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Galatians 1:1--6:18

Context
Salutation

1:1 From Paul, 1  an apostle (not from men, nor by human agency, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 1:2 and all the brothers with me, to the churches of Galatia. 1:3 Grace and peace to you 2  from God the Father and our 3  Lord Jesus Christ, 1:4 who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from this present evil age according to the will of our God and Father, 1:5 to whom be glory forever and ever! Amen.

Occasion of the Letter

1:6 I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting the one 4  who called you by the grace of Christ 5  and are following 6  a different 7  gospel – 1:7 not that there really is another gospel, 8  but 9  there are some who are disturbing you and wanting 10  to distort the gospel of Christ. 1:8 But even if we (or an angel from heaven) should preach 11  a gospel contrary to the one we preached to you, 12  let him be condemned to hell! 13  1:9 As we have said before, and now I say again, if any one is preaching to you a gospel contrary to what you received, let him be condemned to hell! 14  1:10 Am I now trying to gain the approval of people, 15  or of God? Or am I trying to please people? 16  If I were still trying to please 17  people, 18  I would not be a slave 19  of Christ!

Paul’s Vindication of His Apostleship

1:11 Now 20  I want you to know, brothers and sisters, 21  that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. 22  1:12 For I did not receive it or learn it from any human source; 23  instead I received it 24  by a revelation of Jesus Christ. 25 

1:13 For you have heard of my former way of life 26  in Judaism, how I was savagely persecuting the church of God and trying to destroy it. 1:14 I 27  was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my contemporaries in my nation, 28  and was 29  extremely zealous for the traditions of my ancestors. 30  1:15 But when the one 31  who set me apart from birth 32  and called me by his grace was pleased 1:16 to reveal his Son in 33  me so that I could preach him 34  among the Gentiles, I did not go to ask advice from 35  any human being, 36  1:17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem 37  to see those who were apostles before me, but right away I departed to Arabia, 38  and then returned to Damascus.

1:18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem 39  to visit Cephas 40  and get information from him, 41  and I stayed with him fifteen days. 1:19 But I saw none of the other apostles 42  except James the Lord’s brother. 1:20 I assure you 43  that, before God, I am not lying about what I am writing to you! 44  1:21 Afterward I went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1:22 But I was personally 45  unknown to the churches of Judea that are in Christ. 1:23 They were only hearing, “The one who once persecuted us is now proclaiming the good news 46  of the faith he once tried to destroy.” 1:24 So 47  they glorified God because of me. 48 

Confirmation from the Jerusalem Apostles

2:1 Then after fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem 49  again with Barnabas, taking Titus along too. 2:2 I went there 50  because of 51  a revelation and presented 52  to them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. But I did so 53  only in a private meeting with the influential people, 54  to make sure that I was not running – or had not run 55  – in vain. 2:3 Yet 56  not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, although he was a Greek. 2:4 Now this matter arose 57  because of the false brothers with false pretenses 58  who slipped in unnoticed to spy on 59  our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, to make us slaves. 60  2:5 But 61  we did not surrender to them 62  even for a moment, 63  in order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 64 

2:6 But from those who were influential 65  (whatever they were makes no difference to me; God shows no favoritism between people 66 ) – those influential leaders 67  added 68  nothing to my message. 69  2:7 On the contrary, when they saw 70  that I was entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised 71  just as Peter was to the circumcised 72  2:8 (for he who empowered 73  Peter for his apostleship 74  to the circumcised 75  also empowered me for my apostleship to the Gentiles) 76  2:9 and when James, Cephas, 77  and John, who had a reputation as 78  pillars, 79  recognized 80  the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me 81  the right hand of fellowship, agreeing 82  that we would go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. 83  2:10 They requested 84  only that we remember the poor, the very thing I also was eager to do.

Paul Rebukes Peter

2:11 But when Cephas 85  came to Antioch, 86  I opposed him to his face, because he had clearly done wrong. 87  2:12 Until 88  certain people came from James, he had been eating with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he stopped doing this 89  and separated himself 90  because he was afraid of those who were pro-circumcision. 91  2:13 And the rest of the Jews also joined with him in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray with them 92  by their hypocrisy. 2:14 But when I saw that they were not behaving consistently with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas 93  in front of them all, “If you, although you are a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you try to force 94  the Gentiles to live like Jews?”

Jews and Gentiles are Justified by Faith

2:15 We are Jews by birth 95  and not Gentile sinners, 96  2:16 yet we know 97  that no one 98  is justified by the works of the law 99  but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ. 100  And 101  we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by the faithfulness of Christ 102  and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one 103  will be justified. 2:17 But if while seeking to be justified in Christ we ourselves have also been found to be sinners, is Christ then one who encourages 104  sin? Absolutely not! 2:18 But if I build up again those things I once destroyed, 105  I demonstrate that I am one who breaks God’s law. 106  2:19 For through the law I died to the law so that I may live to God. 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ, 107  and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me. So 108  the life I now live in the body, 109  I live because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, 110  who loved me and gave himself for me. 2:21 I do not set aside 111  God’s grace, because if righteousness 112  could come through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 113 

Justification by Law or by Faith?

3:1 You 114  foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell 115  on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed 116  as crucified! 3:2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law 117  or by believing what you heard? 118  3:3 Are you so foolish? Although you began 119  with 120  the Spirit, are you now trying to finish 121  by human effort? 122  3:4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing? – if indeed it was for nothing. 3:5 Does God then give 123  you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law 124  or by your believing what you heard? 125 

3:6 Just as Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, 126  3:7 so then, understand 127  that those who believe are the sons of Abraham. 128  3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel to Abraham ahead of time, 129  saying, “All the nations 130  will be blessed in you.” 131  3:9 So then those who believe 132  are blessed along with Abraham the believer. 3:10 For all who 133  rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law. 134  3:11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous one will live by faith. 135  3:12 But the law is not based on faith, 136  but the one who does the works of the law 137  will live by them. 138  3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming 139  a curse for us (because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”) 140  3:14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, 141  so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.

Inheritance Comes from Promises and not Law

3:15 Brothers and sisters, 142  I offer an example from everyday life: 143  When a covenant 144  has been ratified, 145  even though it is only a human contract, no one can set it aside or add anything to it. 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his descendant. 146  Scripture 147  does not say, “and to the descendants,” 148  referring to many, but “and to your descendant,” 149  referring to one, who is Christ. 3:17 What I am saying is this: The law that came four hundred thirty years later does not cancel a covenant previously ratified by God, 150  so as to invalidate the promise. 3:18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise, but God graciously gave 151  it to Abraham through the promise.

3:19 Why then was the law given? 152  It was added 153  because of transgressions, 154  until the arrival of the descendant 155  to whom the promise had been made. It was administered 156  through angels by an intermediary. 157  3:20 Now an intermediary is not for one party alone, but God is one. 158  3:21 Is the law therefore opposed to the promises of God? 159  Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that was able to give life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. 160  3:22 But the scripture imprisoned 161  everything and everyone 162  under sin so that the promise could be given – because of the faithfulness 163  of Jesus Christ – to those who believe.

Sons of God Are Heirs of Promise

3:23 Now before faith 164  came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 165  until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 166  until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 167  by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 168  3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 169  3:27 For all of you who 170  were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 171  nor free, there is neither male nor female 172  – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 173  heirs according to the promise.

