1:11 Now 1 I want you to know, brothers and sisters, 2 that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. 3 1:12 For I did not receive it or learn it from any human source; 4 instead I received it 5 by a revelation of Jesus Christ. 6
1:13 For you have heard of my former way of life 7 in Judaism, how I was savagely persecuting the church of God and trying to destroy it. 1:14 I 8 was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my contemporaries in my nation, 9 and was 10 extremely zealous for the traditions of my ancestors. 11 1:15 But when the one 12 who set me apart from birth 13 and called me by his grace was pleased 1:16 to reveal his Son in 14 me so that I could preach him 15 among the Gentiles, I did not go to ask advice from 16 any human being, 17 1:17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem 18 to see those who were apostles before me, but right away I departed to Arabia, 19 and then returned to Damascus.
1:18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem 20 to visit Cephas 21 and get information from him, 22 and I stayed with him fifteen days. 1:19 But I saw none of the other apostles 23 except James the Lord’s brother.
2:1 Then after fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem 24 again with Barnabas, taking Titus along too. 2:2 I went there 25 because of 26 a revelation and presented 27 to them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. But I did so 28 only in a private meeting with the influential people, 29 to make sure that I was not running – or had not run 30 – in vain. 2:3 Yet 31 not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, although he was a Greek. 2:4 Now this matter arose 32 because of the false brothers with false pretenses 33 who slipped in unnoticed to spy on 34 our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, to make us slaves. 35 2:5 But 36 we did not surrender to them 37 even for a moment, 38 in order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 39
2:6 But from those who were influential 40 (whatever they were makes no difference to me; God shows no favoritism between people 41 ) – those influential leaders 42 added 43 nothing to my message. 44 2:7 On the contrary, when they saw 45 that I was entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised 46 just as Peter was to the circumcised 47 2:8 (for he who empowered 48 Peter for his apostleship 49 to the circumcised 50 also empowered me for my apostleship to the Gentiles) 51 2:9 and when James, Cephas, 52 and John, who had a reputation as 53 pillars, 54 recognized 55 the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me 56 the right hand of fellowship, agreeing 57 that we would go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. 58 2:10 They requested 59 only that we remember the poor, the very thing I also was eager to do.
2:11 But when Cephas 60 came to Antioch, 61 I opposed him to his face, because he had clearly done wrong. 62 2:12 Until 63 certain people came from James, he had been eating with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he stopped doing this 64 and separated himself 65 because he was afraid of those who were pro-circumcision. 66 2:13 And the rest of the Jews also joined with him in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray with them 67 by their hypocrisy. 2:14 But when I saw that they were not behaving consistently with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas 68 in front of them all, “If you, although you are a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you try to force 69 the Gentiles to live like Jews?”
1 tc ‡ The conjunction δέ (de) is found in Ì46 א*,2 A D1 Ψ 1739 1881 Ï sy bo, while γάρ (gar) is the conjunction of choice in א1 B D*,c F G 33 pc lat sa. There are thus good representatives on each side. Scribes generally tended to prefer γάρ in such instances, most likely because it was more forceful and explicit. γάρ is thus seen as a motivated reading. For this reason, δέ is preferred.
2 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).
3 tn Grk “is not according to man.”
4 tn Or “I did not receive it from a human source, nor was I taught it.”
5 tn The words “I received it” are not in the Greek text but are implied.
6 tn It is difficult to determine what kind of genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (Ihsou Cristou) is. If it is a subjective genitive, the meaning is “a revelation from Jesus Christ” but if objective genitive, it is “a revelation about Jesus Christ.” Most likely this is objective since the explanation in vv. 15-16 mentions God revealing the Son to Paul so that he might preach, although the idea of a direct revelation to Paul at some point cannot be ruled out.
7 tn Or “lifestyle,” “behavior.”
8 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
9 tn Or “among my race.”
10 tn Grk “was advancing beyond…nation, being.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) was translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
11 sn The traditions of my ancestors refers to both Pharisaic and popular teachings of this time which eventually were codified in Jewish literature such as the Mishnah, Midrashim, and Targums.
12 tc ‡ Several important witnesses have ὁ θεός (Jo qeos) after εὐδόκησεν (eudokhsen; so א A D Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï co) while the shorter reading is supported by Ì46 B F G 629 1505 pc lat. There is hardly any reason why scribes would omit the words (although the Beatty papyrus and the Western text do at times omit words and phrases), but several reasons why scribes would add the words (especially the need to clarify). The confluence of witnesses for the shorter reading (including a few fathers and versions) adds strong support for its authenticity. It is also in keeping with Paul’s style to refrain from mentioning God by name as a rhetorical device (cf. ExSyn 437 [although this section deals with passive constructions, the principle is the same]). NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating some doubts as to their authenticity.
13 tn Grk “from my mother’s womb.”
14 tn Or “to me”; the Greek preposition ἐν (en) can mean either, depending on the context.
15 tn This pronoun refers to “his Son,” mentioned earlier in the verse.
16 tn Or “I did not consult with.” For the translation “I did not go to ask advice from” see L&N 33.175.
17 tn Grk “from flesh and blood.”
19 sn As a geographical region Arabia included the territory west of Mesopotamia, east and south of Syria and Palestine, extending to the isthmus of Suez. During the Roman occupation, some independent kingdoms arose like that of the Nabateans south of Damascus, and these could be called simply Arabia. In light of the proximity to Damascus, this may well be the territory Paul says he visited here. See also C. W. Briggs, “The Apostle Paul in Arabia,” Biblical World 41 (1913): 255-59.
