32:4 As for the Rock, 1 his work is perfect,
for all his ways are just.
He is a reliable God who is never unjust,
he is fair 2 and upright.
32:15 But Jeshurun 3 became fat and kicked,
you 4 got fat, thick, and stuffed!
Then he deserted the God who made him,
and treated the Rock who saved him with contempt.
32:18 You have forgotten 5 the Rock who fathered you,
and put out of mind the God who gave you birth.
32:30 How can one man chase a thousand of them, 6
and two pursue ten thousand;
unless their Rock had delivered them up, 7
and the Lord had handed them over?
32:31 For our enemies’ 8 rock is not like our Rock,
as even our enemies concede.
1 tc The LXX reads Θεός (qeos, “God”) for the MT’s “Rock.”
sn The Hebrew term depicts God as a rocky summit where one may find safety and protection. Within a covenantal context it serves as a reminder to the people that their God has committed himself to their protection in return for their allegiance.
2 tn Or “just” (KJV, NAB, NRSV, NLT) or “righteous” (NASB).
3 tn To make the continuity of the referent clear, some English versions substitute “Jacob” here (NAB, NRSV) while others replace “Jeshurun” with “Israel” (NCV, CEV, NLT) or “the Lord’s people” (TEV).
sn Jeshurun is a term of affection derived from the Hebrew verb יָשַׁר (yashar, “be upright”). Here it speaks of Israel “in an ideal situation, with its ‘uprightness’ due more to God’s help than his own efforts” (M. Mulder, TDOT 6:475).
4 tc The LXX reads the third person masculine singular (“he”) for the MT second person masculine singular (“you”), but such alterations are unnecessary in Hebrew poetic texts where subjects fluctuate frequently and without warning.
5 tc The Hebrew text is corrupt here; the translation follows the suggestion offered in HALOT 1477 s.v. שׁיה. Cf. NASB, NLT “You neglected”; NIV “You deserted”; NRSV “You were unmindful of.”
6 tn The words “man” and “of them” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarity.
7 tn Heb “sold them” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
8 tn Heb “their,” but the referent (enemies) is specified in the translation for the sake of clarity.