4:1 Now I mean that the heir, as long as he is a minor, 174  is no different from a slave, though he is the owner 175  of everything. 4:2 But he is under guardians 176  and managers until the date set by his 177  father. 4:3 So also we, when we were minors, 178  were enslaved under the basic forces 179  of the world. 4:4 But when the appropriate time 180  had come, God sent out his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 4:5 to redeem those who were under the law, so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 181  4:6 And because you are sons, God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, who calls 182 Abba! 183  Father!” 4:7 So you are no longer a slave but a son, and if you are 184  a son, then you are also an heir through God. 185 

Heirs of Promise Are Not to Return to Law

4:8 Formerly when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods at all. 186  4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless 187  basic forces? 188  Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again? 189  4:10 You are observing religious 190  days and months and seasons and years. 4:11 I fear for you that my work for you may have been in vain. 4:12 I beg you, brothers and sisters, 191  become like me, because I have become like you. You have done me no wrong!

Personal Appeal of Paul

4:13 But you know it was because of a physical illness that I first proclaimed the gospel to you, 4:14 and though my physical condition put you to the test, you did not despise or reject me. 192  Instead, you welcomed me as though I were an angel of God, 193  as though I were Christ Jesus himself! 194  4:15 Where then is your sense of happiness 195  now? For I testify about you that if it were possible, you would have pulled out your eyes and given them to me! 4:16 So then, have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? 196 

4:17 They court you eagerly, 197  but for no good purpose; 198  they want to exclude you, so that you would seek them eagerly. 199  4:18 However, it is good 200  to be sought eagerly 201  for a good purpose 202  at all times, and not only when I am present with you. 4:19 My children – I am again undergoing birth pains until Christ is formed in you! 203  4:20 I wish I could be with you now and change my tone of voice, 204  because I am perplexed about you.

An Appeal from Allegory

4:21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law, do you not understand the law? 205  4:22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the 206  slave woman and the other by the free woman. 4:23 But one, the son by the slave woman, was born by natural descent, 207  while the other, the son by the free woman, was born through the promise. 4:24 These things may be treated as an allegory, 208  for these women represent two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai bearing children for slavery; this is Hagar. 4:25 Now Hagar represents Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 4:26 But the Jerusalem above is free, 209  and she is our mother. 4:27 For it is written:

Rejoice, O barren woman who does not bear children; 210 

break forth and shout, you who have no birth pains,

because the children of the desolate woman are more numerous

than those of the woman who has a husband.” 211 

4:28 But you, 212  brothers and sisters, 213  are children of the promise like Isaac. 4:29 But just as at that time the one born by natural descent 214  persecuted the one born according to the Spirit, 215  so it is now. 4:30 But what does the scripture say? “Throw out the slave woman and her son, for the son of the slave woman will not share the inheritance with the son 216  of the free woman. 4:31 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 217  we are not children of the slave woman but of the free woman.

Freedom of the Believer

5:1 For freedom 218  Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not be subject again to the yoke 219  of slavery. 5:2 Listen! I, Paul, tell you that if you let yourselves be circumcised, Christ will be of no benefit to you at all! 5:3 And I testify again to every man who lets himself be circumcised that he is obligated to obey 220  the whole law. 5:4 You who are trying to be declared righteous 221  by the law have been alienated 222  from Christ; you have fallen away from grace! 5:5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we wait expectantly for the hope of righteousness. 5:6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision carries any weight – the only thing that matters is faith working through love. 223 

5:7 You were running well; who prevented you from obeying 224  the truth? 5:8 This persuasion 225  does not come from the one who calls you! 5:9 A little yeast makes the whole batch of dough rise! 226  5:10 I am confident 227  in the Lord that you will accept no other view. 228  But the one who is confusing 229  you will pay the penalty, 230  whoever he may be. 5:11 Now, brothers and sisters, 231  if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? 232  In that case the offense of the cross 233  has been removed. 234  5:12 I wish those agitators 235  would go so far as to 236  castrate themselves! 237 

Practice Love

5:13 For you were called to freedom, brothers and sisters; 238  only do not use your freedom as an opportunity to indulge your flesh, 239  but through love serve one another. 240  5:14 For the whole law can be summed up in a single commandment, 241  namely, “You must love your neighbor as yourself.” 242  5:15 However, if you continually bite and devour one another, 243  beware that you are not consumed 244  by one another. 5:16 But I say, live 245  by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desires of the flesh. 246  5:17 For the flesh has desires that are opposed to the Spirit, and the Spirit has desires 247  that are opposed to the flesh, for these are in opposition to 248  each other, so that you cannot do what you want. 5:18 But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. 5:19 Now the works of the flesh 249  are obvious: 250  sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 251  hostilities, 252  strife, 253  jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 254  factions, 5:21 envying, 255  murder, 256  drunkenness, carousing, 257  and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit 258  is love, 259  joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 260  5:23 gentleness, and 261  self-control. Against such things there is no law. 5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 262  have crucified the flesh 263  with its passions 264  and desires. 5:25 If we live by the Spirit, let us also behave in accordance with 265  the Spirit. 5:26 Let us not become conceited, 266  provoking 267  one another, being jealous 268  of one another.

Support One Another

6:1 Brothers and sisters, 269  if a person 270  is discovered in some sin, 271  you who are spiritual 272  restore such a person in a spirit of gentleness. 273  Pay close attention 274  to yourselves, so that you are not tempted too. 6:2 Carry one another’s burdens, and in this way you will fulfill the law of Christ. 6:3 For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives himself. 6:4 Let each one examine 275  his own work. Then he can take pride 276  in himself and not compare himself with 277  someone else. 6:5 For each one will carry 278  his own load.

6:6 Now the one who receives instruction in the word must share all good things with the one who teaches 279  it. 6:7 Do not be deceived. God will not be made a fool. 280  For a person 281  will reap what he sows, 6:8 because the person who sows to his own flesh 282  will reap corruption 283  from the flesh, 284  but the one who sows to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit. 6:9 So we must not grow weary 285  in doing good, for in due time we will reap, if we do not give up. 286  6:10 So then, 287  whenever we have an opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who belong to the family of faith. 288 

Final Instructions and Benediction

6:11 See what big letters I make as I write to you with my own hand!

6:12 Those who want to make a good showing in external matters 289  are trying to force you to be circumcised. They do so 290  only to avoid being persecuted 291  for the cross of Christ. 6:13 For those who are circumcised do not obey the law themselves, but they want you to be circumcised so that they can boast about your flesh. 292  6:14 But may I never boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which 293  the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. 6:15 For 294  neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for 295  anything; the only thing that matters is a new creation! 296  6:16 And all who will behave 297  in accordance with this rule, peace and mercy be on them, and on the Israel of God. 298 

6:17 From now on let no one cause me trouble, for I bear the marks of Jesus on my body. 299 

6:18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be 300  with your spirit, brothers and sisters. 301  Amen.

1 tn Grk “Paul.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.

2 tn Grk “Grace to you and peace.”

