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Ezekiel 25:1--29:21

Context
A Prophecy Against Ammon

25:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 25:2 “Son of man, turn toward 1  the Ammonites 2  and prophesy against them. 25:3 Say to the Ammonites, ‘Hear the word of the sovereign Lord: This is what the sovereign Lord says: You said “Aha!” about my sanctuary when it was desecrated, about the land of Israel when it was made desolate, and about the house of Judah when they went into exile. 25:4 So take note, 3  I am about to make you slaves of 4  the tribes 5  of the east. They will make camps among you and pitch their tents among you. They will eat your fruit and drink your milk. 25:5 I will make Rabbah a pasture for camels and Ammon 6  a resting place for sheep. Then you will know that I am the Lord. 25:6 For this is what the sovereign Lord says: Because you clapped your hands, stamped your feet, and rejoiced with intense scorn 7  over the land of Israel, 25:7 take note, I have stretched out my hand against you, and I will hand you over as plunder 8  to the nations. I will cut you off from the peoples and make you perish from the lands. I will destroy you; then you will know that I am the Lord.’”

A Prophecy Against Moab

25:8 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘Moab 9  and Seir say, “Look, the house of Judah is like all the other nations.” 25:9 So look, I am about to open up Moab’s flank, 10  eliminating the cities, 11  including its frontier cities, 12  the beauty of the land – Beth Jeshimoth, Baal Meon, and Kiriathaim. 25:10 I will hand it over, 13  along with the Ammonites, 14  to the tribes 15  of the east, so that the Ammonites will no longer be remembered among the nations. 25:11 I will execute judgments against Moab. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’”

A Prophecy Against Edom

25:12 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘Edom 16  has taken vengeance against the house of Judah; they have made themselves fully culpable 17  by taking vengeance 18  on them. 19  25:13 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: I will stretch out my hand against Edom, and I will kill the people and animals within her, 20  and I will make her desolate; from Teman to Dedan they will die 21  by the sword. 25:14 I will exact my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel. They will carry out in Edom my anger and rage; they will experience 22  my vengeance, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

A Prophecy Against Philistia

25:15 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘The Philistines 23  have exacted merciless revenge, 24  showing intense scorn 25  in their effort to destroy Judah 26  with unrelenting hostility. 27  25:16 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: Take note, I am about to stretch out my hand against the Philistines. I will kill 28  the Cherethites 29  and destroy those who remain on the seacoast. 25:17 I will exact great vengeance upon them with angry rebukes. 30  Then they will know that I am the Lord, when I exact my vengeance upon them.’”

A Prophecy Against Tyre

26:1 In the eleventh year, on the first day of the month, 31  the word of the Lord came to me: 26:2 “Son of man, because Tyre 32  has said about Jerusalem, 33  ‘Aha, the gateway of the peoples is broken; it has swung open to me. I will become rich, 34  now that she 35  has been destroyed,’ 26:3 therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 36  I am against you, 37  O Tyre! I will bring up many nations against you, as the sea brings up its waves. 26:4 They will destroy the walls of Tyre and break down her towers. I will scrape her soil 38  from her and make her a bare rock. 26:5 She will be a place where fishing nets are spread, surrounded by the sea. For I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord. She will become plunder for the nations, 26:6 and her daughters 39  who are in the field will be slaughtered by the sword. Then they will know that I am the Lord.

26:7 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says: Take note that 40  I am about to bring King Nebuchadrezzar 41  of Babylon, king of kings, against Tyre from the north, with horses, chariots, and horsemen, an army and hordes of people. 26:8 He will kill your daughters in the field with the sword. He will build a siege wall against you, erect a siege ramp against you, and raise a great shield against you. 26:9 He will direct the blows of his battering rams against your walls and tear down your towers with his weapons. 42  26:10 He will cover you with the dust kicked up by his many horses. 43  Your walls will shake from the noise of the horsemen, wheels, and chariots when he enters your gates like those who invade through a city’s broken walls. 44  26:11 With his horses’ hoofs he will trample all your streets. He will kill your people with the sword, and your strong pillars will tumble down to the ground. 26:12 They will steal your wealth and loot your merchandise. They will tear down your walls and destroy your luxurious 45  homes. Your stones, your trees, and your soil he will throw 46  into the water. 47  26:13 I will silence 48  the noise of your songs; the sound of your harps will be heard no more. 26:14 I will make you a bare rock; you will be a place where fishing nets are spread. You will never be built again, 49  for I, the Lord, have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.

