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Ezekiel 33:1--39:29

Context
Ezekiel Israel’s Watchman

33:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 33:2 “Son of man, speak to your people, 1  and say to them, ‘Suppose I bring a sword against the land, and the people of the land take one man from their borders and make him their watchman. 33:3 He sees the sword coming against the land, blows the trumpet, 2  and warns the people, 3  33:4 but there is one who hears the sound of the trumpet yet does not heed the warning. Then the sword comes and sweeps him away. He will be responsible for his own death. 4  33:5 He heard the sound of the trumpet but did not heed the warning, so he is responsible for himself. 5  If he had heeded the warning, he would have saved his life. 33:6 But suppose the watchman sees the sword coming and does not blow the trumpet to warn the people. Then the sword comes and takes one of their lives. He is swept away for his iniquity, 6  but I will hold the watchman accountable for that person’s death.’ 7 

33:7 “As for you, son of man, I have made you a watchman 8  for the house of Israel. Whenever you hear a word from my mouth, you must warn them on my behalf. 33:8 When I say to the wicked, ‘O wicked man, you must certainly die,’ 9  and you do not warn 10  the wicked about his behavior, 11  the wicked man will die for his iniquity, but I will hold you accountable for his death. 12  33:9 But if you warn the wicked man to change his behavior, 13  and he refuses to change, 14  he will die for his iniquity, but you have saved your own life.

33:10 “And you, son of man, say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what you have said: “Our rebellious acts and our sins have caught up with us, 15  and we are wasting away because of them. How then can we live?”’ 33:11 Say to them, ‘As surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, I take no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but prefer that the wicked change his behavior 16  and live. Turn back, turn back from your evil deeds! 17  Why should you die, O house of Israel?’

33:12 “And you, son of man, say to your people, 18  ‘The righteousness of the righteous will not deliver him if he rebels. 19  As for the wicked, his wickedness will not make him stumble if he turns from it. 20  The righteous will not be able to live by his righteousness 21  if he sins.’ 22  33:13 Suppose I tell the righteous that he will certainly live, but he becomes confident in his righteousness and commits iniquity. None of his righteous deeds will be remembered; because of the iniquity he has committed he will die. 33:14 Suppose I say to the wicked, ‘You must certainly die,’ but he turns from his sin and does what is just and right. 33:15 He 23  returns what was taken in pledge, pays back what he has stolen, and follows the statutes that give life, 24  committing no iniquity. He will certainly live – he will not die. 33:16 None of the sins he has committed will be counted 25  against him. He has done what is just and right; he will certainly live.

33:17 “Yet your people 26  say, ‘The behavior 27  of the Lord is not right,’ 28  when it is their behavior that is not right. 33:18 When a righteous man turns from his godliness and commits iniquity, he will die for it. 33:19 When the wicked turns from his sin and does what is just and right, he will live because of it. 33:20 Yet you say, ‘The behavior of the Lord is not right.’ House of Israel, I will judge each of you according to his behavior.” 29 

The Fall of Jerusalem

33:21 In the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth of the month, 30  a refugee came to me from Jerusalem 31  saying, “The city has been defeated!” 32  33:22 Now the hand of the Lord had been on me 33  the evening before the refugee reached me, but the Lord 34  opened my mouth by the time the refugee arrived 35  in the morning; he opened my mouth and I was no longer unable to speak. 36  33:23 The word of the Lord came to me: 33:24 “Son of man, the ones living in these ruins in the land of Israel are saying, ‘Abraham was only one man, yet he possessed the land, but we are many; surely the land has been given to us for a possession.’ 37  33:25 Therefore say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: You eat the meat with the blood still in it, 38  pray to 39  your idols, and shed blood. Do you really think you will possess 40  the land? 33:26 You rely 41  on your swords and commit abominable deeds; each of you defiles his neighbor’s wife. Will you possess the land?’

33:27 “This is what you must say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: As surely as I live, those living in the ruins will die 42  by the sword, those in the open field I will give to the wild beasts for food, and those who are in the strongholds and caves will die of disease. 33:28 I will turn the land into a desolate ruin; her confident pride will come to an end. The mountains of Israel will be so desolate no one will pass through them. 33:29 Then they will know that I am the Lord when I turn the land into a desolate ruin because of all the abominable deeds they have committed.’ 43 

33:30 “But as for you, son of man, your people 44  (who are talking about you by the walls and at the doors of the houses) say to one another, 45  ‘Come hear the word that comes 46  from the Lord.’ 33:31 They come to you in crowds, 47  and they sit in front of you as 48  my people. They hear your words, but do not obey 49  them. For they talk lustfully, 50  and their heart is set on 51  their own advantage. 52  33:32 Realize 53  that to them you are like a sensual song, a beautiful voice and skilled musician. 54  They hear your words, but they do not obey them. 55  33:33 When all this comes true – and it certainly will 56  – then they will know that a prophet was among them.”