3 tc ‡ The unusual order καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν (kai kuriou Jhmwn), which produces the reading “our Lord Jesus Christ” instead of “God our Father,” is read by Ì46,51vid B D F G H 1739 1881 Ï sy sa, while the more normal ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου (Jhmwn kai kuriou) is found in א A P Ψ 33 81 326 365 2464 pc. Thus, the reading adopted in the translation is more widespread geographically and is found in the two earliest witnesses, along with several good representatives of the Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine texttypes. Internally, there would be a strong motivation for scribes to change the order: “from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” is Paul’s normal greeting; here alone is the pronoun attached to “Jesus Christ” (except in the pastorals, though the greeting in these letters is nevertheless unlike the rest of the corpus Paulinum). Intrinsically, the chosen reading is superior as well: Scribes would be prone to emulate Paul’s regular style, while in an early letter such as this one his regular style was yet to be established (for a similar situation, cf. the text-critical discussion at 1 Thess 1:1). Hence, there is a strong probability that the reading in the translation is authentic. Although B. M. Metzger argues that “the apostle’s stereotyped formula was altered by copyists who, apparently in the interest of Christian piety, transferred the possessive pronoun so it would be more closely associated with ‘Lord Jesus Christ’” (TCGNT 520), one might expect to see the same alterations in other Pauline letters. That this is not the case argues for “our Lord Jesus Christ” as the authentic reading here.

4 sn The one who called you is a reference to God the Father (note the mention of Christ in the following prepositional phrase and the mention of God the Father in 1:1).

5 tc Although the majority of witnesses, including some of the most important ones (Ì51 א A B Fc Ψ 33 1739 1881 Ï f vg syp bo), read “by the grace of Christ” (χάριτι Χριστοῦ, cariti Cristou) here, this reading is not without variables. Besides alternate readings such as χάριτι ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (cariti Ihsou Cristou, “by the grace of Jesus Christ”; D 326 1241s pc syh**) and χάριτι θεοῦ (cariti qeou, “by the grace of God”; 327 pc Thretlem), a few mss (Ì46vid F* G Hvid ar b Tert Cyp Ambst Pel) have simply χάριτι with no modifier. Internally, the reading that seems best to explain the rise of the others is the shortest reading, χάριτι. Indeed, the fact that three different adjuncts are found in the mss seems to be a natural expansion on the simple “grace.” At the same time, the witnesses for the shortest reading are not particularly impressive, being that they largely represent one textual strand (Western), and a less-than-reliable one at that. Further, nowhere else in the corpus Paulinum do we see the construction χάρις (cari", “grace”) followed by Χριστοῦ without some other name (such as κυρίου [kuriou, “Lord”] or ᾿Ιησοῦ). The construction χάρις θεοῦ is likewise frequent in Paul. Thus, upon closer inspection it seems that the original wording here was χάριτι Χριστοῦ (for it is difficult to explain how this particular reading could have arisen from the simple χάριτι, in light of Paul’s normal idioms), with the other readings intentionally or accidentally arising from it.

6 tn Grk “deserting [turning away] to” a different gospel, implying the idea of “following.”

7 tn Grk “another.”

8 tn Grk “which is not another,” but this could be misunderstood to mean “which is not really different.” In fact, as Paul goes on to make clear, there is no other gospel than the one he preaches.

9 tn Grk “except.”

10 tn Or “trying.”

11 tc ‡ Most witnesses have ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”) either after (א2 A [D* ὑμᾶς] 6 33 326 614 945 1881 Ï Tertpt Ambst) or before (Ì51vid B H 0278 630 1175 [1739* ἡμῖν]) εὐαγγελίζηται (euaggelizhtai, “should preach” [or some variation on the form of this verb]). But the fact that it floats suggests its inauthenticity, especially since it appears to be a motivated reading for purposes of clarification. The following witnesses lack the pronoun: א* F G Ψ ar b g Cyp McionT Tertpt Lcf. The external evidence admittedly is not as weighty as evidence for the pronoun, but coupled with strong internal evidence the shorter reading should be considered original. Although it is possible that scribes may have deleted the pronoun to make Paul’s statement seem more universal, the fact that the pronoun floats suggests otherwise. NA27 has the pronoun in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

12 tn Or “other than the one we preached to you.”

13 tn Grk “let him be accursed” (ἀνάθεμα, anaqema). The translation gives the outcome which is implied by this dreadful curse.

14 tn See the note on this phrase in the previous verse.

15 tn Grk “of men”; but here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") is used in a generic sense of both men and women.

16 tn Grk “men”; but here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is used in a generic sense of both men and women.

17 tn The imperfect verb has been translated conatively (ExSyn 550).

18 tn Grk “men”; but here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is used in a generic sense of both men and women.

19 tn Traditionally, “servant” or “bondservant.” Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.

sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s slave or servant is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For a Jew this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”

20 tc ‡ The conjunction δέ (de) is found in Ì46 א*,2 A D1 Ψ 1739 1881 Ï sy bo, while γάρ (gar) is the conjunction of choice in א1 B D*,c F G 33 pc lat sa. There are thus good representatives on each side. Scribes generally tended to prefer γάρ in such instances, most likely because it was more forceful and explicit. γάρ is thus seen as a motivated reading. For this reason, δέ is preferred.

21 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).

22 tn Grk “is not according to man.”

23 tn Or “I did not receive it from a human source, nor was I taught it.”

24 tn The words “I received it” are not in the Greek text but are implied.

25 tn It is difficult to determine what kind of genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (Ihsou Cristou) is. If it is a subjective genitive, the meaning is “a revelation from Jesus Christ” but if objective genitive, it is “a revelation about Jesus Christ.” Most likely this is objective since the explanation in vv. 15-16 mentions God revealing the Son to Paul so that he might preach, although the idea of a direct revelation to Paul at some point cannot be ruled out.

26 tn Or “lifestyle,” “behavior.”

27 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

28 tn Or “among my race.”

29 tn Grk “was advancing beyond…nation, being.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) was translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

30 sn The traditions of my ancestors refers to both Pharisaic and popular teachings of this time which eventually were codified in Jewish literature such as the Mishnah, Midrashim, and Targums.

31 tc ‡ Several important witnesses have ὁ θεός (Jo qeos) after εὐδόκησεν (eudokhsen; so א A D Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï co) while the shorter reading is supported by Ì46 B F G 629 1505 pc lat. There is hardly any reason why scribes would omit the words (although the Beatty papyrus and the Western text do at times omit words and phrases), but several reasons why scribes would add the words (especially the need to clarify). The confluence of witnesses for the shorter reading (including a few fathers and versions) adds strong support for its authenticity. It is also in keeping with Paul’s style to refrain from mentioning God by name as a rhetorical device (cf. ExSyn 437 [although this section deals with passive constructions, the principle is the same]). NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating some doubts as to their authenticity.

32 tn Grk “from my mother’s womb.”

33 tn Or “to me”; the Greek preposition ἐν (en) can mean either, depending on the context.

34 tn This pronoun refers to “his Son,” mentioned earlier in the verse.

35 tn Or “I did not consult with.” For the translation “I did not go to ask advice from” see L&N 33.175.

36 tn Grk “from flesh and blood.”

37 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

38 sn As a geographical region Arabia included the territory west of Mesopotamia, east and south of Syria and Palestine, extending to the isthmus of Suez. During the Roman occupation, some independent kingdoms arose like that of the Nabateans south of Damascus, and these could be called simply Arabia. In light of the proximity to Damascus, this may well be the territory Paul says he visited here. See also C. W. Briggs, “The Apostle Paul in Arabia,” Biblical World 41 (1913): 255-59.

39 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

40 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).

41 tn Although often translated “to get acquainted with Cephas,” this could give the impression of merely a social call. L&N 34.52 has “to visit, with the purpose of obtaining information” for the meaning of ἱστορέω (Jistorew), particularly in this verse.

