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Exodus 7:13

Context
7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart became hard, 1  and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had predicted.

Exodus 14:17

Context
14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 2  the hearts of the Egyptians so that 3  they will come after them, that I may be honored 4  because 5  of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen.

1 tn This phrase translates the Hebrew word חָזַק (khazaq); see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 53.

sn For more on this subject, see B. Jacob, Exodus, 241-49. S. R. Driver (Exodus, 53) notes that when this word (חָזַק) is used it indicates a will or attitude that is unyielding and firm, but when כָּבֵד (kaved) is used, it stresses the will as being slow to move, unimpressionable, slow to be affected.

2 tn הִנְנִי (hinni) before the participle gives it the force of a futur instans participle, meaning “I am about to harden” or “I am going to harden” their heart.

3 tn The form again is the imperfect tense with vav (ו) to express the purpose or the result of the hardening. The repetition of the verb translated “come” is interesting: Moses is to divide the sea in order that the people may cross, but God will harden the Egyptians’ hearts in order that they may follow.

4 tn For the comments on this verb see the discussion in v. 4. God would get glory by defeating Egypt.

5 tn Or “I will get glory over.”



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