A Prophecy Against False Shepherds

34:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 34:2 “Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds 57  of Israel; prophesy, and say to them – to the shepherds: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Woe to the shepherds of Israel who have been feeding themselves! Should not shepherds feed the flock? 34:3 You eat the fat, you clothe yourselves with the wool, you slaughter the choice animals, but you do not feed the sheep! 34:4 You have not strengthened the weak, healed the sick, bandaged the injured, brought back the strays, or sought the lost, but with force and harshness 58  you have ruled over them. 34:5 They were scattered because they had no shepherd, and they became food for every wild beast. 59  34:6 My sheep wandered over all the mountains and on every high hill. My sheep were scattered over the entire face of the earth with no one looking or searching for them.

34:7 “‘Therefore, you shepherds, hear the word of the Lord: 34:8 As surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, my sheep have become prey and have become food for all the wild beasts. There was no shepherd, and my shepherds did not search for my flock, but fed themselves and did not feed my sheep, 34:9 Therefore, you shepherds, hear the word of the Lord: 34:10 This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am against the shepherds, and I will demand my sheep from their hand. I will no longer let them be shepherds; 60  the shepherds will not feed themselves anymore. I will rescue my sheep from their mouth, so that they will no longer be food for them.

34:11 “‘For this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I myself will search for my sheep and seek them out. 34:12 As a shepherd seeks out his flock when he is among his scattered sheep, so I will seek out my flock. I will rescue them from all the places where they have been scattered on a cloudy, dark day. 61  34:13 I will bring them out from among the peoples and gather them from foreign countries; I will bring them to their own land. I will feed them on the mountains of Israel, by the streams and all the inhabited places of the land. 34:14 In a good pasture I will feed them; the mountain heights of Israel will be their pasture. There they will lie down in a lush 62  pasture, and they will feed on rich grass on the mountains of Israel. 34:15 I myself will feed my sheep and I myself will make them lie down, declares the sovereign Lord. 34:16 I will seek the lost and bring back the strays; I will bandage the injured and strengthen the sick, but the fat and the strong I will destroy. I will feed them – with judgment!

34:17 “‘As for you, my sheep, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to judge between one sheep and another, between rams and goats. 34:18 Is it not enough for you to feed on the good pasture, that you must trample the rest of your pastures with your feet? When you drink clean water, must you muddy the rest of the water by trampling it with your feet? 34:19 As for my sheep, they must eat what you trampled with your feet, and drink what you have muddied with your feet!

34:20 “‘Therefore, this is what the sovereign Lord says to them: Look, I myself will judge between the fat sheep and the lean sheep. 34:21 Because you push with your side and your shoulder, and thrust your horns at all the weak sheep until you scatter them abroad, 63  34:22 I will save my sheep; they will no longer be prey. I will judge between one sheep and another.

34:23 I will set one shepherd over them, and he will feed them – namely, my servant David. 64  He will feed them and will be their shepherd. 34:24 I, the Lord, will be their God, and my servant David will be prince 65  among them; I, the Lord, have spoken!

34:25 “‘I will make a covenant of peace with them and will rid the land of wild beasts, so that they can live securely 66  in the wilderness and even sleep in the woods. 67  34:26 I will turn them and the regions around my hill into a blessing. I will make showers come down in their season; they will be showers that bring blessing. 68  34:27 The trees of the field will yield their fruit and the earth will yield its crops. They will live securely on their land; they will know that I am the Lord, when I break the bars of their yoke and rescue them from the hand of those who enslaved them. 34:28 They will no longer be prey for the nations and the wild beasts will not devour them. They will live securely and no one will make them afraid. 34:29 I will prepare for them a healthy 69  planting. They will no longer be victims 70  of famine in the land and will no longer bear the insults of the nations. 34:30 Then they will know that I, the Lord their God, am with them, 71  and that they are my people, the house of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord. 72  34:31 And you, my sheep, the sheep of my pasture, are my people, 73  and I am your God, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

Prophecy Against Mount Seir

35:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 35:2 “Son of man, turn toward 74  Mount Seir, 75  and prophesy against it. 35:3 Say to it, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Look, I am against you, Mount Seir;

I will stretch out my hand against you

and turn you into a desolate ruin.

35:4 I will lay waste your cities;

and you will become desolate.

Then you will know that I am the Lord!

35:5 “‘You have shown unrelenting hostility and poured the people of Israel onto the blades of a sword 76  at the time of their calamity, at the time of their final punishment. 35:6 Therefore, as surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, I will subject you to bloodshed, and bloodshed will pursue you. Since you did not hate bloodshed, bloodshed will pursue you. 35:7 I will turn Mount Seir into a desolate ruin; 77  I will cut off 78  from it the one who passes through or returns. 35:8 I will fill its mountains with its dead; on your hills and in your valleys and in all your ravines, those killed by the sword will fall. 35:9 I will turn you into a perpetual desolation, and your cities will not be inhabited. Then you will know that I am the Lord.

35:10 “‘You said, “These two nations, these two lands 79  will be mine, and we will possess them,” 80  – although the Lord was there – 35:11 therefore, as surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, I will deal with you according to your anger, and according to your envy, by which you acted spitefully against them. I will reveal myself to them when I judge you. 35:12 Then you will know that I, the Lord, have heard all the insults you spoke against the mountains of Israel, saying, “They are desolate, they have been given to us for food.” 35:13 You exalted yourselves against me with your speech 81  and hurled many insults against me 82  – I have heard them all! 35:14 This is what the sovereign Lord says: While the whole earth rejoices, I will turn you into a desolation. 35:15 As you rejoiced over the inheritance of the house of Israel because it was desolate, so will I deal with you – you will be desolate, Mount Seir, and all of Edom – all of it! Then they will know that I am the Lord.’”

