sense to describe people who are connected to a personality, Abraham, by close nonmaterial ties. It is this personality that has defined the relationship and its characteristics (BDAG 1024-25 s.v. υἱός 2.c.α).
38 tn For the Greek verb προευαγγελίζομαι (proeuangelizomai) translated as “proclaim the gospel ahead of time,” compare L&N 33.216.
39 tn The same plural Greek word, τὰ ἔθνη (ta eqnh), can be translated as “nations” or “Gentiles.”
42 tn Grk “For as many as.”
43 tn Grk “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all the things written in the book of the law, to do them.”
sn A quotation from Deut 27:26.
45 tn Grk “is not from faith.”
47 sn A quotation from Lev 18:5. The phrase the works of the law is an editorial expansion on the Greek text (see previous note); it has been left as normal typeface to indicate it is not part of the OT text.
48 tn Grk “having become”; the participle γενόμενος (genomenos) has been taken instrumentally.
50 tn Or “so that the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles in Christ Jesus.”
52 tn Grk “I speak according to man,” referring to the illustration that follows.
54 tn Or “has been put into effect.”
55 tn Grk “his seed,” a figurative extension of the meaning of σπέρμα (sperma) to refer to descendants (L&N 10.29).
56 tn Grk “It”; the referent (the scripture) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The understood subject of the verb λέγει (legei) could also be “He” (referring to God) as the one who spoke the promise to Abraham.
57 tn Grk “to seeds.” See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse. Here the term is plural; the use of the singular in the OT text cited later in this verse is crucial to Paul’s argument.
58 tn See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse.
sn A quotation from Gen 12:7; 13:15; 17:7; 24:7.
59 tc Most
60 tn On the translation “graciously gave” for χαρίζομαι (carizomai) see L&N 57.102.
61 tn Grk “Why then the law?”
62 tc For προσετέθη (proseteqh) several Western
63 tc παραδόσεων (paradosewn; “traditions, commandments”) is read by D*, while the vast majority of witnesses read παραβάσεων (parabasewn, “transgressions”). D’s reading makes little sense in this context. πράξεων (praxewn, “of deeds”) replaces παραβάσεων in Ì46 F G it Irlat Ambst Spec. The wording is best taken as going with νόμος (nomo"; “Why then the law of deeds?”), as is evident by the consistent punctuation in the later witnesses. But such an expression is unpauline and superfluous; it was almost certainly added by some early scribe(s) to soften the blow of Paul’s statement.
65 tn Or “was ordered.” L&N 31.22 has “was put into effect” here.
66 tn Many modern translations (NASB, NIV, NRSV) render this word (μεσίτης, mesith"; here and in v. 20) as “mediator,” but this conveys a wrong impression in contemporary English. If this is referring to Moses, he certainly did not “mediate” between God and Israel but was an intermediary on God’s behalf. Moses was not a mediator, for example, who worked for compromise between opposing parties. He instead was God’s representative to his people who enabled them to have a relationship, but entirely on God’s terms.
67 tn The meaning of this verse is disputed. According to BDAG 634 s.v. μεσίτης, “It prob. means that the activity of an intermediary implies the existence of more than one party, and hence may be unsatisfactory because it must result in a compromise. The presence of an intermediary would prevent attainment, without any impediment, of the purpose of the εἶς θεός in giving the law.” See also A. Oepke, TDNT 4:598-624, esp. 618-19.
68 tc The reading τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) is well attested in א A C D (F G read θεοῦ without the article) Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï lat sy co. However, Ì46 B d Ambst lack the words. Ì46 and B perhaps should not to be given as much weight as they normally are, since the combination of these two witnesses often produces a secondary shorter reading against all others. In addition, one might expect that if the shorter reading were original other variants would have crept into the textual tradition early on. But 104 (
69 tn Or “have been based on the law.”
70 tn Or “locked up.”
71 tn Grk “imprisoned all things” but τὰ πάντα (ta panta) includes people as part of the created order. Because people are the emphasis of Paul’s argument ( “given to those who believe” at the end of this verse.), “everything and everyone” was used here.
72 tn Or “so that the promise could be given by faith in Jesus Christ to those who believe.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 2:16, 20; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
73 tn Or “the faithfulness [of Christ] came.”