42 tn Grk “But another of the apostles I did not see, except…” with “another” in emphatic position in the Greek text. Paul is determined to make the point that his contacts with the original twelve apostles and other leaders of the Jerusalem church were limited, thus asserting his independence from them.

43 tn Grk “behold.”

44 tn Grk “What things I am writing to you, behold, before God [that] I am not lying.”

45 tn Or “by sight”; Grk “by face.”

46 tn The Greek verb here is εὐαγγελίζεται (euangelizetai).

47 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the report about Paul’s conversion.

48 tn The prepositional phrase ἐν εμοί (en emoi) has been translated with a causal force.

49 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

50 tn Grk “I went up”; one always spoke idiomatically of going “up” to Jerusalem.

51 tn Or “in accordance with.” According to BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.5.a.δ, “Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged…Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis ofκ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2.”

52 tn Or “set before them.”

53 tn Grk “Gentiles, but only privately…to make sure.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started with “But” and the words “I did so,” an implied repetition from the previous clause, were supplied to make a complete English sentence.

54 tn L&N 87.42 has “important persons, influential persons, prominent persons” for οἱ δοκοῦντες and translates this phrase in Gal 2:2 as “in a private meeting with the prominent persons.” The “prominent people” referred to here are the leaders of the Jerusalem church.

55 tn Here the first verb (τρέχω, trecw, “was not running”) is present subjunctive, while the second (ἔδραμον, edramon, “had not run”) is aorist indicative.

56 tn Grk “But,” translated here as “Yet” for stylistic reasons (note the use of “but” in v. 2).

57 tn No subject and verb are expressed in vv. 4-5, but the phrase “Now this matter arose,” implied from v. 3, was supplied to make a complete English sentence.

58 tn The adjective παρεισάκτους (pareisaktou"), which relates to someone joining a group with false motives or false pretenses, applies to the “false brothers.” Although the expression “false brothers with false pretenses” is somewhat redundant, it captures the emphatic force of Paul’s expression, which labels both these “brothers” as false (ψευδαδέλφους, yeudadelfou") as well as their motives. See L&N 34.29 for more information.

59 tn The verb translated here as “spy on” (κατασκοπέω, kataskopew) can have a neutral nuance, but here the connotation is certainly negative (so F. F. Bruce, Galatians [NIGTC], 112-13, and E. Burton, Galatians [ICC], 83).

60 tn Grk “in order that they might enslave us.” The ἵνα (Jina) clause with the subjunctive verb καταδουλώσουσιν (katadoulwsousin) has been translated as an English infinitival clause.

61 tn Grk “slaves, nor did we…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, οὐδέ (oude) was translated as “But…even” and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 5.

62 tn Or “we did not cave in to their demands.”

63 tn Grk “even for an hour” (an idiom for a very short period of time).

64 sn In order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. Paul evidently viewed the demands of the so-called “false brothers” as a departure from the truth contained in the gospel he preached. This was a very serious charge (see Gal 1:8).

65 tn Or “influential leaders.” BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.a.β has “the influential men Gal 2:2, 6b. A fuller expr. w. the same mng., w. inf. added…vss. 6a, 9.” This refers to the leadership of the Jerusalem church.

66 tn Grk “God does not receive the face of man,” an idiom for showing favoritism or partiality (BDAG 887-88 s.v. πρόσωπον 1.b.α; L&N 88.238).

67 tn Or “influential people”; here “leaders” was used rather than “people” for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy with the word “people” in the previous parenthetical remark. See also the note on the word “influential” at the beginning of this verse.

68 tn Or “contributed.” This is the same word translated “go to ask advice from” in 1:16, but it has a different meaning here; see L&N 59.72.

69 tn Or “added nothing to my authority.” Grk “added nothing to me,” with what was added (“message,” etc.) implied.

70 tn The participle ἰδόντες (idontes) has been taken temporally to retain the structure of the passage. Many modern translations, because of the length of the sentence here, translate this participle as a finite verb and break the Greek sentences into several English sentences (NIV, for example, begins new sentences at the beginning of both vv. 8 and 9).

71 tn Grk “to the uncircumcision,” that is, to the Gentiles.

72 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” a collective reference to the Jewish people.

73 tn Or “worked through”; the same word is also used in relation to Paul later in this verse.

74 tn Or “his ministry as an apostle.”

75 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” i.e., the Jewish people.

76 tn Grk “also empowered me to the Gentiles.”

77 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).

78 tn Or “who were influential as,” or “who were reputed to be.” See also the note on the word “influential” in 2:6.

79 sn Pillars is figurative here for those like James, Peter, and John who were leaders in the Jerusalem church.

80 tn The participle γνόντες (gnontes) has been taken temporally. It is structurally parallel to the participle translated “when they saw” in v. 7.

81 tn Grk “me and Barnabas.”

82 tn Grk “so,” with the ἵνα (Jina) indicating the result of the “pillars” extending the “right hand of fellowship,” but the translation “they gave…the right hand of fellowship so that we would go” could be misunderstood as purpose here. The implication of the scene is that an agreement, outlined at the end of v. 10, was reached between Paul and Barnabas on the one hand and the “pillars” of the Jerusalem church on the other.

83 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” a collective reference to the Jewish people.

84 tn Grk “only that we remember the poor”; the words “They requested” have been supplied from the context to make a complete English sentence.

85 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).

86 map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

87 tn Grk “because he stood condemned.”

88 tn The conjunction γάρ has not been translated here.

89 tn Grk “he drew back.” If ἑαυτόν (Jeauton) goes with both ὑπέστελλεν (Jupestellen) and ἀφώριζεν (afwrizen) rather than only the latter, the meaning would be “he drew himself back” (see BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 1.a).

90 tn Or “and held himself aloof.”

91 tn Grk “the [ones] of the circumcision,” that is, the group of Jewish Christians who insisted on circumcision of Gentiles before they could become Christians.

92 tn The words “with them” are a reflection of the σύν- (sun-) prefix on the verb συναπήχθη (sunaphcqh; see L&N 31.76).

93 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).

94 tn Here ἀναγκάζεις (anankazei") has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534).

95 tn Grk “by nature.”

96 tn Grk “and not sinners from among the Gentiles.”

97 tn Grk “yet knowing”; the participle εἰδότες (eidotes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

98 tn Grk “no man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.

99 sn The law is a reference to the law of Moses.

100 tn Or “faith in Jesus Christ.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in v. 20; Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 3:22; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 [1974]: 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 [1989]: 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.

sn On the phrase translated the faithfulness of Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.

101 tn In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.

102 tn Or “by faith in Christ.” See comment above on “the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.”

103 tn Or “no human being”; Grk “flesh.”

104 tn Or “does Christ serve the interests of sin?”; or “is Christ an agent for sin?” See BDAG 230-31 s.v. διάκονος 2.

105 tn Or “once tore down.”

106 tn Traditionally, “that I am a transgressor.”

107 tn Both the NA27/UBS4 Greek text and the NRSV place the phrase “I have been crucified with Christ” at the end of v. 19, but most English translations place these words at the beginning of v. 20.

108 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to bring out the connection of the following clauses with the preceding ones. What Paul says here amounts to a result or inference drawn from his co-crucifixion with Christ and the fact that Christ now lives in him. In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.

109 tn Grk “flesh.”