Blessings on the Mountains of Israel

36:1 “As for you, son of man, prophesy to the mountains of Israel, and say: ‘O mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord! 36:2 This is what the sovereign Lord says: The enemy has spoken against you, saying “Aha!” and, “The ancient heights 83  have become our property!”’ 36:3 So prophesy and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Surely because they have made you desolate and crushed you from all directions, so that you have become the property of the rest of the nations, and have become the subject of gossip 84  and slander among the people, 36:4 therefore, O mountains of Israel, hear the word of the sovereign Lord: This is what the sovereign Lord says to the mountains and hills, the ravines and valleys, and to the desolate ruins and the abandoned cities that have become prey and an object of derision to the rest of the nations round about – 36:5 therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Surely I have spoken in the fire of my zeal against the rest of the nations, and against all Edom, who with great joy and utter contempt have made my land their property and prey, because of its pasture.’

36:6 “Therefore prophesy concerning the land of Israel, and say to the mountains and hills, the ravines and valleys, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I have spoken in my zeal and in my anger, because you have endured the insults of the nations. 36:7 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: I vow 85  that the nations around you will endure insults as well.

36:8 “‘But you, mountains of Israel, will grow your branches, and bear your fruit for my people Israel; for they will arrive soon. 86  36:9 For indeed, I am on your side; 87  I will turn to you, and you will be plowed and planted. 36:10 I will multiply your people 88  – the whole house of Israel, all of it. The cities will be populated and the ruins rebuilt. 36:11 I will increase the number of people and animals on you; they will increase and be fruitful. 89  I will cause you to be inhabited as in ancient times, and will do more good for you than at the beginning of your history. 90  Then you will know that I am the Lord. 36:12 I will lead people, my people Israel, across you; they will possess you and you will become their inheritance. No longer will you bereave them of their children.

36:13 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Because they are saying to you, “You are a devourer of men, and bereave your nation of children,” 36:14 therefore you will no longer devour people and no longer bereave your nation of children, declares the sovereign Lord. 36:15 I will no longer subject you to 91  the nations’ insults; no longer will you bear the shame of the peoples, and no longer will you bereave 92  your nation, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

36:16 The word of the Lord came to me: 36:17 “Son of man, when the house of Israel was living on their own land, they defiled it by their behavior 93  and their deeds. In my sight their behavior was like the uncleanness of a woman having her monthly period. 36:18 So I poured my anger on them 94  because of the blood they shed on the land and because of the idols with which they defiled it. 95  36:19 I scattered them among the nations; they were dispersed throughout foreign countries. In accordance with their behavior and their deeds I judged them. 36:20 But when they arrived in the nations where they went, they profaned my holy name. It was said of them, ‘These are the people of the Lord, yet they have departed from his land.’ 36:21 I was concerned for my holy reputation 96  which the house of Israel profaned among the nations where they went.

36:22 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: It is not for your sake that I am about to act, O house of Israel, but for the sake of my holy reputation 97  which you profaned among the nations where you went. 36:23 I will magnify 98  my great name that has been profaned among the nations, that you have profaned among them. The nations will know that I am the Lord, declares the sovereign Lord, when I magnify myself among you in their sight.

36:24 “‘I will take you from the nations and gather you from all the countries; then I will bring you to your land. 36:25 I will sprinkle you with pure water 99  and you will be clean from all your impurities. I will purify you from all your idols. 36:26 I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit within you. I will remove the heart of stone 100  from your body and give you a heart of flesh. 101  36:27 I will put my Spirit within you; 102  I will take the initiative and you will obey my statutes 103  and carefully observe my regulations. 104  36:28 Then you will live in the land I gave to your fathers; you will be my people, and I will be your God. 105  36:29 I will save you from all your uncleanness. I will call for the grain and multiply it; I will not bring a famine on you. 36:30 I will multiply the fruit of the trees and the produce of the fields, so that you will never again suffer the disgrace of famine among the nations. 36:31 Then you will remember your evil behavior 106  and your deeds which were not good; you will loathe yourselves on account of your sins and your abominable deeds. 36:32 Understand that 107  it is not for your sake I am about to act, declares the sovereign Lord. Be ashamed and embarrassed by your behavior, O house of Israel.

36:33 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: In the day I cleanse you from all your sins, I will populate the cities and the ruins will be rebuilt. 36:34 The desolate land will be plowed, instead of being desolate in the sight of everyone who passes by. 36:35 They will say, “This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; the ruined, desolate, and destroyed cities are now fortified and inhabited.” 36:36 Then the nations which remain around you will know that I, the Lord, have rebuilt the ruins and replanted what was desolate. I, the Lord, have spoken – and I will do it!’