26:15 “This is what the sovereign Lord says to Tyre: Oh, how the coastlands will shake at the sound of your fall, when the wounded groan, at the massive slaughter in your midst! 26:16 All the princes of the sea will vacate 50  their thrones. They will remove their robes and strip off their embroidered clothes; they will clothe themselves with trembling. They will sit on the ground; they will tremble continually and be shocked at what has happened to you. 51  26:17 They will sing this lament over you: 52 

“‘How you have perished – you have vanished 53  from the seas,

O renowned city, once mighty in the sea,

she and her inhabitants, who spread their terror! 54 

26:18 Now the coastlands will tremble on the day of your fall;

the coastlands by the sea will be terrified by your passing.’ 55 

26:19 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says: When I make you desolate like the uninhabited cities, when I bring up the deep over you and the surging 56  waters overwhelm you, 26:20 then I will bring you down to bygone people, 57  to be with those who descend to the pit. I will make you live in the lower parts of the earth, among 58  the primeval ruins, with those who descend to the pit, so that you will not be inhabited or stand 59  in the land of the living. 26:21 I will bring terrors on you, and you will be no more! Though you are sought after, you will never be found again, declares the sovereign Lord.”

A Lament for Tyre

27:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 27:2 “You, son of man, sing a lament for Tyre. 60  27:3 Say to Tyre, who sits at the entrance 61  of the sea, 62  merchant to the peoples on many coasts, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘O Tyre, you have said, “I am perfectly beautiful.”

27:4 63 Your borders are in the heart of the seas;

your builders have perfected your beauty.

27:5 They crafted 64  all your planks out of fir trees from Senir; 65 

they took a cedar from Lebanon to make your mast.

27:6 They made your oars from oaks of Bashan;

they made your deck 66  with cypresses 67  from the Kittean isles. 68 

27:7 Fine linen from Egypt, woven with patterns, was used for your sail

to serve as your banner;

blue and purple from the coastlands of Elishah 69  was used for your deck’s awning.

27:8 The leaders 70  of Sidon 71  and Arvad 72  were your rowers;

your skilled 73  men, O Tyre, were your captains.

27:9 The elders of Gebal 74  and her skilled men were within you, mending cracks; 75 

all the ships of the sea and their mariners were within you to trade for your merchandise. 76 

27:10 Men of Persia, Lud, 77  and Put were in your army, men of war.

They hung shield and helmet on you; they gave you your splendor.

27:11 The Arvadites 78  joined your army on your walls all around,

and the Gammadites 79  were in your towers.

They hung their quivers 80  on your walls all around;

they perfected your beauty.

27:12 “‘Tarshish 81  was your trade partner because of your abundant wealth; they exchanged silver, iron, tin, and lead for your products. 27:13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech were your clients; they exchanged slaves and bronze items for your merchandise. 27:14 Beth Togarmah exchanged horses, chargers, 82  and mules for your products. 27:15 The Dedanites 83  were your clients. Many coastlands were your customers; they paid 84  you with ivory tusks and ebony. 27:16 Edom 85  was your trade partner because of the abundance of your goods; they exchanged turquoise, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies for your products. 27:17 Judah and the land of Israel were your clients; they traded wheat from Minnith, 86  millet, honey, olive oil, and balm for your merchandise. 27:18 Damascus was your trade partner because of the abundance of your goods and of all your wealth: wine from Helbon, white wool from Zahar, 27:19 and casks of wine 87  from Izal 88  they exchanged for your products. Wrought iron, cassia, and sweet cane were among your merchandise. 27:20 Dedan was your client in saddlecloths for riding. 27:21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were your trade partners; for lambs, rams, and goats they traded with you. 27:22 The merchants of Sheba and Raamah engaged in trade with you; they traded the best kinds of spices along with precious stones and gold for your products. 27:23 Haran, Kanneh, Eden, merchants from Sheba, Asshur, and Kilmad were your clients. 27:24 They traded with you choice garments, purple clothes and embroidered work, and multicolored carpets, bound and reinforced with cords; these were among your merchandise. 27:25 The ships of Tarshish 89  were the transports for your merchandise.