110 tc A number of important witnesses (Ì46 B D* F G) have θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ (qeou kai Cristou, “of God and Christ”) instead of υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ (Juiou tou qeou, “the Son of God”), found in the majority of mss, including several important ones (א A C D1 Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï lat sy co). The construction “of God and Christ” appears to be motivated as a more explicit affirmation of the deity of Christ (following as it apparently does the Granville Sharp rule). Although Paul certainly has an elevated Christology, explicit “God-talk” with reference to Jesus does not normally appear until the later books (cf., e.g., Titus 2:13, Phil 2:10-11, and probably Rom 9:5). For different arguments but the same textual conclusions, see TCGNT 524.

tn Or “I live by faith in the Son of God.” See note on “faithfulness of Jesus Christ” in v. 16 for the rationale behind the translation “the faithfulness of the Son of God.”

sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.

111 tn Or “I do not declare invalid,” “I do not nullify.”

112 tn Or “justification.”

113 tn Or “without cause,” “for no purpose.”

114 tn Grk “O” (an interjection used both in address and emotion). In context the following section is highly charged emotionally.

115 tn Or “deceived”; the verb βασκαίνω (baskainw) can be understood literally here in the sense of bewitching by black magic, but could also be understood figuratively to refer to an act of deception (see L&N 53.98 and 88.159).

116 tn Or “publicly placarded,” “set forth in a public proclamation” (BDAG 867 s.v. προγράφω 2).

117 tn Grk “by [the] works of [the] law,” a reference to observing the Mosaic law.

118 tn Grk “by [the] hearing of faith.”

119 tn Grk “Having begun”; the participle ἐναρξάμενοι (enarxamenoi) has been translated concessively.

120 tn Or “by the Spirit.”

121 tn The verb ἐπιτελεῖσθε (epiteleisqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534). This is something the Galatians were attempting to do, but could not accomplish successfully.

122 tn Grk “in/by [the] flesh.”

123 tn Or “provide.”

124 tn Grk “by [the] works of [the] law” (the same phrase as in v. 2).

125 tn Grk “by [the] hearing of faith” (the same phrase as in v. 2).

126 sn A quotation from Gen 15:6.

127 tn Grk “know.”

128 tn The phrase “sons of Abraham” is used here in a figurative sense to describe people who are connected to a personality, Abraham, by close nonmaterial ties. It is this personality that has defined the relationship and its characteristics (BDAG 1024-25 s.v. υἱός 2.c.α).

129 tn For the Greek verb προευαγγελίζομαι (proeuangelizomai) translated as “proclaim the gospel ahead of time,” compare L&N 33.216.

130 tn The same plural Greek word, τὰ ἔθνη (ta eqnh), can be translated as “nations” or “Gentiles.”

131 sn A quotation from Gen 12:3; 18:18.

132 tn Grk “those who are by faith,” with the Greek expression “by faith” (ἐκ πίστεως, ek pistew") the same as the expression in v. 8.

133 tn Grk “For as many as.”

134 tn Grk “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all the things written in the book of the law, to do them.”

sn A quotation from Deut 27:26.

135 tn Or “The one who is righteous by faith will live” (a quotation from Hab 2:4).

136 tn Grk “is not from faith.”

137 tn Grk “who does these things”; the referent (the works of the law, see 3:5) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

138 sn A quotation from Lev 18:5. The phrase the works of the law is an editorial expansion on the Greek text (see previous note); it has been left as normal typeface to indicate it is not part of the OT text.

139 tn Grk “having become”; the participle γενόμενος (genomenos) has been taken instrumentally.

140 sn A quotation from Deut 21:23. By figurative extension the Greek word translated tree (ζύλον, zulon) can also be used to refer to a cross (L&N 6.28), the Roman instrument of execution.

141 tn Or “so that the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles in Christ Jesus.”

142 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

143 tn Grk “I speak according to man,” referring to the illustration that follows.

144 tn The same Greek word, διαθήκη (diaqhkh), can mean either “covenant” or “will,” but in this context the former is preferred here because Paul is discussing in vv. 16-18 the Abrahamic covenant.

145 tn Or “has been put into effect.”

146 tn Grk “his seed,” a figurative extension of the meaning of σπέρμα (sperma) to refer to descendants (L&N 10.29).

147 tn Grk “It”; the referent (the scripture) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The understood subject of the verb λέγει (legei) could also be “He” (referring to God) as the one who spoke the promise to Abraham.

148 tn Grk “to seeds.” See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse. Here the term is plural; the use of the singular in the OT text cited later in this verse is crucial to Paul’s argument.

149 tn See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse.

sn A quotation from Gen 12:7; 13:15; 17:7; 24:7.

150 tc Most mss (D F G I 0176 0278 Ï it sy) read “ratified by God in Christ” whereas the omission of “in Christ” is the reading in Ì46 א A B C P Ψ 6 33 81 1175 1739 1881 2464 pc co. The shorter reading is strongly supported by the ms evidence, and it is probable that a copyist inserted the words as an interpretive gloss. However, this form of the “in Christ” expression is somewhat atypical in the corpus Paulinum (εἰς Χριστόν [ei" Criston] rather than ἐν Χριστῷ [en Cristw]), a fact which tempers one’s certainty about the shorter reading. Nevertheless, the expression is used more in Galatians than in any other of Paul’s letters (Gal 2:16; 3:24, 27), and may have been suggested by such texts to early copyists.

151 tn On the translation “graciously gave” for χαρίζομαι (carizomai) see L&N 57.102.

152 tn Grk “Why then the law?”

153 tc For προσετέθη (proseteqh) several Western mss have ἐτέθη (eteqh, “it was established”; so D* F G it Irlat Ambst Spec). The net effect of this reading, in conjunction with the largely Western reading of πράξεων (praxewn) for παραβάσεων (parabasewn), seems to be a very positive assessment of the law. But there are compelling reasons for rejecting this reading: (1) externally, it is provincial and relatively late; (2) internally: (a) transcriptionally, there seems to be a much higher transcriptional probability that a scribe would try to smooth over Paul’s harsh saying here about the law than vice versa; (b) intrinsically: [1] Paul has already argued that the law came after the promise (vv. 15-18), indicating, more than likely, its temporary nature; [2] the verb “was added” in v. 19 (προσετέθη) is different from the verb in v. 15 (ἐπιδιατάσσεται, epidiatassetai); virtually all exegetes recognize this as an intentional linguistic shift on Paul’s part in order not to contradict his statement in v. 15; [3] the temper of 3:14:7 is decidedly against a positive statement about the Torah’s role in Heilsgeschichte.

154 tc παραδόσεων (paradosewn; “traditions, commandments”) is read by D*, while the vast majority of witnesses read παραβάσεων (parabasewn, “transgressions”). D’s reading makes little sense in this context. πράξεων (praxewn, “of deeds”) replaces παραβάσεων in Ì46 F G it Irlat Ambst Spec. The wording is best taken as going with νόμος (nomo"; “Why then the law of deeds?”), as is evident by the consistent punctuation in the later witnesses. But such an expression is unpauline and superfluous; it was almost certainly added by some early scribe(s) to soften the blow of Paul’s statement.

155 tn Grk “the seed.” See the note on the first occurrence of the word “descendant” in 3:16.

156 tn Or “was ordered.” L&N 31.22 has “was put into effect” here.