36:37 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: I will allow the house of Israel to ask me to do this for them: 108  I will multiply their people like sheep. 109  36:38 Like the sheep for offerings, like the sheep of Jerusalem 110  during her appointed feasts, so will the ruined cities be filled with flocks of people. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”

The Valley of Dry Bones

37:1 The hand 111  of the Lord was on me, and he brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and placed 112  me in the midst of the valley, and it was full of bones. 37:2 He made me walk all around among them. 113  I realized 114  there were a great many bones in the valley and they were very dry. 37:3 He said to me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” I said to him, “Sovereign Lord, you know.” 37:4 Then he said to me, “Prophesy over these bones, and tell them: ‘Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord. 37:5 This is what the sovereign Lord says to these bones: Look, I am about to infuse breath 115  into you and you will live. 37:6 I will put tendons 116  on you and muscles over you and will cover you with skin; I will put breath 117  in you and you will live. Then you will know that I am the Lord.’”

37:7 So I prophesied as I was commanded. There was a sound when I prophesied – I heard 118  a rattling, and the bones came together, bone to bone. 37:8 As I watched, I saw 119  tendons on them, then muscles appeared, 120  and skin covered over them from above, but there was no breath 121  in them.

37:9 He said to me, “Prophesy to the breath, 122  – prophesy, son of man – and say to the breath: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these corpses so that they may live.’” 37:10 So I prophesied as I was commanded, and the breath came into them; they lived and stood on their feet, an extremely great army.

37:11 Then he said to me, “Son of man, these bones are all the house of Israel. Look, they are saying, ‘Our bones are dry, our hope has perished; we are cut off.’ 37:12 Therefore prophesy, and tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to open your graves and will raise you from your graves, my people. I will bring you to the land of Israel. 37:13 Then you will know that I am the Lord, when I open your graves and raise you from your graves, my people. 37:14 I will place my breath 123  in you and you will live; I will give you rest in your own land. Then you will know that I am the Lord – I have spoken and I will act, declares the Lord.’”

37:15 The word of the Lord came to me: 37:16 “As for you, son of man, take one branch, and write on it, ‘For Judah, and for the Israelites associated with him.’ Then take another branch and write on it, ‘For Joseph, the branch of Ephraim and all the house of Israel associated with him.’ 37:17 Join 124  them as one stick; 125  they will be as one in your hand. 37:18 When your people 126  say to you, ‘Will you not tell us what these things mean?’ 37:19 tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to take the branch of Joseph which is in the hand of Ephraim and the tribes of Israel associated with him, and I will place them on the stick of Judah, 127  and make them into one stick – they will be one in my hand.’ 128  37:20 The sticks you write on will be in your hand in front of them. 37:21 Then tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to take the Israelites from among the nations where they have gone. I will gather them from round about and bring them to their land. 37:22 I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel, and one king will rule over them all. They will never again be two nations and never again be divided into two kingdoms. 129  37:23 They will not defile themselves with their idols, their detestable things, and all their rebellious deeds. I will save them from all their unfaithfulness 130  by which they sinned. I will purify them; they will become my people and I will become their God.

37:24 “‘My servant David will be king over them; there will be one shepherd for all of them. They will follow 131  my regulations and carefully observe my statutes. 132  37:25 They will live in the land I gave to my servant Jacob, in which your fathers lived; they will live in it – they and their children and their grandchildren forever. David my servant will be prince over them forever. 37:26 I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be a perpetual covenant with them. 133  I will establish them, 134  increase their numbers, and place my sanctuary among them forever. 37:27 My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be my people. 37:28 Then, when my sanctuary is among them forever, the nations will know that I, the Lord, sanctify Israel.’” 135 

A Prophecy Against Gog

38:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 38:2 “Son of man, turn toward 136  Gog, 137  of the land of Magog, 138  the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 139  Prophesy against him 38:3 and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 140  I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 38:4 I will turn you around, put hooks into your jaws, and bring you out with all your army, horses and horsemen, all of them fully armed, a great company with shields of different types, 141  all of them armed with swords. 38:5 Persia, 142  Ethiopia, and Put 143  are with them, all of them with shields and helmets. 38:6 They are joined by 144  Gomer with all its troops, and by Beth Togarmah from the remote parts of the north with all its troops – many peoples are with you. 145 

38:7 “‘Be ready and stay ready, you and all your companies assembled around you, and be a guard for them. 146  38:8 After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years you will come to a land restored from the ravages of war, 147  with many peoples gathered on the mountains of Israel that had long been in ruins. Its people 148  were brought out from the peoples, and all of them will be living securely. 38:9 You will advance; 149  you will come like a storm. You will be like a cloud covering the earth, you, all your troops, and the many other peoples with you.

38:10 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day thoughts will come into your mind, 150  and you will devise an evil plan. 38:11 You will say, “I will invade 151  a land of unwalled towns; I will advance against 152  those living quietly in security – all of them living without walls and barred gates – 38:12 to loot and plunder, to attack 153  the inhabited ruins and the people gathered from the nations, who are acquiring cattle and goods, who live at the center 154  of the earth.” 38:13 Sheba and Dedan and the traders of Tarshish with all its young warriors 155  will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’

38:14 “Therefore, prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day when my people Israel are living securely, you will take notice 156  38:15 and come from your place, from the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great company and a vast army. 38:16 You will advance 157  against my people Israel like a cloud covering the earth. In the latter days I will bring you against my land so that the nations may acknowledge me, when before their eyes I magnify myself 158  through you, O Gog.