“‘So you were filled and weighed down in the heart of the seas.

27:26 Your rowers have brought you into surging waters.

The east wind has wrecked you in the heart of the seas.

27:27 Your wealth, products, and merchandise, your sailors and captains,

your ship’s carpenters, 90  your merchants,

and all your fighting men within you,

along with all your crew who are in you,

will fall into the heart of the seas on the day of your downfall.

27:28 At the sound of your captains’ cry the waves will surge; 91 

27:29 They will descend from their ships – all who handle the oar,

the sailors and all the sea captains – they will stand on the land.

27:30 They will lament loudly 92  over you and cry bitterly.

They will throw dust on their heads and roll in the ashes; 93 

27:31 they will tear out their hair because of you and put on sackcloth,

and they will weep bitterly over you with intense mourning. 94 

27:32 As they wail they will lament over you, chanting:

“Who was like Tyre, like a tower 95  in the midst of the sea?”

27:33 When your products went out from the seas,

you satisfied many peoples;

with the abundance of your wealth and merchandise

you enriched the kings of the earth.

27:34 Now you are wrecked by the seas, in the depths of the waters;

your merchandise and all your company have sunk 96  along with you. 97 

27:35 All the inhabitants of the coastlands are shocked at you,

and their kings are horribly afraid – their faces are troubled.

27:36 The traders among the peoples hiss at you;

you have become a horror, and will be no more.’”

A Prophecy Against the King of Tyre

28:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:2 “Son of man, say to the prince 98  of Tyre, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Your heart is proud 99  and you said, “I am a god; 100 

I sit in the seat of gods, in the heart of the seas” –

yet you are a man and not a god,

though you think you are godlike. 101 

28:3 Look, you are wiser than Daniel; 102 

no secret is hidden from you. 103 

28:4 By your wisdom and understanding you have gained wealth for yourself;

you have amassed gold and silver in your treasuries.

28:5 By your great skill 104  in trade you have increased your wealth,

and your heart is proud because of your wealth.

28:6 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Because you think you are godlike, 105 

28:7 I am about to bring foreigners 106  against you, the most terrifying of nations.

They will draw their swords against the grandeur made by your wisdom, 107 

and they will defile your splendor.

28:8 They will bring you down to the pit, and you will die violently 108  in the heart of the seas.

28:9 Will you still say, “I am a god,” before the one who kills you –

though you are a man and not a god –

when you are in the power of those who wound you?

28:10 You will die the death of the uncircumcised 109  by the hand of foreigners;

for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

28:11 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:12 “Son of man, sing 110  a lament for the king of Tyre, and say to him, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘You were the sealer 111  of perfection,

full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

28:13 You were in Eden, the garden of God. 112 

Every precious stone was your covering,

the ruby, topaz, and emerald,

the chrysolite, onyx, and jasper,

the sapphire, turquoise, and beryl; 113 

your settings and mounts were made of gold.

On the day you were created they were prepared.

28:14 I placed you there with an anointed 114  guardian 115  cherub; 116 

you were on the holy mountain of God;

you walked about amidst fiery stones.

28:15 You were blameless in your behavior 117  from the day you were created,

until sin was discovered in you.

28:16 In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, 118  and you sinned;

so I defiled you and banished you 119  from the mountain of God –

the guardian cherub expelled you 120  from the midst of the stones of fire.

28:17 Your heart was proud because of your beauty;

you corrupted your wisdom on account of your splendor.

I threw you down to the ground;

I placed you before kings, that they might see you.

28:18 By the multitude of your iniquities, through the sinfulness of your trade,

you desecrated your sanctuaries.

So I drew fire out from within you;

it consumed you,

and I turned you to ashes on the earth

before the eyes of all who saw you.

28:19 All who know you among the peoples are shocked at you;

you have become terrified and will be no more.’”

A Prophecy Against Sidon

28:20 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:21 “Son of man, turn toward 121  Sidon 122  and prophesy against it. 28:22 Say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Look, I am against you, 123  Sidon,

and I will magnify myself in your midst.