157 tn Many modern translations (NASB, NIV, NRSV) render this word (μεσίτης, mesith"; here and in v. 20) as “mediator,” but this conveys a wrong impression in contemporary English. If this is referring to Moses, he certainly did not “mediate” between God and Israel but was an intermediary on God’s behalf. Moses was not a mediator, for example, who worked for compromise between opposing parties. He instead was God’s representative to his people who enabled them to have a relationship, but entirely on God’s terms.

158 tn The meaning of this verse is disputed. According to BDAG 634 s.v. μεσίτης, “It prob. means that the activity of an intermediary implies the existence of more than one party, and hence may be unsatisfactory because it must result in a compromise. The presence of an intermediary would prevent attainment, without any impediment, of the purpose of the εἶς θεός in giving the law.” See also A. Oepke, TDNT 4:598-624, esp. 618-19.

159 tc The reading τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) is well attested in א A C D (F G read θεοῦ without the article) Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï lat sy co. However, Ì46 B d Ambst lack the words. Ì46 and B perhaps should not to be given as much weight as they normally are, since the combination of these two witnesses often produces a secondary shorter reading against all others. In addition, one might expect that if the shorter reading were original other variants would have crept into the textual tradition early on. But 104 (a.d. 1087) virtually stands alone with the variant τοῦ Χριστοῦ (tou Cristou, “of Christ”). Nevertheless, if τοῦ θεοῦ were not part of the original text, it is the kind of variant that would be expected to show up early and often, especially in light of Paul’s usage elsewhere (Rom 4:20; 2 Cor 1:20). A slight preference should be given to the τοῦ θεοῦ over the omission. NA27 rightly places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

160 tn Or “have been based on the law.”

161 tn Or “locked up.”

162 tn Grk “imprisoned all things” but τὰ πάντα (ta panta) includes people as part of the created order. Because people are the emphasis of Paul’s argument ( “given to those who believe” at the end of this verse.), “everything and everyone” was used here.

163 tn Or “so that the promise could be given by faith in Jesus Christ to those who believe.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 2:16, 20; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 [1974]: 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 [1989]: 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.

sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.

164 tn Or “the faithfulness [of Christ] came.”

165 tc Instead of the present participle συγκλειόμενοι (sunkleiomenoi; found in Ì46 א A B D* F G P Ψ 33 1739 al), C D1 0176 0278 Ï have the perfect συγκεκλεισμένοι (sunkekleismenoi). The syntactical implication of the perfect is that the cause or the means of being held in custody was confinement (“we were held in custody [by/because of] being confined”). The present participle of course allows for such options, but also allows for contemporaneous time (“while being confined”) and result (“with the result that we were confined”). Externally, the perfect participle has little to commend it, being restricted for the most part to later and Byzantine witnesses.

tn Grk “being confined.”

166 tn Or “disciplinarian,” “custodian,” or “guide.” According to BDAG 748 s.v. παιδαγωγός, “the man, usu. a slave…whose duty it was to conduct a boy or youth…to and from school and to superintend his conduct gener.; he was not a ‘teacher’ (despite the present mng. of the derivative ‘pedagogue’…When the young man became of age, the π. was no longer needed.” L&N 36.5 gives “guardian, leader, guide” here.

167 tn Or “be justified.”

168 tn See the note on the word “guardian” in v. 24. The punctuation of vv. 25, 26, and 27 is difficult to represent because of the causal connections between each verse. English style would normally require a comma either at the end of v. 25 or v. 26, but in so doing the translation would then link v. 26 almost exclusively with either v. 25 or v. 27; this would be problematic as scholars debate which two verses are to be linked. Because of this, the translation instead places a period at the end of each verse. This preserves some of the ambiguity inherent in the Greek and does not exclude any particular causal connection.

169 tn Or “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”

170 tn Grk “For as many of you as.”

171 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 1:10.

172 tn Grk “male and female.”

173 tn Grk “seed.” See the note on the first occurrence of the word “descendant” in 3:16.

174 tn Grk “a small child.” The Greek term νήπιος (nhpios) refers to a young child, no longer a helpless infant but probably not more than three or four years old (L&N 9.43). The point in context, though, is that this child is too young to take any responsibility for the management of his assets.

175 tn Grk “master” or “lord” (κύριος, kurios).

176 tn The Greek term translated “guardians” here is ἐπίτροπος (epitropo"), whose semantic domain overlaps with that of παιδαγωγός (paidagwgo") according to L&N 36.5.

177 tn Grk “the,” but the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

178 tn See the note on the word “minor” in 4:1.

179 tn Or “basic principles,” “elemental things,” or “elemental spirits.” Some interpreters take this as a reference to supernatural powers who controlled nature and/or human fate.

180 tn Grk “the fullness of time” (an idiom for the totality of a period of time, with the implication of proper completion; see L&N 67.69).

181 tn The Greek term υἱοθεσία (Juioqesia) was originally a legal technical term for adoption as a son with full rights of inheritance. BDAG 1024 s.v. notes, “a legal t.t. of ‘adoption’ of children, in our lit., i.e. in Paul, only in a transferred sense of a transcendent filial relationship between God and humans (with the legal aspect, not gender specificity, as major semantic component).” Although some modern translations remove the filial sense completely and render the term merely “adoption” (cf. NAB), the retention of this component of meaning was accomplished in the present translation by the phrase “as sons.”

182 tn Grk “calling.” The participle is neuter indicating that the Spirit is the one who calls.

183 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father” but taken over simply as “father,” used in prayer and in the family circle, and later taken over by the early Greek-speaking Christians (BDAG 1 s.v. ἀββα).

184 tn Grk “and if a son, then also an heir.” The words “you are” have been supplied twice to clarify the statement.

185 tc The unusual expression διὰ θεοῦ (dia qeou, “through God”) certainly prompted scribes to alter it to more customary or theologically acceptable ones such as διὰ θεόν (dia qeon, “because of God”; F G 1881 pc), διὰ Χριστοῦ (dia Cristou, “through Christ”; 81 630 pc sa), διὰ ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (dia Ihsou Cristou, “through Jesus Christ”; 1739c), θεοῦ διὰ Χριστοῦ (“[an heir] of God through Christ”; א2 C3 D [P] 0278 [6 326 1505] Ï ar sy), or κληρονόμος μὲν θεοῦ, συγκληρονόμος δὲ Χριστοῦ (klhronomo" men qeou, sugklhronomo" de Cristou, “an heir of God, and fellow-heir with Christ”; Ψ pc [cf. Rom 8:17]). Although it is unusual for Paul to speak of God as an intermediate agent, it is not unprecedented (cf. Gal 1:1; 1 Cor 1:9). Nevertheless, Gal 4:7 is the most direct statement to this effect. Further testimony on behalf of διὰ θεοῦ is to be found in external evidence: The witnesses with this phrase are among the most important in the NT (Ì46 א* A B C* 33 1739*vid lat bo Cl).

186 tn Grk “those that by nature…” with the word “beings” implied. BDAG 1070 s.v. φύσις 2 sees this as referring to pagan worship: “Polytheists worship…beings that are by nature no gods at all Gal 4:8.”

187 tn Or “useless.” See L&N 65.16.

188 tn See the note on the phrase “basic forces” in 4:3.

189 tn Grk “basic forces, to which you want to be enslaved…” Verse 9 is a single sentence in the Greek text, but has been divided into two in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence.

190 tn The adjective “religious” has been supplied in the translation to make clear that the problem concerns observing certain days, etc. in a religious sense (cf. NIV, NRSV “special days”). In light of the polemic in this letter against the Judaizers (those who tried to force observance of the Mosaic law on Gentile converts to Christianity) this may well be a reference to the observance of Jewish Sabbaths, feasts, and other religious days.