38:17 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days by my servants 159  the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days 160  that I would bring you against them? 38:18 On that day, when Gog invades 161  the land of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord, my rage will mount up in my anger. 38:19 In my zeal, in the fire of my fury, 162  I declare that on that day there will be a great earthquake 163  in the land of Israel. 38:20 The fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the wild beasts, all the things that creep on the ground, and all people who live on the face of the earth will shake 164  at my presence. The mountains will topple, the cliffs 165  will fall, and every wall will fall to the ground. 38:21 I will call for a sword to attack 166  Gog 167  on all my mountains, declares the sovereign Lord; every man’s sword will be against his brother. 38:22 I will judge him with plague and bloodshed. I will rain down on him, his troops and the many peoples who are with him a torrential downpour, hailstones, fire, and brimstone. 38:23 I will exalt and magnify myself; I will reveal myself before many nations. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’

39:1 “As for you, son of man, prophesy against Gog, and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am against you, O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal! 39:2 I will turn you around and drag you along; 168  I will lead you up from the remotest parts of the north and bring you against the mountains of Israel. 39:3 I will knock your bow out of your left hand and make your arrows fall from your right hand. 39:4 You will fall dead on the mountains of Israel, you and all your troops and the people who are with you. I give you as food to every kind of bird and every wild beast. 39:5 You will fall dead in the open field; for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord. 39:6 I will send fire on Magog and those who live securely in the coastlands; then they will know that I am the Lord.

39:7 “‘I will make my holy name known in the midst of my people Israel; I will not let my holy name be profaned anymore. Then the nations will know that I am the Lord, the Holy One of Israel. 169  39:8 Realize that it is coming and it will be done, declares the sovereign Lord. It is the day I have spoken about.

39:9 “‘Then those who live in the cities of Israel will go out and use the weapons for kindling 170  – the shields, 171  bows and arrows, war clubs and spears – they will burn them for seven years. 39:10 They will not need to take 172  wood from the field or cut down trees from the forests, because they will make fires with the weapons. They will take the loot from those who looted them and seize the plunder of those who plundered them, 173  declares the sovereign Lord.

39:11 “‘On that day I will assign Gog a grave in Israel. It will be the valley of those who travel east of the sea; it will block the way of the travelers. There they will bury Gog and all his horde; they will call it the valley of Hamon-Gog. 174  39:12 For seven months Israel 175  will bury them, in order to cleanse the land. 39:13 All the people of the land will bury them, and it will be a memorial 176  for them on the day I magnify myself, declares the sovereign Lord. 39:14 They will designate men to scout continually 177  through the land, burying those who remain on the surface of the ground, 178  in order to cleanse it. They will search for seven full months. 39:15 When the scouts survey 179  the land and see a human bone, they will place a sign by it, until those assigned to burial duty have buried it 180  in the valley of Hamon-Gog. 39:16 (A city by the name of Hamonah 181  will also be there.) They will cleanse the land.’

39:17 “As for you, son of man, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Tell every kind of bird and every wild beast: ‘Assemble and come! Gather from all around to my slaughter 182  which I am going to make for you, a great slaughter on the mountains of Israel! You will eat flesh and drink blood. 39:18 You will eat the flesh of warriors 183  and drink the blood of the princes of the earth – the rams, lambs, goats, and bulls, all of them fattened animals of Bashan. 39:19 You will eat fat until you are full, and drink blood until you are drunk, 184  at my slaughter 185  which I have made for you. 39:20 You will fill up at my table with horses and charioteers, 186  with warriors and all the soldiers,’ declares the sovereign Lord.

39:21 “I will display my majesty 187  among the nations. All the nations will witness the judgment I have executed, and the power I have exhibited 188  among them. 39:22 Then the house of Israel will know that I am the Lord their God, from that day forward. 39:23 The nations will know that the house of Israel went into exile due to their iniquity, 189  for they were unfaithful to me. So I hid my face from them and handed them over to their enemies; all of them died by the sword. 39:24 According to their uncleanness and rebellion I have dealt with them, and I hid my face from them.

39:25 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Now I will restore 190  the fortunes of Jacob, and I will have mercy on the entire house of Israel. I will be zealous for my holy name. 39:26 They will bear their shame for all their unfaithful acts against me, when they live securely on their land with no one to make them afraid. 39:27 When I have brought them back from the peoples and gathered them from the countries of their enemies, I will magnify myself among them in the sight of many nations. 39:28 Then they will know that I am the Lord their God, because I sent them into exile among the nations, and then gathered them into their own land. I will not leave any of them in exile 191  any longer. 39:29 I will no longer hide my face from them, when I pour out my Spirit on the house of Israel, 192  declares the sovereign Lord.”

1 tn Heb “sons of your people.”

2 tn Heb “shofar,” a ram’s horn rather than a brass instrument (so throughout the chapter).

3 tn Sounding the trumpet was a warning of imminent danger (Neh 4:18-20; Jer 4:19; Amos 3:6).