74 tc Instead of the present participle συγκλειόμενοι (sunkleiomenoi; found in Ì46 א A B D* F G P Ψ 33 1739 al), C D1 0176 0278 Ï have the perfect συγκεκλεισμένοι (sunkekleismenoi). The syntactical implication of the perfect is that the cause or the means of being held in custody was confinement (“we were held in custody [by/because of] being confined”). The present participle of course allows for such options, but also allows for contemporaneous time (“while being confined”) and result (“with the result that we were confined”). Externally, the perfect participle has little to commend it, being restricted for the most part to later and Byzantine witnesses.
tn Grk “being confined.”
75 tn Or “disciplinarian,” “custodian,” or “guide.” According to BDAG 748 s.v. παιδαγωγός, “the man, usu. a slave…whose duty it was to conduct a boy or youth…to and from school and to superintend his conduct gener.; he was not a ‘teacher’ (despite the present mng. of the derivative ‘pedagogue’…When the young man became of age, the π. was no longer needed.” L&N 36.5 gives “guardian, leader, guide” here.
76 tn Or “be justified.”
77 tn See the note on the word “guardian” in v. 24. The punctuation of vv. 25, 26, and 27 is difficult to represent because of the causal connections between each verse. English style would normally require a comma either at the end of v. 25 or v. 26, but in so doing the translation would then link v. 26 almost exclusively with either v. 25 or v. 27; this would be problematic as scholars debate which two verses are to be linked. Because of this, the translation instead places a period at the end of each verse. This preserves some of the ambiguity inherent in the Greek and does not exclude any particular causal connection.
78 tn Or “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”
79 tn Grk “For as many of you as.”
81 tn Grk “male and female.”
83 tn Grk “a small child.” The Greek term νήπιος (nhpios) refers to a young child, no longer a helpless infant but probably not more than three or four years old (L&N 9.43). The point in context, though, is that this child is too young to take any responsibility for the management of his assets.
84 tn Grk “master” or “lord” (κύριος, kurios).
85 tn The Greek term translated “guardians” here is ἐπίτροπος (epitropo"), whose semantic domain overlaps with that of παιδαγωγός (paidagwgo") according to L&N 36.5.
86 tn Grk “the,” but the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
88 tn Or “basic principles,” “elemental things,” or “elemental spirits.” Some interpreters take this as a reference to supernatural powers who controlled nature and/or human fate.
89 tn Grk “the fullness of time” (an idiom for the totality of a period of time, with the implication of proper completion; see L&N 67.69).
90 tn The Greek term υἱοθεσία (Juioqesia) was originally a legal technical term for adoption as a son with full rights of inheritance. BDAG 1024 s.v. notes, “a legal t.t. of ‘adoption’ of children, in our lit., i.e. in Paul, only in a transferred sense of a transcendent filial relationship between God and humans (with the legal aspect, not gender specificity, as major semantic component).” Although some modern translations remove the filial sense completely and render the term merely “adoption” (cf. NAB), the retention of this component of meaning was accomplished in the present translation by the phrase “as sons.”
91 tn Grk “calling.” The participle is neuter indicating that the Spirit is the one who calls.
92 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father” but taken over simply as “father,” used in prayer and in the family circle, and later taken over by the early Greek-speaking Christians (BDAG 1 s.v. ἀββα).
93 tn Grk “and if a son, then also an heir.” The words “you are” have been supplied twice to clarify the statement.
94 tc The unusual expression διὰ θεοῦ (dia qeou, “through God”) certainly prompted scribes to alter it to more customary or theologically acceptable ones such as διὰ θεόν (dia qeon, “because of God”; F G 1881 pc), διὰ Χριστοῦ (dia Cristou, “through Christ”; 81 630 pc sa), διὰ ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (dia Ihsou Cristou, “through Jesus Christ”; 1739c), θεοῦ διὰ Χριστοῦ (“[an heir] of God through Christ”; א2 C3 D [P] 0278 [6 326 1505] Ï ar sy), or κληρονόμος μὲν θεοῦ, συγκληρονόμος δὲ Χριστοῦ (klhronomo" men qeou, sugklhronomo" de Cristou, “an heir of God, and fellow-heir with Christ”; Ψ pc [cf. Rom 8:17]). Although it is unusual for Paul to speak of God as an intermediate agent, it is not unprecedented (cf. Gal 1:1; 1 Cor 1:9). Nevertheless, Gal 4:7 is the most direct statement to this effect. Further testimony on behalf of διὰ θεοῦ is to be found in external evidence: The witnesses with this phrase are among the most important in the NT (Ì46 א* A B C* 33 1739*vid lat bo Cl).