191 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

192 tn Grk “your trial in my flesh you did not despise or reject.”

193 tn Or “the angel of God.” Linguistically, “angel of God” is the same in both testaments (and thus, he is either “an angel of God” or “the angel of God” in both testaments). For arguments and implications, see ExSyn 252; M. J. Davidson, “Angels,” DJG, 9; W. G. MacDonald argues for “an angel” in both testaments: “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’,” Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation, 324-35.

194 tn Grk “as an angel of God…as Christ Jesus.” This could be understood to mean either “you welcomed me like an angel of God would,” or “you welcomed me as though I were an angel of God.” In context only the second is accurate, so the translation has been phrased to indicate this.

195 tn Or “blessedness.”

196 tn Or “have I become your enemy because I am telling you the truth?” The participle ἀληθεύων (alhqeuwn) can be translated as a causal adverbial participle or as a participle of means (as in the translation).

197 tn Or “They are zealous for you.”

198 tn Or “but not commendably” (BDAG 505 s.v. καλῶς 2).

199 tn Or “so that you would be zealous.”

200 tn Or “commendable.”

201 tn Or “to be zealous.”

202 tn Grk “But it is always good to be zealous in good.”

203 tn Grk “My children, for whom I am again undergoing birth pains until Christ is formed in you.” The relative clauses in English do not pick up the emotional force of Paul’s language here (note “tone of voice” in v. 20, indicating that he is passionately concerned for them); hence, the translation has been altered slightly to capture the connotative power of Paul’s plea.

sn That is, until Christ’s nature or character is formed in them (see L&N 58.4).

204 tn Grk “voice” or “tone.” The contemporary English expression “tone of voice” is a good approximation to the meaning here.

205 tn Or “will you not hear what the law says?” The Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw) means “hear, listen to,” but by figurative extension it can also mean “obey.” It can also refer to the process of comprehension that follows hearing, and that sense fits the context well here.

206 tn Paul’s use of the Greek article here and before the phrase “free woman” presumes that both these characters are well known to the recipients of his letter. This verse is given as an example of the category called “well-known (‘celebrity’ or ‘familiar’) article” by ExSyn 225.

207 tn Grk “born according to the flesh”; BDAG 916 s.v. σάρξ 4 has “Of natural descent τὰ τέκνα τῆς σαρκός children by natural descent Ro 9:8 (opp. τὰ τέκνα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας). ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται Gal 4:23; cp. vs. 29.”

208 tn Grk “which things are spoken about allegorically.” Paul is not saying the OT account is an allegory, but rather that he is constructing an allegory based on the OT account.

209 sn The meaning of the statement the Jerusalem above is free is that the other woman represents the second covenant (cf. v. 24); she corresponds to the Jerusalem above that is free. Paul’s argument is very condensed at this point.

210 tn The direct object “children” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

211 tn Grk “because more are the children of the barren one than of the one having a husband.”

sn A quotation from Isa 54:1.

212 tc Most mss (א A C D2 Ψ 062 Ï lat sy bo) read “we” here, while “you” is found in Ì46 B D* F G 0261vid 0278 33 1739 al sa. It is more likely that a copyist, noticing the first person pronouns in vv. 26 and 31, changed a second person pronoun here to first person for consistency.

213 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

214 tn Grk “according to the flesh”; see the note on the phrase “by natural descent” in 4:23.

215 tn Or “the one born by the Spirit’s [power].”

216 sn A quotation from Gen 21:10. The phrase of the free woman does not occur in Gen 21:10.

217 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

218 tn Translating the dative as “For freedom” shows the purpose for Christ setting us free; however, it is also possible to take the phrase in the sense of means or instrument (“with [or by] freedom”), referring to the freedom mentioned in 4:31 and implied throughout the letter.

219 sn Here the yoke figuratively represents the burdensome nature of slavery.

220 tn Or “keep”; or “carry out”; Grk “do.”

221 tn Or “trying to be justified.” The verb δικαιοῦσθε (dikaiousqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534).

222 tn Or “estranged”; BDAG 526 s.v. καταργέω 4 states, “Of those who aspire to righteousness through the law κ. ἀπὸ Χριστοῦ be estranged from Christ Gal 5:4.”

223 tn Grk “but faith working through love.”

224 tn Or “following.” BDAG 792 s.v. πείθω 3.b states, “obey, follow w. dat. of the pers. or thing…Gal 3:1 v.l.; 5:7.”

225 tn Grk “The persuasion,” referring to their being led away from the truth (v. 7). There is a play on words here that is not easily reproducible in the English translation: The words translated “obey” (πείθεσθαι, peiqesqai) in v. 7 and “persuasion” (πεισμονή, peismonh) in v. 8 come from the same root in Greek.

226 tn Grk “A little leaven leavens the whole lump.”

227 tn The verb translated “I am confident” (πέποιθα, pepoiqa) comes from the same root in Greek as the words translated “obey” (πείθεσθαι, peiqesqai) in v. 7 and “persuasion” (πεισμονή, peismonh) in v. 8.

228 tn Grk “that you will think nothing otherwise.”

229 tn Or “is stirring you up”; Grk “is troubling you.” In context Paul is referring to the confusion and turmoil caused by those who insist that Gentile converts to Christianity must observe the Mosaic law.

230 tn Or “will suffer condemnation” (L&N 90.80); Grk “will bear his judgment.” The translation “must pay the penalty” is given as an explanatory gloss on the phrase by BDAG 171 s.v. βαστάζω 2.b.β.

231 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

232 sn That is, if Paul still teaches observance of the Mosaic law (preaches circumcision), why is he still being persecuted by his opponents, who insist that Gentile converts to Christianity must observe the Mosaic law?

233 sn The offense of the cross refers to the offense to Jews caused by preaching Christ crucified.

234 tn Or “nullified.”

235 tn Grk “the ones who are upsetting you.” The same verb is used in Acts 21:38 to refer to a person who incited a revolt. Paul could be alluding indirectly to the fact that his opponents are inciting the Galatians to rebel against his teaching with regard to circumcision and the law.

236 tn Grk “would even.”

237 tn Or “make eunuchs of themselves”; Grk “cut themselves off.” This statement is rhetorical hyperbole on Paul’s part. It does strongly suggest, however, that Paul’s adversaries in this case (“those agitators”) were men. Some interpreters (notably Erasmus and the Reformers) have attempted to soften the meaning to a figurative “separate themselves” (meaning the opponents would withdraw from fellowship) but such an understanding dramatically weakens the rhetorical force of Paul’s argument. Although it has been argued that such an act of emasculation would be unthinkable for Paul, it must be noted that Paul’s statement is one of biting sarcasm, obviously not meant to be taken literally. See further G. Stählin, TDNT 3:853-55.

238 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

239 tn Grk “as an opportunity for the flesh”; BDAG 915 s.v. σάρξ 2.c.α states: “In Paul’s thought esp., all parts of the body constitute a totality known as σ. or flesh, which is dominated by sin to such a degree that wherever flesh is, all forms of sin are likew. present, and no good thing can live in the σάρξGal 5:13, 24;…Opp. τὸ πνεῦμαGal 3:3; 5:16, 17ab; 6:8ab.”

240 tn It is possible that the verb δουλεύετε (douleuete) should be translated “serve one another in a humble manner” here, referring to the way in which slaves serve their masters (see L&N 35.27).