4 tn Heb “his blood will be on his own head.”

5 tn Heb “his blood will be on him.”

6 tn Or “in his punishment.” The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity/punishment” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here and in vv. 8 and 9; 3:18, 19; 4:17; 7:13, 16; 18: 17, 18, 19, 20; 24:23; 39:23. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment” for iniquity or “guilt” of iniquity.

7 tn Heb “his blood from the hand of the watchman I will seek.”

8 sn Jeremiah (Jer 6:17) and Habakkuk (Hab 2:1) also served in the role of a watchman.

9 tn The same expression occurs in Gen 2:17.

10 tn Heb “and you do not speak to warn.”

11 tn Heb “way.”

12 tn Heb “and his blood from your hand I will seek.”

13 tn Heb “from his way to turn from it.”

14 tn Heb “and he does not turn from his way.”

15 tn Heb “(are) upon us.”

16 tn Heb “turn from his way.”

17 tn Heb “ways.” This same word is translated “behavior” earlier in the verse.

18 tn Heb “the sons of your people.”

19 tn Heb “in the day of his rebellion.” The statement envisions a godly person rejecting what is good and becoming sinful. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:247-48.

20 tn Heb “and the wickedness of the wicked, he will not stumble in it in the day of his turning from his wickedness.”

21 tn Heb “by it.”

22 tn Heb “in the day of his sin.”

23 tn Heb “the wicked one.”

24 tn Heb “and in the statutes of life he walks.”

25 tn Heb “remembered.”

26 tn Heb “the sons of your people.”

27 tn Heb “way.”

28 tn The Hebrew verb translated “is (not) right” has the basic meaning of “to measure.” For a similar concept, see Ezek 18:25, 29.

29 tn Heb “ways.”

30 tn January 19, 585 b.c.

31 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

32 tn Heb “smitten.”

33 tn The other occurrences of the phrase “the hand of the Lord” in Ezekiel are in the context of prophetic visions.

34 tn Heb “he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

35 tn Heb “by the time of the arrival to me.” For clarity the translation specifies the refugee as the one who arrived.

36 sn Ezekiel’s God-imposed muteness was lifted (see 3:26).

37 sn Outside of its seven occurrences in Ezekiel the term translated “possession” appears only in Exod 6:8 and Deut 33:4.

38 sn This practice was a violation of Levitical law (see Lev 19:26).

39 tn Heb “lift up your eyes.”

40 tn Heb “Will you possess?”

41 tn Heb “stand.”

42 tn Heb “fall.”

43 sn The judgments of vv. 27-29 echo the judgments of Lev 26:22, 25.

44 tn Heb “sons of your people.”

45 tn Heb “one to one, a man to his brother.”

46 tn Heb “comes out.”

47 tn Heb “as people come.” Apparently this is an idiom indicating that they come in crowds. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:264.

48 tn The word “as” is supplied in the translation.

49 tn Heb “do.”

50 tn Heb “They do lust with their mouths.”

51 tn Heb “goes after.”

52 tn The present translation understands the term often used for “unjust gain” in a wider sense, following M. Greenberg, who also notes that the LXX uses a term which can describe either sexual or ritual pollution. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:687.

53 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

54 tn Heb “one who makes playing music well.”

55 sn Similar responses are found in Isa 29:13; Matt 21:28-32; James 1:22-25.

56 tn Heb “behold it is coming.”

57 tn The term shepherd is applied to kings in the ancient Near East. In the OT the Lord is often addressed as shepherd of Israel (Gen 49:24; Ps 8:1). The imagery of shepherds as Israel’s leaders is also employed (Jer 23:1-2).

58 tn The term translated “harshness” is used to describe the oppression the Israelites suffered as slaves in Egypt (Exod 1:13).

59 tn As a case of dittography, the MT repeats “and they were scattered” at the end of the verse.

60 tn Heb “I will cause them to cease from feeding sheep.”

61 sn The imagery may reflect the overthrow of the Israelites by the Babylonians in 587/6 b.c.

62 tn Heb “good.”

63 tn Heb “outside.”

64 sn The messianic king is here called “David” (see Jer 30:9 and Hos 3:5, as well as Isa 11:1 and Mic 5:2) because he will fulfill the Davidic royal ideal depicted in the prophets and royal psalms (see Ps 2, 89).

65 sn The messianic king (“David”) is called both “king” and “prince” in 37:24-25. The use of the term “prince” for this king facilitates the contrast between this ideal ruler and the Davidic “princes” denounced in earlier prophecies (see 7:27; 12:10, 12; 19:1; 21:25; 22:6, 25).

66 tn The phrase “live securely” occurs in Ezek 28:26; 38:8, 11, 14; 39:26 as an expression of freedom from fear. It is a promised blessing resulting from obedience (see Lev 26:5-6).

67 sn The woods were typically considered to be places of danger (Ps 104:20-21; Jer 5:6).

68 tn Heb “showers of blessing.” Abundant rain, which in turn produces fruit and crops (v. 27), is a covenantal blessing for obedience (Lev 26:4).