95 tn Grk “those that by nature…” with the word “beings” implied. BDAG 1070 s.v. φύσις 2 sees this as referring to pagan worship: “Polytheists worship…beings that are by nature no gods at all Gal 4:8.”
96 tn Or “useless.” See L&N 65.16.
98 tn Grk “basic forces, to which you want to be enslaved…” Verse 9 is a single sentence in the Greek text, but has been divided into two in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence.
99 tn The adjective “religious” has been supplied in the translation to make clear that the problem concerns observing certain days, etc. in a religious sense (cf. NIV, NRSV “special days”). In light of the polemic in this letter against the Judaizers (those who tried to force observance of the Mosaic law on Gentile converts to Christianity) this may well be a reference to the observance of Jewish Sabbaths, feasts, and other religious days.
101 tn Grk “your trial in my flesh you did not despise or reject.”
102 tn Or “the angel of God.” Linguistically, “angel of God” is the same in both testaments (and thus, he is either “an angel of God” or “the angel of God” in both testaments). For arguments and implications, see ExSyn 252; M. J. Davidson, “Angels,” DJG, 9; W. G. MacDonald argues for “an angel” in both testaments: “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’,” Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation, 324-35.
103 tn Grk “as an angel of God…as Christ Jesus.” This could be understood to mean either “you welcomed me like an angel of God would,” or “you welcomed me as though I were an angel of God.” In context only the second is accurate, so the translation has been phrased to indicate this.
104 tn Or “blessedness.”
105 tn Or “have I become your enemy because I am telling you the truth?” The participle ἀληθεύων (alhqeuwn) can be translated as a causal adverbial participle or as a participle of means (as in the translation).
106 tn Or “They are zealous for you.”
107 tn Or “but not commendably” (BDAG 505 s.v. καλῶς 2).
108 tn Or “so that you would be zealous.”
109 tn Or “commendable.”
110 tn Or “to be zealous.”
111 tn Grk “But it is always good to be zealous in good.”
112 tn Grk “My children, for whom I am again undergoing birth pains until Christ is formed in you.” The relative clauses in English do not pick up the emotional force of Paul’s language here (note “tone of voice” in v. 20, indicating that he is passionately concerned for them); hence, the translation has been altered slightly to capture the connotative power of Paul’s plea.
sn That is, until Christ’s nature or character is formed in them (see L&N 58.4).
113 tn Grk “voice” or “tone.” The contemporary English expression “tone of voice” is a good approximation to the meaning here.
114 tn Or “will you not hear what the law says?” The Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw) means “hear, listen to,” but by figurative extension it can also mean “obey.” It can also refer to the process of comprehension that follows hearing, and that sense fits the context well here.
115 tn Paul’s use of the Greek article here and before the phrase “free woman” presumes that both these characters are well known to the recipients of his letter. This verse is given as an example of the category called “well-known (‘celebrity’ or ‘familiar’) article” by ExSyn 225.
116 tn Grk “born according to the flesh”; BDAG 916 s.v. σάρξ 4 has “Of natural descent τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκός children by natural descent Ro 9:8 (opp. τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας). ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται Gal 4:23; cp. vs. 29.”
117 tn Grk “which things are spoken about allegorically.” Paul is not saying the OT account is an allegory, but rather that he is constructing an allegory based on the OT account.
118 sn The meaning of the statement the Jerusalem above is free is that the other woman represents the second covenant (cf. v. 24); she corresponds to the Jerusalem above that is free. Paul’s argument is very condensed at this point.
119 tn The direct object “children” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
120 tn Grk “because more are the children of the barren one than of the one having a husband.”
sn A quotation from Isa 54:1.
121 tc Most
124 tn Or “the one born by the Spirit’s [power].”
