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Exodus 9:12

Context
9:12 But the Lord hardened 1  Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted to Moses.

Exodus 9:35

Context
9:35 So Pharaoh’s heart remained hard, 2  and he did not release the Israelites, as the Lord had predicted through Moses.

1 tn This phrase translates the Hebrew word חָזַק (khazaq); see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 53.

2 tn The verb about Pharaoh’s heart in v. 35 is וַיֶּחֱזַק (vayyekhezaq), a Qal preterite: “and it was hardened” or “strengthened to resist.” This forms the summary statement of this stage in the drama. The verb used in v. 34 to report Pharaoh’s response was וַיַּכְבֵּד (vayyakhbed), a Hiphil preterite: “and he hardened [his heart]” or made it stubborn. The use of two descriptions of Pharaoh’s heart in close succession, along with mention of his servants’ heart condition, underscores the growing extent of the problem.



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