69 tc The MT reads לְשֵׁם (lÿshem, “for a name”), meaning perhaps a renowned planting (place). The translation takes this to be a metathesis of שָׁלֹם (shalom) as was read by the LXX.

70 tn Heb “those gathered” for famine.

71 sn A promise given to Abraham (Gen 15:7) and his descendants (Gen 15:8; Exod 6:7).

72 sn The blessings described in vv. 25-30 are those promised for obedience in Lev 26:4-13.

73 tn Heb, “the sheep of my pasture, you are human.” See 36:37-38 for a similar expression. The possessive pronoun “my” is supplied in the translation to balance “I am your God” in the next clause.

74 tn Heb “set your face against.”

75 sn Mount Seir is to be identified with Edom (Ezek 35:15), home of Esau’s descendants (Gen 25:21-30).

76 tn Or “gave over…to the power of the sword.” This phrase also occurs in Jer 18:21 and Ps 63:10.

77 tc The translation reads with some manuscripts לְשִׁמְמָה וּמְשַׁמָּה (lÿshimmah umÿshammah, “desolate ruin”) as in verse 3 and often in Ezekiel. The majority reading reverses the first mem (מ) with the shin (שׁ) resulting in the repetition of the word desolate: לְשִׁמְמָה וּשְׁמָמָה (lÿshimmah ushÿmamah).

78 tn Or “kill.”

79 sn The reference is to Israel and Judah.

80 tn Heb “it.”

81 tn Heb “your mouth.”

82 tn Heb “and you multiplied against me your words.” The Hebrew verb occurs only here and in Prov 27:6, where it refers to the “excessive” kisses of an enemy. The basic idea of the verb appears to be “to be abundant.” Here it occurs in the causative (Hiphil) stem.

83 tn Or “high places.”

84 tn Heb “lip of the tongue.”

85 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

86 tn Heb “they draw near to arrive.”

87 tn Heb “I (am) toward you.”

88 tn Heb “I will multiply on you human(s).”

89 sn These verbs occur together in Gen 1:22, 28; 9:1.

90 tn Heb “your beginning.”

91 tn Heb “cause you to hear.”

92 tc The MT reads תַכְשִׁלִי (takhshiliy), a metathesis for תַשְׁכִלִי (tashkhiliy) from the root שָׁכַל (shakhal) which is used in each of the previous verses.

93 tn Heb “way.”

94 sn See Ezek 7:8; 9:8; 14:19; 20:8, 13, 21; 22:22; 30:15.

95 sn For the concept of defiling the land in legal literature, see Lev 18:28; Deut 21:23.

96 tn Heb “name.”

97 sn In Ezek 20:22 God refrained from punishment for the sake of his holy name. Here God’s reputation is the basis for Israel’s restoration.

98 tn Or “sanctify,” Heb “make holy.”

99 sn The Lord here uses a metaphor from the realm of ritual purification. For the use of water in ritual cleansing, see Exod 30:19-20; Lev 14:51; Num 19:18; Heb 10:22.

100 sn That is, a heart which symbolizes a will that is stubborn and unresponsive (see 1 Sam 25:37). In Rabbinic literature a “stone” was associated with an evil inclination (b. Sukkah 52a).

101 sn That is, a heart which symbolizes a will that is responsive and obedient to God.

102 tn Or “in the midst of you.” The word “you” is plural.

103 tn Heb “and I will do that which in my statutes you will walk.” The awkward syntax (verb “to do, act” + accusative sign + relative clause + prepositional phrase + second person verb) is unique, though Eccl 3:14 contains a similar construction. In the last line of that verse we read that “God acts so that (relative pronoun) they fear before him.” However, unlike Ezek 36:27, the statement has no accusative sign before the relative pronoun.

104 tn Heb “and my laws you will guard and you will do them.” Jer 31:31-34 is parallel to this passage.

105 sn This promise reflects the ancient covenantal ideal (see Exod 6:7).

106 tn Heb “ways.”

107 tn Heb “Let it be known.”

108 tn The Niphal verb may have a tolerative function here, “Again (for) this I will allow myself to be sought by the house of Israel to act for them.” Or it may be reflexive: “I will reveal myself to the house of Israel by doing this also.”

109 sn Heb “I will multiply them like sheep, human(s).”

110 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

111 tn Or “power.”

sn Hand in the OT can refer metaphorically to power, authority, or influence. In Ezekiel God’s hand being on the prophet is regularly associated with communication or a vision from God (3:14, 22; 8:1; 37:1; 40:1).

112 tn Heb “caused me to rest.”

113 tn Heb “and he made me pass over them, around, around.”

114 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and is here translated as “I realized” because it results from Ezekiel’s recognition of the situation around him. In Hebrew, the exclamation is repeated in the following sentence.

115 tn Heb “I am about to bring a spirit.”

116 tn The exact physiological meaning of the term is uncertain. In addition to v. 8, the term occurs only in Gen 32:33; Job 10:11; 40:17; and Jer 48:4.

117 tn Or “a spirit.”

118 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

119 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

120 tn Heb “came up.”

121 tn Or “spirit.”

122 tn Or “spirit,” and several times in this verse.

123 tn Or “spirit.” This is likely an allusion to Gen 2 and God’s breath which creates life.