Then they will know that I am the Lord

when I execute judgments on her

and reveal my sovereign power 124  in her.

28:23 I will send a plague into the city 125  and bloodshed into its streets;

the slain will fall within it, by the sword that attacks it 126  from every side.

Then they will know that I am the Lord.

28:24 “‘No longer will Israel suffer from the sharp briers 127  or painful thorns of all who surround and scorn them. 128  Then they will know that I am the sovereign Lord.

28:25 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: When I regather the house of Israel from the peoples where they are dispersed, I will reveal my sovereign power 129  over them in the sight of the nations, and they will live in their land that I gave to my servant Jacob. 28:26 They will live securely in it; they will build houses and plant vineyards. They will live securely 130  when I execute my judgments on all those who scorn them and surround them. Then they will know that I am the Lord their God.’”

A Prophecy Against Egypt

29:1 In the tenth year, in the tenth month, on the twelfth day of the month, 131  the word of the Lord came to me: 29:2 “Son of man, turn toward 132  Pharaoh king of Egypt, and prophesy against him and against all Egypt. 29:3 Tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Look, I am against 133  you, Pharaoh king of Egypt,

the great monster 134  lying in the midst of its waterways,

who has said, “My Nile is my own, I made it for myself.” 135 

29:4 I will put hooks in your jaws

and stick the fish of your waterways to your scales.

I will haul you up from the midst of your waterways,

and all the fish of your waterways will stick to your scales.

29:5 I will leave you in the wilderness,

you and all the fish of your waterways;

you will fall in the open field and will not be gathered up or collected. 136 

I have given you as food to the beasts of the earth and the birds of the skies.

29:6 Then all those living in Egypt will know that I am the Lord

because they were a reed staff 137  for the house of Israel;

29:7 when they grasped you with their hand, 138  you broke and tore 139  their shoulders,

and when they leaned on you, you splintered and caused their legs to be unsteady. 140 

29:8 “‘Therefore, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to bring a sword against you, and I will kill 141  every person and every animal. 29:9 The land of Egypt will become a desolate ruin. Then they will know that I am the Lord.

Because he said, “The Nile is mine and I made it,” 29:10 I am against 142  you and your waterways. I will turn the land of Egypt into an utter desolate ruin from Migdol 143  to Syene, 144  as far as the border with Ethiopia. 29:11 No human foot will pass through it, and no animal’s foot will pass through it; it will be uninhabited for forty years. 29:12 I will turn the land of Egypt into a desolation in the midst of desolate lands; for forty years her cities will lie desolate in the midst of ruined cities. I will scatter Egypt among the nations and disperse them among foreign countries.

29:13 “‘For this is what the sovereign Lord says: At the end of forty years 145  I will gather Egypt from the peoples where they were scattered. 29:14 I will restore the fortunes of Egypt, and will bring them back 146  to the land of Pathros, to the land of their origin; there they will be an insignificant kingdom. 29:15 It will be the most insignificant of the kingdoms; it will never again exalt itself over the nations. I will make them so small that they will not rule over the nations. 29:16 It will never again be Israel’s source of confidence, but a reminder of how they sinned by turning to Egypt for help. 147  Then they will know that I am the sovereign Lord.’”

29:17 In the twenty-seventh year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, 148  the word of the Lord came to me: 29:18 “Son of man, King Nebuchadrezzar 149  of Babylon made his army labor hard against Tyre. 150  Every head was rubbed bald and every shoulder rubbed bare; yet he and his army received no wages from Tyre for the work he carried out against it. 29:19 Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to give the land of Egypt to King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. He will carry off her wealth, capture her loot, and seize her plunder; it will be his army’s wages. 29:20 I have given him the land of Egypt as his compensation for attacking Tyre 151 , because they did it for me, declares the sovereign Lord. 29:21 On that day I will make Israel powerful, 152  and I will give you the right to be heard 153  among them. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”

1 tn Heb “set your face toward.”

2 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon.” Ammon was located to the east of Israel.

3 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates being aware of or taking notice of something and has been translated here with a verb (so also throughout the chapter).

4 tn Heb “Look I am about to give you for a possession to.”

