27:13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech were your clients; they exchanged slaves and bronze items for your merchandise.
38:2 “Son of man, turn toward 1 Gog, 2 of the land of Magog, 3 the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 4 Prophesy against him 38:3 and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 5 I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal.
1 tn Heb “set your face against.”
2 sn This may refer to a Lydian king in western Asia Minor in the seventh century
4 tn Heb “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names with later geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. See as well E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.
5 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.