124 tn Heb “bring near.”

125 tn Heb “one to one for you for one stick.”

126 tn Heb “the sons of your people.”

127 tn Heb “I will place them on it, that is, on the stick of Judah.”

128 sn The reunification of Israel and Judah is envisioned as well in Ezek 33:23, 29; Jer 3:18; 23:5-6; Hos 1:11; Amos 9:11.

129 sn Jeremiah also attested to the reuniting of the northern and southern kingdoms (Jer 3:12, 14; 31:2-6).

130 tc Heb “their dwellings.” The text as it stands does not make sense. Based on the LXX, a slight emendation of two vowels, including a mater, yields the reading “from their turning,” a reference here to their turning from God and deviating from his commandments. See BDB 1000 s.v. מְשׁוּבָה, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:407.

131 tn Heb “walk [in].”

132 tn Heb “and my statutes they will guard and they will do them.”

133 sn See Isa 24:5; 55:3; 61:8; Jer 32:40; 50:5; Ezek 16:60, for other references to perpetual covenants.

134 tn Heb “give them.”

135 sn The sanctuary of Israel becomes the main focus of Ezek 40-48.

136 tn Heb “set your face against.”

137 sn This may refer to a Lydian king in western Asia Minor in the seventh century b.c. Apart from Ezek 38-39, the only other biblical reference to this king/nation is in Rev 20:8. For a study of the names appearing in this verse, see E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.

138 sn One of the sons of Japheth according to Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5.

139 tn Heb “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names with later geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. See as well E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.

sn Meshech and Tubal were two nations in Cappadocia of Asia Minor. They were also sons of Japheth (Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5).

140 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

141 sn The Hebrew text mentions two different types of shields here.

142 tn D. I. Block prefers to see the Hebrew word as referring here to a western ally of Egypt or as an alternative spelling for Pathros, that is, Upper Egypt. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:439-40.

143 sn That is, Lydia.

144 tn The words “they are joined by” are added in the translation for purposes of English style.

145 sn The seven-nation coalition represents the north (Meshech, Tubal, Gomer, Beth-Togarmah), the south/west (Ethiopia, Put) and the east (Persia). The use of the sevenfold list suggests completeness. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:441.

146 tn The second person singular verbal and pronominal forms in the Hebrew text indicate that Gog is addressed here.

147 tn Heb “from the sword.”

148 tn Heb “it.”

149 tn Heb “go up.”

150 tn Heb “words will go up upon your heart.”

151 tn Heb “go up against.”

152 tn Heb “come (to).”

153 tn Heb “to turn your hand against.”

154 tn The Hebrew term occurs elsewhere only in Judg 9:37. Perhaps it means “high point, top.”

155 tn Heb “young lions.”

156 tn The Hebrew text is framed as a rhetorical question: “will you not take notice?”

157 tn Heb “come up.”

158 tn Or “reveal my holiness.”

159 tn Heb “by the hand of my servants.”

160 tn The Hebrew text adds “years” here, but this is probably a scribal gloss on the preceding phrase. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:201.

161 tn Heb “goes up against.”

162 sn The phrase “in the fire of my fury” occurs in Ezek 21:31; 22:21, 31.

163 tn Or “shaking.”

164 tn Or “tremble.”

165 tn The term occurs only here and in Song of Songs 2:14.

166 tn Heb “against.”

167 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Gog, cf. v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

168 tn The Hebrew root occurs only here in the OT. An apparent cognate in the Ethiopic language means “walk along.” For a discussion of the research on this verb, see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:460.

169 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the Lord in the book of Isaiah.

170 tn Heb “burn and kindle the weapons.”

171 tn Two different types of shields are specified in the Hebrew text.

172 tn Heb “they will not carry.”

173 tn Heb “loot their looters and plunder their plunderers.”

174 tn The name means “horde of Gog.”

175 tn Heb “the house of Israel.”

176 tn Heb “name.”

177 tn Heb “men of perpetuity.”

178 tn Heb “and bury the travelers and those who remain on the surface of the ground.” The reference to “travelers” seems odd and is omitted in the LXX. It is probably an accidental duplication (see v. 11).

179 tn Heb “as the scouts scout.”

180 tn That is, the aforementioned bone.

181 tn This name appears to be a feminine form of the word “horde,” used in the name Hamon-Gog.

182 tn Or “sacrifice” (so also in the rest of this verse).

183 sn See Rev 19:17-18.

184 sn Eating the fat and drinking blood were God’s exclusive rights in Israelite sacrifices (Lev 3:17).

185 tn Or “sacrifice” (so also in the rest of this verse).

186 tn Heb “chariots.”

187 tn Or “my glory.”

188 tn Heb “my hand which I have placed.”

189 tn Or “in their punishment.” The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity/punishment” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here; 3:18, 19; 4:17; 7:13, 16; 18: 17, 18, 19, 20; 24:23; 33:6, 8, 9. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment” for iniquity or “guilt” of iniquity.

190 tn Heb “cause to return.”

191 tn Heb “there,” referring to the foreign nations to which they were exiled. The translation makes the referent clear.

192 sn See Ezek 11:19; 37:14.



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