5 tn Heb “sons.”

6 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon.”

7 tn Heb “with all your scorn in (the) soul.”

8 tc The translation here follows the marginal reading (Qere) of the Hebrew text. The consonantal text (Kethib) is meaningless.

9 sn Moab was located immediately south of Ammon.

10 tn Heb “shoulder.”

11 tn Heb “from the cities.” The verb “eliminating” has been added in the translation to reflect the privative use of the preposition (see BDB 583 s.v. מִן 7.b).

12 tn Heb “from its cities, from its end.”

13 tn Heb “I will give it for a possession.”

14 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon” (twice in this verse).

15 tn Heb “the sons.”

16 sn Edom was located south of Moab.

17 tn Heb “and they have become guilty, becoming guilty.” The infinitive absolute following the finite verb makes the statement emphatic and draws attention to the degree of guilt incurred by Edom due to its actions.

18 tn Heb “and they have taken vengeance.”

19 sn Edom apparently in some way assisted in the destruction of Jerusalem in 587/6 b.c. (Ps 137:7; Lam 5:21, 23; Joel 3:19; Obadiah).

20 tn Heb “and I will cut off from her man and beast.”

21 tn Heb “fall.”

22 tn Heb “know.”

23 sn The Philistines inhabited the coastal plain by the Mediterranean Sea, west of Judah.

24 tn Heb “have acted with vengeance and taken vengeance with vengeance.” The repetition emphasizes the degree of vengeance which they exhibited, presumably toward Judah.

25 tn Heb “with scorn in (the) soul.”

26 tn The object is not specified in the Hebrew text, but has been clarified as “Judah” in the translation.

27 tn Heb “to destroy (with) perpetual hostility.” Joel 3:4-8 also speaks of the Philistines taking advantage of the fall of Judah.

28 tn In Hebrew the verb “and I will cut off” sounds like its object, “the Cherethites,” and draws attention to the statement.

29 sn This is a name for the Philistines, many of whom migrated to Palestine from Crete.

30 tn Heb “with acts of punishment of anger.”

31 tc Date formulae typically include the month. According to D. I. Block (Ezekiel [NICOT], 2:34, n. 27) some emend to “in the twelfth year in the eleventh month” based partially on the copy of the LXX from Alexandrinus, where Albright suggested that “eleventh month” may have dropped out due to haplography.

sn April 23, 587 b.c.

32 sn Tyre was located on the Mediterranean coast north of Israel.

33 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

34 tn Heb “I will be filled.”

35 sn That is, Jerusalem.

36 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) draws attention to something and has been translated here as a verb.

37 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8. The Hebrew text switches to a second feminine singular form here, indicating that personified Jerusalem is addressed (see vv. 5-6a). The address to Jerusalem continues through v. 15. In vv. 16-17 the second masculine plural is used, as the people are addressed.

38 tn Or “debris.”

39 sn That is, the towns located inland that were under Tyre’s rule.

40 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) draws attention to something.

41 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an an “r” rather than an “n.”

42 tn Heb “swords.”

43 tn Heb “From the abundance of his horses he will cover you (with) their dust.”

44 tn Heb “like those who enter a breached city.”

45 tn Heb “desirable.”

46 tn Heb “set.”

47 tn Heb “into the midst of the water.”

48 tn Heb “cause to end.”

49 sn This prophecy was fulfilled by Alexander the Great in 332 b.c.

50 tn Heb “descend from.”

51 tn Heb “and they will be astonished over you.”

52 tn Heb “and they will lift up over you a lament and they will say to you.”

53 tn Heb “O inhabitant.” The translation follows the LXX and understands a different Hebrew verb, meaning “cease,” behind the consonantal text. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 2:72, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:43.

54 tn Heb “she and her inhabitants who placed their terror to all her inhabitants.” The relationship of the final prepositional phrase to what precedes is unclear. The preposition probably has a specifying function here, drawing attention to Tyre’s inhabitants as the source of the terror mentioned prior to this. In this case, one might paraphrase verse 17b: “she and her inhabitants, who spread their terror; yes, her inhabitants (were the source of this terror).”

55 tn Heb “from your going out.”

56 tn Heb “many.”