21 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
22 tn Although often translated “to get acquainted with Cephas,” this could give the impression of merely a social call. L&N 34.52 has “to visit, with the purpose of obtaining information” for the meaning of ἱστορέω (Jistorew), particularly in this verse.
23 tn Grk “But another of the apostles I did not see, except…” with “another” in emphatic position in the Greek text. Paul is determined to make the point that his contacts with the original twelve apostles and other leaders of the Jerusalem church were limited, thus asserting his independence from them.
25 tn Grk “I went up”; one always spoke idiomatically of going “up” to Jerusalem.
26 tn Or “in accordance with.” According to BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.5.a.δ, “Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged…Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis of…κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2.”
27 tn Or “set before them.”
28 tn Grk “Gentiles, but only privately…to make sure.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started with “But” and the words “I did so,” an implied repetition from the previous clause, were supplied to make a complete English sentence.
29 tn L&N 87.42 has “important persons, influential persons, prominent persons” for οἱ δοκοῦντες and translates this phrase in Gal 2:2 as “in a private meeting with the prominent persons.” The “prominent people” referred to here are the leaders of the Jerusalem church.
30 tn Here the first verb (τρέχω, trecw, “was not running”) is present subjunctive, while the second (ἔδραμον, edramon, “had not run”) is aorist indicative.
33 tn The adjective παρεισάκτους (pareisaktou"), which relates to someone joining a group with false motives or false pretenses, applies to the “false brothers.” Although the expression “false brothers with false pretenses” is somewhat redundant, it captures the emphatic force of Paul’s expression, which labels both these “brothers” as false (ψευδαδέλφους, yeudadelfou") as well as their motives. See L&N 34.29 for more information.
34 tn The verb translated here as “spy on” (κατασκοπέω, kataskopew) can have a neutral nuance, but here the connotation is certainly negative (so F. F. Bruce, Galatians [NIGTC], 112-13, and E. Burton, Galatians [ICC], 83).
35 tn Grk “in order that they might enslave us.” The ἵνα (Jina) clause with the subjunctive verb καταδουλώσουσιν (katadoulwsousin) has been translated as an English infinitival clause.
36 tn Grk “slaves, nor did we…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, οὐδέ (oude) was translated as “But…even” and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 5.
37 tn Or “we did not cave in to their demands.”
38 tn Grk “even for an hour” (an idiom for a very short period of time).
39 sn In order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. Paul evidently viewed the demands of the so-called “false brothers” as a departure from the truth contained in the gospel he preached. This was a very serious charge (see Gal 1:8).
40 tn Or “influential leaders.” BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.a.β has “the influential men Gal 2:2, 6b. A fuller expr. w. the same mng., w. inf. added…vss. 6a, 9.” This refers to the leadership of the Jerusalem church.
41 tn Grk “God does not receive the face of man,” an idiom for showing favoritism or partiality (BDAG 887-88 s.v. πρόσωπον 1.b.α; L&N 88.238).
42 tn Or “influential people”; here “leaders” was used rather than “people” for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy with the word “people” in the previous parenthetical remark. See also the note on the word “influential” at the beginning of this verse.
44 tn Or “added nothing to my authority.” Grk “added nothing to me,” with what was added (“message,” etc.) implied.
45 tn The participle ἰδόντες (idontes) has been taken temporally to retain the structure of the passage. Many modern translations, because of the length of the sentence here, translate this participle as a finite verb and break the Greek sentences into several English sentences (NIV, for example, begins new sentences at the beginning of both vv. 8 and 9).
46 tn Grk “to the uncircumcision,” that is, to the Gentiles.
47 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” a collective reference to the Jewish people.
48 tn Or “worked through”; the same word is also used in relation to Paul later in this verse.
49 tn Or “his ministry as an apostle.”
50 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” i.e., the Jewish people.
51 tn Grk “also empowered me to the Gentiles.”
52 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
54 sn Pillars is figurative here for those like James, Peter, and John who were leaders in the Jerusalem church.
56 tn Grk “me and Barnabas.”
57 tn Grk “so,” with the ἵνα (Jina) indicating the result of the “pillars” extending the “right hand of fellowship,” but the translation “they gave…the right hand of fellowship so that we would go” could be misunderstood as purpose here. The implication of the scene is that an agreement, outlined at the end of v. 10, was reached between Paul and Barnabas on the one hand and the “pillars” of the Jerusalem church on the other.
58 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” a collective reference to the Jewish people.
59 tn Grk “only that we remember the poor”; the words “They requested” have been supplied from the context to make a complete English sentence.
60 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
62 tn Grk “because he stood condemned.”
63 tn The conjunction γάρ has not been translated here.
64 tn Grk “he drew back.” If ἑαυτόν (Jeauton) goes with both ὑπέστελλεν (Jupestellen) and ἀφώριζεν (afwrizen) rather than only the latter, the meaning would be “he drew himself back” (see BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 1.a).
65 tn Or “and held himself aloof.”
66 tn Grk “the [ones] of the circumcision,” that is, the group of Jewish Christians who insisted on circumcision of Gentiles before they could become Christians.
67 tn The words “with them” are a reflection of the σύν- (sun-) prefix on the verb συναπήχθη (sunaphcqh; see L&N 31.76).
68 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
69 tn Here ἀναγκάζεις (anankazei") has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534).