127 tn Translating the dative as “For freedom” shows the purpose for Christ setting us free; however, it is also possible to take the phrase in the sense of means or instrument (“with [or by] freedom”), referring to the freedom mentioned in 4:31 and implied throughout the letter.
128 sn Here the yoke figuratively represents the burdensome nature of slavery.
129 tn Or “keep”; or “carry out”; Grk “do.”
130 tn Or “trying to be justified.” The verb δικαιοῦσθε (dikaiousqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534).
132 tn Grk “but faith working through love.”
134 tn Grk “The persuasion,” referring to their being led away from the truth (v. 7). There is a play on words here that is not easily reproducible in the English translation: The words translated “obey” (πείθεσθαι, peiqesqai) in v. 7 and “persuasion” (πεισμονή, peismonh) in v. 8 come from the same root in Greek.
135 tn Grk “A little leaven leavens the whole lump.”
136 tn The verb translated “I am confident” (πέποιθα, pepoiqa) comes from the same root in Greek as the words translated “obey” (πείθεσθαι, peiqesqai) in v. 7 and “persuasion” (πεισμονή, peismonh) in v. 8.
137 tn Grk “that you will think nothing otherwise.”
138 tn Or “is stirring you up”; Grk “is troubling you.” In context Paul is referring to the confusion and turmoil caused by those who insist that Gentile converts to Christianity must observe the Mosaic law.
139 tn Or “will suffer condemnation” (L&N 90.80); Grk “will bear his judgment.” The translation “must pay the penalty” is given as an explanatory gloss on the phrase by BDAG 171 s.v. βαστάζω 2.b.β.
141 sn That is, if Paul still teaches observance of the Mosaic law (preaches circumcision), why is he still being persecuted by his opponents, who insist that Gentile converts to Christianity must observe the Mosaic law?
142 sn The offense of the cross refers to the offense to Jews caused by preaching Christ crucified.
143 tn Or “nullified.”
144 tn Grk “the ones who are upsetting you.” The same verb is used in Acts 21:38 to refer to a person who incited a revolt. Paul could be alluding indirectly to the fact that his opponents are inciting the Galatians to rebel against his teaching with regard to circumcision and the law.
145 tn Grk “would even.”
146 tn Or “make eunuchs of themselves”; Grk “cut themselves off.” This statement is rhetorical hyperbole on Paul’s part. It does strongly suggest, however, that Paul’s adversaries in this case (“those agitators”) were men. Some interpreters (notably Erasmus and the Reformers) have attempted to soften the meaning to a figurative “separate themselves” (meaning the opponents would withdraw from fellowship) but such an understanding dramatically weakens the rhetorical force of Paul’s argument. Although it has been argued that such an act of emasculation would be unthinkable for Paul, it must be noted that Paul’s statement is one of biting sarcasm, obviously not meant to be taken literally. See further G. Stählin, TDNT 3:853-55.
148 tn Grk “as an opportunity for the flesh”; BDAG 915 s.v. σάρξ 2.c.α states: “In Paul’s thought esp., all parts of the body constitute a totality known as σ. or flesh, which is dominated by sin to such a degree that wherever flesh is, all forms of sin are likew. present, and no good thing can live in the σάρξ…Gal 5:13, 24;…Opp. τὸ πνεῦμα…Gal 3:3; 5:16, 17ab; 6:8ab.”
149 tn It is possible that the verb δουλεύετε (douleuete) should be translated “serve one another in a humble manner” here, referring to the way in which slaves serve their masters (see L&N 35.27).
150 tn Or “can be fulfilled in one commandment.”
152 tn That is, “if you are harming and exploiting one another.” Paul’s metaphors are retained in most modern translations, but it is possible to see the meanings of δάκνω and κατεσθίω (daknw and katesqiw, L&N 20.26 and 88.145) as figurative extensions of the literal meanings of these terms and to translate them accordingly. The present tenses here are translated as customary presents (“continually…”).
153 tn Or “destroyed.”
154 tn Grk “walk” (a common NT idiom for how one conducts one’s life or how one behaves).
156 tn The words “has desires” do not occur in the Greek text a second time, but are repeated in the translation for clarity.
157 tn Or “are hostile toward” (L&N 39.1).