57 tn Heb “to the people of antiquity.”

58 tn Heb “like.” The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition כְּ (kÿ, “like”), to בְּ (bÿ, “in, among”).

59 tn Heb “and I will place beauty.” This reading makes little sense; many, following the lead of the LXX, emend the text to read “nor will you stand” with the negative particle before the preceding verb understood by ellipsis; see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:73. D. I. Block (Ezekiel [NICOT], 2:47) offers another alternative, taking the apparent first person verb form as an archaic second feminine form and translating “nor radiate splendor.”

60 tn Heb “lift up over Tyre a lament.”

61 tn Heb “entrances.” The plural noun may reflect the fact that Tyre had two main harbors.

62 sn Rome, another economic power, is described in a similar way in Rev 17:1.

63 tn The city of Tyre is described in the following account as a merchant ship.

64 tn Heb “built.”

65 tn Perhaps the hull or deck. The term is dual, so perhaps it refers to a double-decked ship.

66 tn Or “hull.”

67 tc The Hebrew reads “Your deck they made ivory, daughter of Assyria.” The syntactically difficult “ivory” is understood here as dittography and omitted, though some construe this to refer to ivory inlays. “Daughter of Assyria” is understood here as improper word division and the vowels repointed as “cypresses.”

68 tn Heb “from the coastlands (or islands) of Kittim,” generally understood to be a reference to the island of Cyprus, where the Phoenicians had a trading colony on the southeast coast. Many modern English versions have “Cyprus” (CEV, TEV), “the coastlands of Cyprus” (NASB), “the coasts of Cyprus” (NIV, NRSV), or “the southern coasts of Cyprus” (NLT).

sn The Kittean isles is probably a reference to southeast Cyprus where the Phoenicians had a colony.

69 sn This is probably a reference to Cyprus.

70 tc The MT reads “the residents of”; the LXX reads “your rulers who dwell in.” With no apparent reason for the LXX to add “the rulers” many suppose something has dropped out of the Hebrew text. While more than one may be possible, Allen’s proposal, positing a word meaning “elders,” is the most likely to explain the omission in the MT from a graphic standpoint and also provides a parallel to the beginning of v. 9. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:81.a parallel to v. 9.

71 map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

72 sn Sidon and Arvad, like Tyre, were Phoenician coastal cities.

73 tn Or “wise.”

74 sn Another Phoenician coastal city located between Sidon and Arvad.

75 tn Heb “strengthening damages.” Here “to strengthen” means to repair. The word for “damages” occurs several times in 1 Kgs 12 about some type of damage to the temple, which may have referred to or included cracks. Since the context describes Tyre in its glory, we do not expect this reference to damages to be of significant scale, even if there are repairmen. This may refer to using pitch to seal the seams of the ship, which had to be done periodically and could be considered routine maintenance rather than repair of damage.

76 sn The reference to “all the ships of the sea…within you” suggests that the metaphor is changing; previously Tyre had been described as a magnificent ship, but now the description shifts back to an actual city. The “ships of the sea” were within Tyre’s harbor. Verse 11 refers to “walls” and “towers” of the city.

77 sn See Gen 10:22.

78 tn Heb “sons of Arvad.”

79 sn The identity of the Gammadites is uncertain.

80 tn See note on “quivers” in Jer 51:11 on the meaning of Hebrew שֶׁלֶט (shelet) and also M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:553.

81 sn Tarshish refers to a distant seaport sometimes believed to be located in southern Spain (others identified it as Carthage in North Africa). In any event it represents here a distant, rich, and exotic port which was a trading partner of Tyre.

82 tn The way in which these horses may have been distinguished from other horses is unknown. Cf. ASV “war-horses” (NASB, NIV, NRSV, CEV all similar); NLT “chariot horses.”

83 tn Heb “sons of Dedan.”

84 tn Heb “they returned as your gift.”

85 tc Many Hebrew mss, Aquila’s Greek translation, and the Syriac version read “Edom.” The LXX reads “man,” a translation which assumes the same consonants as Edom. This reading is supported from the context as the text deals with Damascus, the capital of Syria (Aram), later (in v. 18).

86 sn The location is mentioned in Judg 11:33.