241 tn Or “can be fulfilled in one commandment.”

242 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

243 tn That is, “if you are harming and exploiting one another.” Paul’s metaphors are retained in most modern translations, but it is possible to see the meanings of δάκνω and κατεσθίω (daknw and katesqiw, L&N 20.26 and 88.145) as figurative extensions of the literal meanings of these terms and to translate them accordingly. The present tenses here are translated as customary presents (“continually…”).

244 tn Or “destroyed.”

245 tn Grk “walk” (a common NT idiom for how one conducts one’s life or how one behaves).

246 tn On the term “flesh” (once in this verse and twice in v. 17) see the note on the same word in Gal 5:13.

247 tn The words “has desires” do not occur in the Greek text a second time, but are repeated in the translation for clarity.

248 tn Or “are hostile toward” (L&N 39.1).

249 tn See the note on the word “flesh” in Gal 5:13.

250 tn Or “clear,” “evident.”

251 tn Or “witchcraft.”

252 tn Or “enmities,” “[acts of] hatred.”

253 tn Or “discord” (L&N 39.22).

254 tn Or “discord(s)” (L&N 39.13).

255 tn This term is plural in Greek (as is “murder” and “carousing”), but for clarity these abstract nouns have been translated as singular.

256 tcφόνοι (fonoi, “murders”) is absent in such important mss as Ì46 א B 33 81 323 945 pc sa, while the majority of mss (A C D F G Ψ 0122 0278 1739 1881 Ï lat) have the word. Although the pedigree of the mss which lack the term is of the highest degree, homoioteleuton may well explain the shorter reading. The preceding word has merely one letter difference, making it quite possible to overlook this term (φθόνοι φόνοι, fqonoi fonoi).

257 tn Or “revelings,” “orgies” (L&N 88.287).

258 tn That is, the fruit the Spirit produces.

259 sn Another way to punctuate this is “love” followed by a colon (love: joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control). It is thus possible to read the eight characteristics following “love” as defining love.

260 tn Or “reliability”; see BDAG 818 s.v. πίστις 1.a.

261 tn “And” is supplied here as a matter of English style, which normally inserts “and” between the last two elements of a list or series.

262 tc ‡ Some mss (א A B C P Ψ 01221 0278 33 1175 1739 pc co) read “Christ Jesus” here, while many significant ones (Ì46 D F G 0122*,2 latt sy), as well as the Byzantine text, lack “Jesus.” The Byzantine text is especially not prone to omit the name “Jesus”; that it does so here argues for the authenticity of the shorter reading (for similar instances of probably authentic Byzantine shorter readings, see Matt 24:36 and Phil 1:14; cf. also W.-H. J. Wu, “A Systematic Analysis of the Shorter Readings in the Byzantine Text of the Synoptic Gospels” [Ph.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 2002]). On the strength of the alignment of Ì46 with the Western and Byzantine texttypes, the shorter reading is preferred. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

263 tn See the note on the word “flesh” in Gal 5:13.

264 tn The Greek term παθήμασιν (paqhmasin, translated “passions”) refers to strong physical desires, especially of a sexual nature (L&N 25.30).

265 tn Or “let us also follow,” “let us also walk by.”

266 tn Or “falsely proud.”

267 tn Or “irritating.” BDAG 871 s.v. προκαλέω has “provoke, challenge τινά someone.

268 tn Or “another, envying one another.”

269 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.

270 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.

271 tn Or “some transgression” (L&N 88.297).

272 sn Who are spiritual refers to people who are controlled and directed by God’s Spirit.

273 tn Or “with a gentle spirit” or “gently.”

274 tn Grk “taking careful notice.”

275 tn Or “determine the genuineness of.”

276 tn Grk “he will have a reason for boasting.”

277 tn Or “and not in regard to.” The idea of comparison is implied in the context.

278 tn Or perhaps, “each one must carry.” A number of modern translations treat βαστάσει (bastasei) as an imperatival future.

279 tn Or “instructs,” “imparts.”

280 tn Or “is not mocked,” “will not be ridiculed” (L&N 33.409). BDAG 660 s.v. μυκτηρίζω has “of God οὐ μ. he is not to be mocked, treated w. contempt, perh. outwitted Gal 6:7.”

281 tn Here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.

282 tn BDAG 915 s.v. σάρξ 2.c.α states: “In Paul’s thought esp., all parts of the body constitute a totality known as σ. or flesh, which is dominated by sin to such a degree that wherever flesh is, all forms of sin are likew. present, and no good thing can live in the σάρξGal 5:13, 24;…Opp. τὸ πνεῦμαGal 3:3; 5:16, 17ab; 6:8ab.”

283 tn Or “destruction.”

284 tn See the note on the previous occurrence of the word “flesh” in this verse.

285 tn Or “not become discouraged,” “not lose heart” (L&N 25.288).

286 tn Or “if we do not become extremely weary,” “if we do not give out,” “if we do not faint from exhaustion” (L&N 23.79).

287 tn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what Paul has been arguing.

288 tn Grk “to those who are members of the family of [the] faith.”

289 tn Grk “in the flesh.” L&N 88.236 translates the phrase “those who force you to be circumcised are those who wish to make a good showing in external matters.”

290 tn Grk “to be circumcised, only.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started with the words “They do so,” which were supplied to make a complete English sentence.

291 tcGrk “so that they will not be persecuted.” The indicative after ἵνα μή (Jina mh) is unusual (though not unexampled elsewhere in the NT), making it the harder reading. The evidence is fairly evenly split between the indicative διώκονται (diwkontai; Ì46 A C F G K L P 0278 6 81 104 326 629 1175 1505 pm) and the subjunctive διώκωνται (diwkwntai; א B D Ψ 33 365 1739 pm), with a slight preference for the subjunctive. However, since scribes would tend to change the indicative to a subjunctive due to syntactical requirements, the internal evidence is decidedly on the side of the indicative, suggesting that it is original.

292 tn Or “boast about you in external matters,” “in the outward rite” (cf. v. 12).

293 tn Or perhaps, “through whom,” referring to the Lord Jesus Christ rather than the cross.

294 tc The phrase “in Christ Jesus” is found after “For” in some mss (א A C D F G 0278 1881 Ï lat bo), but lacking in Ì46 B Ψ 33 1175 1505 1739* and several fathers. The longer reading probably represents a harmonization to Gal 5:6.

295 tn Grk “is.”

296 tn Grk “but a new creation”; the words “the only thing that matters” have been supplied to reflect the implied contrast with the previous clause (see also Gal 5:6).

297 tn The same Greek verb, στοιχέω (stoicew), occurs in Gal 5:25.

298 tn The word “and” (καί) can be interpreted in two ways: (1) It could be rendered as “also” which would indicate that two distinct groups are in view, namely “all who will behave in accordance with this rule” and “the Israel of God.” Or (2) it could be rendered “even,” which would indicate that “all who behave in accordance with this rule” are “the Israel of God.” In other words, in this latter view, “even” = “that is.”

299 tn Paul is probably referring to scars from wounds received in the service of Jesus, although the term στίγμα (stigma) may imply ownership and suggest these scars served as brands (L&N 8.55; 33.481; 90.84).

300 tn Or “is.” No verb is stated, but a wish (“be”) rather than a declarative statement (“is”) is most likely in a concluding greeting such as this.

301 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:11.



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