159 tn Or “clear,” “evident.”
160 tn Or “witchcraft.”
161 tn Or “enmities,” “[acts of] hatred.”
162 tn Or “discord” (L&N 39.22).
163 tn Or “discord(s)” (L&N 39.13).
164 tn This term is plural in Greek (as is “murder” and “carousing”), but for clarity these abstract nouns have been translated as singular.
165 tc ‡ φόνοι (fonoi, “murders”) is absent in such important
166 tn Or “revelings,” “orgies” (L&N 88.287).
167 tn That is, the fruit the Spirit produces.
168 sn Another way to punctuate this is “love” followed by a colon (love: joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control). It is thus possible to read the eight characteristics following “love” as defining love.
169 tn Or “reliability”; see BDAG 818 s.v. πίστις 1.a.
170 tn “And” is supplied here as a matter of English style, which normally inserts “and” between the last two elements of a list or series.
171 tc ‡ Some
173 tn The Greek term παθήμασιν (paqhmasin, translated “passions”) refers to strong physical desires, especially of a sexual nature (L&N 25.30).
174 tn Or “let us also follow,” “let us also walk by.”
175 tn Or “falsely proud.”
176 tn Or “irritating.” BDAG 871 s.v. προκαλέω has “provoke, challenge τινά someone.”
177 tn Or “another, envying one another.”
179 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.
180 tn Or “some transgression” (L&N 88.297).
181 sn Who are spiritual refers to people who are controlled and directed by God’s Spirit.
182 tn Or “with a gentle spirit” or “gently.”
183 tn Grk “taking careful notice.”
184 tn Or “determine the genuineness of.”
185 tn Grk “he will have a reason for boasting.”
186 tn Or “and not in regard to.” The idea of comparison is implied in the context.
187 tn Or perhaps, “each one must carry.” A number of modern translations treat βαστάσει (bastasei) as an imperatival future.
188 tn Or “instructs,” “imparts.”
190 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.
191 tn BDAG 915 s.v. σάρξ 2.c.α states: “In Paul’s thought esp., all parts of the body constitute a totality known as σ. or flesh, which is dominated by sin to such a degree that wherever flesh is, all forms of sin are likew. present, and no good thing can live in the σάρξ…Gal 5:13, 24;…Opp. τὸ πνεῦμα…Gal 3:3; 5:16, 17ab; 6:8ab.”
192 tn Or “destruction.”
193 tn See the note on the previous occurrence of the word “flesh” in this verse.
194 tn Or “not become discouraged,” “not lose heart” (L&N 25.288).
195 tn Or “if we do not become extremely weary,” “if we do not give out,” “if we do not faint from exhaustion” (L&N 23.79).
196 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what Paul has been arguing.
197 tn Grk “to those who are members of the family of [the] faith.”
198 tn Grk “in the flesh.” L&N 88.236 translates the phrase “those who force you to be circumcised are those who wish to make a good showing in external matters.”
199 tn Grk “to be circumcised, only.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started with the words “They do so,” which were supplied to make a complete English sentence.
200 tc ‡ Grk “so that they will not be persecuted.” The indicative after ἵνα μή (Jina mh) is unusual (though not unexampled elsewhere in the NT), making it the harder reading. The evidence is fairly evenly split between the indicative διώκονται (diwkontai; Ì46 A C F G K L P 0278 6 81 104 326 629 1175 1505 pm) and the subjunctive διώκωνται (diwkwntai; א B D Ψ 33 365 1739 pm), with a slight preference for the subjunctive. However, since scribes would tend to change the indicative to a subjunctive due to syntactical requirements, the internal evidence is decidedly on the side of the indicative, suggesting that it is original.
202 tn Or perhaps, “through whom,” referring to the Lord Jesus Christ rather than the cross.
203 tc The phrase “in Christ Jesus” is found after “For” in some
204 tn Grk “is.”
207 tn The word “and” (καί) can be interpreted in two ways: (1) It could be rendered as “also” which would indicate that two distinct groups are in view, namely “all who will behave in accordance with this rule” and “the Israel of God.” Or (2) it could be rendered “even,” which would indicate that “all who behave in accordance with this rule” are “the Israel of God.” In other words, in this latter view, “even” = “that is.”