87 tc The MT leaves v. 18 as an incomplete sentence and begins v. 19 with “and Dan and Javan (Ionia) from Uzal.” The LXX mentions “wine.” The translation follows an emendation assuming some confusions of vav and yod. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:82.

88 sn According to L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 2:82), Izal was located between Haran and the Tigris and was famous for its wine.

89 tn Or perhaps “Large merchant ships.” The expression “ships of Tarshish” may describe a class of vessel, that is, large oceangoing merchant ships.

90 tn Heb “your repairers of damage.” See v. 9.

91 tn Compare this phrase to Isa 57:20 and Amos 8:8. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:561.

92 tn Heb “make heard over you with their voice.”

93 tn Note a similar expression to “roll in the ashes” in Mic 1:10.

94 tn Heb “and they will weep concerning you with bitterness of soul, (with) bitter mourning.”

95 tn As it stands, the meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. The translation follows the suggestion of M. Dahood, “Accadian-Ugaritic dmt in Ezekiel 27:32,” Bib 45 (1964): 83-84. Several other explanations and emendations have been offered. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:83, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:85-86, for a list of options.

96 tn Heb “fallen.”

97 tn Heb “in the midst of you.”

98 tn Or “ruler” (NIV, NCV).

99 tn Heb “lifted up.”

sn See Prov 16:5.

100 tn Or “I am divine.”

101 tn Heb “and you made your heart (mind) like the heart (mind) of gods.”

102 sn Or perhaps “Danel” (so TEV), referring to a ruler known from Canaanite legend. See the note on “Daniel” in 14:14. A reference to Danel (preserved in legend at Ugarit, near the northern end of the Phoenician coast) makes more sense here when addressing Tyre than in 14:14.

103 sn The tone here is sarcastic, reflecting the ruler’s view of himself.

104 tn Or “wisdom.”

105 tn Heb “because of your making your heart like the heart of gods.”

106 sn This is probably a reference to the Babylonians.

107 tn Heb “they will draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom.”

108 tn Heb “you will die the death of the slain.”

109 sn The Phoenicians practiced circumcision, so the language here must be figurative, indicating that they would be treated in a disgraceful manner. Uncircumcised peoples were viewed as inferior, unclean, and perhaps even sub-human. See 31:18 and 32:17-32, as well as the discussion in D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:99.

110 tn Heb “lift up.”

111 tn For a discussion of possible nuances of this phrase, see M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:580-81.

112 sn The imagery of the lament appears to draw upon an extrabiblical Eden tradition about the expulsion of the first man (see v. 14 and the note there) from the garden due to his pride. The biblical Eden tradition speaks of cherubs placed as guardians at the garden entrance following the sin of Adam and Eve (Gen 3:24), but no guardian cherub like the one described in verse 14 is depicted or mentioned in the biblical account. Ezekiel’s imagery also appears to reflect Mesopotamian and Canaanite mythology at certain points. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:119-20.

113 tn The exact identification of each gemstone is uncertain. The list should be compared to that of the priest in Exod 28:17-20, which lists twelve stones in rows of three. The LXX apparently imports the Exod 28 list. See reference to the types of stones in L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

114 tn Or “winged”; see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

115 tn The meaning of this phrase in Hebrew is uncertain. The word translated here “guards” occurs in Exod 25:20 in reference to the cherubim “covering” the ark.

116 tn Heb “you (were) an anointed cherub that covers and I placed you.” In the Hebrew text the ruler of Tyre is equated with a cherub, and the verb “I placed you” is taken with what follows (“on the holy mountain of God”). However, this reading is problematic. The pronoun “you” at the beginning of verse 14 is feminine singular in the Hebrew text; elsewhere in this passage the ruler of Tyre is addressed with masculine singular forms. It is possible that the pronoun is a rare (see Deut 5:24; Num 11:15) or defectively written (see 1 Sam 24:19; Neh 9:6; Job 1:10; Ps 6:3; Eccl 7:22) masculine form, but it is more likely that the form should be repointed as the preposition “with” (see the LXX). In this case the ruler of Tyre is compared to the first man, not to a cherub. If this emendation is accepted, then the verb “I placed you” belongs with what precedes and concludes the first sentence in the verse. It is noteworthy that the verbs in the second and third lines of the verse also appear at the end of the sentence in the Hebrew text. The presence of a conjunction at the beginning of “I placed you” is problematic for the proposal, but it may reflect a later misunderstanding of the syntax of the verse. For a defense of the proposed emendation, see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

117 tn Heb “ways.”

118 tn Heb “they filled your midst with violence.”

119 tn Heb “I defiled you.” The presence of the preposition “from” following the verb indicates that a verb of motion is implied as well. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

120 tn Heb “and I expelled you, O guardian cherub.” The Hebrew text takes the verb as first person and understands “guardian cherub” as a vocative, in apposition to the pronominal suffix on the verb. However, if the emendation in verse 14a is accepted (see the note above), then one may follow the LXX here as well and emend the verb to a third person perfect. In this case the subject of the verb is the guardian cherub. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

121 tn Heb “set your face against.”

122 sn Sidon was located 25 miles north of Tyre.

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

123 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

124 tn Or “reveal my holiness.” God’s “holiness” is fundamentally his transcendence as sovereign ruler of the world. The revelation of his authority and power through judgment is in view in this context.

125 tn Heb “into it”; the referent of the feminine pronoun has been specified in the translation for clarity.

126 tn Heb “by a sword against it.”

127 sn Similar language is used in reference to Israel’s adversaries in Num 33:55; Josh 23:13.

128 tn Heb “and there will not be for the house of Israel a brier that pricks and a thorn that inflicts pain from all the ones who surround them, the ones who scorn them.”

129 tn Or “reveal my holiness.” See verse 22.

130 sn This promise was given in Lev 25:18-19.

131 tn January 7, 587 b.c.

132 tn Heb “set your face against.”

133 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

134 tn Heb “jackals,” but many medieval Hebrew mss read correctly “the serpent.” The Hebrew term appears to refer to a serpent in Exod 7:9-10, 12; Deut 32:33; and Ps 91:13. It also refers to large creatures that inhabit the sea (Gen 1:21; Ps 148:7). In several passages it is associated with the sea or with the multiheaded sea monster Leviathan (Job 7:12; Ps 74:13; Isa 27:1; 51:9). Because of the Egyptian setting of this prophecy and the reference to the creature’s scales (v. 4), many understand a crocodile to be the referent here (e.g., NCV “a great crocodile”; TEV “you monster crocodile”; CEV “a giant crocodile”).

135 sn In Egyptian theology Pharaoh owned and controlled the Nile. See J. D. Currid, Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, 240-44.

136 tc Some Hebrew mss, the Targum, and the LXX read “buried.”

137 sn Compare Isa 36:6.

138 tn The Hebrew consonantal text (Kethib) has “by your hand,” but the marginal reading (Qere) has simply “by the hand.” The LXX reads “with their hand.”

139 tn Or perhaps “dislocated.”

140 tn Heb “you caused to stand for them all their hips.” An emendation which switches two letters but is supported by the LXX yields the reading “you caused all their hips to shake.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:103. In 2 Kgs 18:21 and Isa 36:6 trusting in the Pharaoh is compared to leaning on a staff. The oracle may reflect Hophra’s attempt to aid Jerusalem (Jer 37:5-8).

141 tn Heb “I will cut off from you.”

142 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

143 sn This may refer to a site in the Egyptian Delta which served as a refuge for Jews (Jer 44:1; 46:14).

144 sn Syene is known today as Aswan.

145 sn In Ezek 4:4-8 it was said that the house of Judah would suffer forty years.

146 tc Thus the Masoretic Text. The LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate translate as though the Hebrew read “cause to inhabit.”

147 tn Heb “reminding of iniquity when they turned after them.”

148 sn April 26, 571 b.c.

149 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an “r” rather than an “n” (so also in v. 19).

150 sn Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre from 585 to 571 b.c.

map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

151 tn Heb “for which he worked,” referring to the assault on Tyre (v. 18).

152 tn Heb “I will cause a horn to sprout for the house of Israel.” The horn is used as a figure for military power in the OT (Ps 92:10). A similar expression is made about the Davidic dynasty in Ps 132:17.

153 tn Heb “I will grant you an open mouth.”



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